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cester, which is preserved among the 3. “ The Cronicle of Fabian, which manuscripts of the College of Arms, and he himselí nameth the Concordance of entitled, Lamentatio gloriosi regis Ed- Historyes now newly prynted, and in. durdi de Karnarvon quam edidit tempore many places corrected, as to the diligent fue incarcerationis. Our authors tranq- reader may appere.” Fol. John Raynes. tions from prole to verse, in the course 15 42. of a prolix narrative, seem to be made 4.

-Fol. Bonham with much ease; and, when he begins 1542. to vertify, the historian disappears only 5. The Chronicle of Fabian by the addition of rhyme and stanza. whiche he nameth the Concordaunce of In the first edition of his Chronicle, by Historyes, newly peruled. And continued way of epiloynes to his seveu books, he from the begynnyng of Kyng Henry the has given us The leven joys of the Blef- feventh to thende of Quene Mary.” Fol. sed Virgin in Englith Rime.' And under Kingston. 1559. the year 1325, there is a poem to the of these, the first is by far the rarest. Virgin ; and another on one Badby, a In the Prologue he excuses his perforLollard, under the year 1409. These are mance, begging his readers to correct it fupprefied in the later editions. He has where it is amifs. likewise left a Panegyric on the city of « For by hym that never yet any Ordre toke London ; but despairs of doing justice to Or Gre of Scole, or fought for great cunnynge, fo noble a subject for verse, even if he This werke is gaderyd, with small unhad the eloquence of Tully, the morali- derstandynge." ty of Seneca, and the harmony of that There is a copy in the public library at faire ladie Calliope. As an historian, (Mr.

Cambridge. Warton adds) our author is the dullest of

As a favourable specimen of his talents, compilers. He is equally attentive to

Mr. Rition mentions an Elegy on Henry the succession of the mayors of London; the Firit

, printed in Mrs. Cooper's Muses' and of the monarchs of England: and Library, which was in fact a tranflation seems to bave thought the dinners at Guildhall , and the pageantries of the of Huritingdon, the conteniporary of that

from a Latin poem by Henry Archdeacon city-companies, more interesting trans- monarch, inserted along with it, in our aciians, than our vićtories in France, author's history. and our struggles for public liberty at home. One of Fabian's historical anec

On John king of England, Otho the dotes, under the important reign of Hen- emperor, and Philip of France, he has

the following lines. ry the Fifth, is, that a new weather-cock was placed on the cross of St. Paul's steeple. "O quam mirabilia, good Lord, thy workes It is said* that Cardinal Wolsey com

been manded many copies of this Chronicle In punyshment of synners by thy myght wonto be committed to the flames, because


As by old storyes yt is playnely feen. it made too ample a discovery of the excellive revenues of the clergy. The As Alexander, wyth Julius, Pompey, and

One synner the other hath corrected vtterly, earlier chapters of these childith anpals

Tholomy, faithfully record all thote fabulous tradi And many other whych as thy scourgys were, tions, which generally supply the place of To punylhe fynners and they self also dere. historic monuments in describing the ori

“ In lyke wyse nowe reader, yf thou lyfte take gin of a great nation.”

hyde The following are the correct titles of And well reuolve in mynde thys hyftorye the different editions.

Of these thre prynces, and loke well on theyr 1. “ The Newe Crouycles of En- dede, glande and of France." Fol. Pynson. Thou shalte conceyve that they dyd wyckydly. 1516.

I meane kynge John, Phylyppe and Ortuny 2 “ Fabyans Cronycle newly prynted, Whyche vnto synne made themselfe so thrall, with the cronycle, actes and dedes done That of pope Innocent they were accurfyd all. in the tyme of the reygne of the moste " Wherefore god sufferyd that one the other excellent pryace Kynge Henry the vii." to greue, Fol. Raftel. 1533.

And warre and chafe wyth dedely hate and


Glad that one the other to milcheue, Ejus chronicou exemplatia nonnulla Car. dinalis Wollius in suo furore comburi fecit :

Manaslynge eche other wyth fpere fworde, und cleri proventus pingues plus fatis detex- Wyth cruell buca yll durynge sheyr fynfall

and knyie, erit, Bale. Edit. Bafil. p. 612.



Wherefore I may conclude, in factis horum, Perche wyth goion.
That multa funt fiagella peccatorum."

Fysthe sturgeon wyth welkes.
As a 1peciinen of Fabian's poetry this

Porperies roited. will probably be sufficient. lle is more

Mennes fryed. successful when describing antient man

Creuys de eawe douce. ners. The following is the bill of fare

Pranys. at the coronation dinner for Henry the

Elys rosted wyth lamprey. Fifth's Queen, 420 :

A leche called the whyte leche, flouFor the first course.

rythed wyth hawthorne leuys and redde Brawne and mutarde.

hawys. Dedellvs in Burneux.

A march payene garnyshed wyth dyuers Frument wyth Balien,

fygurs of angellys, amonge the whych Pyke in Erbage.

was fet an image of faynt Katheryne Lamprey powderyd.

boldynge thys reaton Il et ecrit, pur Trought

voir et eit, per muriuge pure ceft guerre Codlyng

ne dure. And lattiy a' fulyltye named a . Plaves fryed

Tigre lokynge in a inirrour, and a man Marlyng fryed

syttynge on horsebacke clene arined holCrabbys

ding in hvs armes a tyger whelpe wyth Leche loinbard florysthed.

thys reason Par forcë janz refon je ay Tartys.

pryse cejte befie. And wyth hys one " And a fotyltye called a pellycane hande makynge a countenance of throwsytting on hys nest with her byrdes, and an ynge of myrrours at the great tygre. The image of faynt Katheryne holdyng a buke which held thys reason, Gile ihe mirrour and difputyng with the doctours, holding ma fete dijlour." a reason in her ryghte hande, fayinge his epitaph, in 1511: Bale

says, the 28th

He died, according to Stow, who gives Madame le Royne, and the pellycan as an answere Ce es la jigne,et du roy, pur tenir of February 1512: and differs as to the joy, et a tout su gent elle mete la entent.

place of his interment. Bale and Pits, says “The seconde Course.

Bithop Nicholson, subdivide his works, Gely coloured wyth columbyne flowers. bat I presume the Concordantiæ Hilto

riarum is the sum of all. (See. Bale, viii. Whyte potage or creme ot almandes. Breme of the fee

62. Pits. 690. Tann. Bibl. Brit. Hib. p. Counger

272 Nicholson Engi. Hift. Lib. p. 57. Solys

Ritfon's Bibl. Poet. p. 55.)
Barbyll with Roche.

Colloquia et Dictionariolum octo Fressbe Samon.

Linguarum, Latinæ, Gallicæ, Belgica, Halybut

Teutonica, Hifpanicæ, Italicæ, Anglica, Gurnarde

et Portugallicæ." 12. Antv. 1630. Rochet broyled.

In this little volume, the strong analogy Smelth fryed.

between the English and the Flemish lanCreuys or Lobster.

guages is curioully illustrated. It seems Leche Damalk with the kynges worde to prove that our vernacular tongue is a or prouerbe fourylhed, Une fun- plus.

nearer relation to the Belgic than the Lamprey freth daken.

German. The comparison is perbaps of Flampeyne flourished wyth a feschon more importance, as we have but few if royall, and therein, iii. crownes of golde any fragments of the antient Belgic to plantyd wyth floure de lyce and floures of allimilate with the Anglo-Saxon. camemyle wroughte of confeccions.

The following instances are given

without selection. And a fotyltye named a panter wyth an irnage of saynte Katheryne wyth a whele


He hath nothing to eat. in ber hande, and a role wyth a reason in that other haude, faying, La Royne ma

Make place there. file, in cefte ile, per bon refor, aues renount.

Mechinks that it is good. “ The thyrde Course.

Make all good cheer I pray you. Dates in comport.

How much hath it cost you? Crame motle.

Flemish Carpe deore.

Hy en heeft t'eten. Turbut.

Laet gaen.

Maeckt daer plaetse ?
S: 2


Let it go.

My dunckt dat hy goet is..

bieren, ist zu spath: Es ist mir aver genug Maeckt alle good chiere Ick bids u.

dass ich euch probiert hab. Hoe veel hevet u ghecost?

The same passages in the Spanish, German.

Portuguese and other tongues afford tiEr hat nicht zu erlen.

milar opportunities for comparison.
Gebt mir sie her.
Macht hie raum.
Mich dünckt das er gut sey.

For the Monthly Magazine.
Seydt alle frölich ich bitte euch:

OBSERVATIONS on the NATURAL HISTORY Wie veel hat es euch gekoftet?

of LEECHES. A Letter, taken from the eight chapter T'dered interesting from their well of the first part, may perhaps exhibit the known use in furgery. One species, the fimilarity in a stronger point of view. Engli/h.

Niedicinal lecches, (hirudo medicinalis of

Linnæus) are employed for the purpose Peter, my good friend, after all recommendations, know that I anı very evil content

of extracting blood from various parts of with you, because you would not send me

the human body, where the lancct would your book. I can not think how I have de- be of no avail; and from soine parts, as served that towards you : now perceive I the gums, to which even cupping-glaises wel that you will doo very little for me,

could not possibly be applied. They are when you deny mee so small a matter. in such request in some districts of EngYour wordes and thoghtes do not agree well land, that the poor people derive a great one with another: if you had defired mee part of their lubhttence from collecting of thinges of much greater importance, I them for sale ; and some plans have been would not have refused you, It is most projected of making ponds for the purpose true that men commonly say: One ought of breeding them. alwayes to prove his friendes before hee good fituations, and properly managed,

Such ponds, if in have need of them; necellitie, that were too late. Therefore it would, no doubt, prove extremely lucra

tive to the owners, is enough for me to have proved you. Flemish.

The body of all the species of leeches, Peeter myn goede vrient, naer alle ghehie. when extended, is long and Dender, but it denissen, weet dat ick ben seer qualyck te

is capable of very considerable dilatation vreden op u, om die fake dat ghy my

and contraction. It is composed of a niet en hebt willen leenen uwen boeck. great number of annules, or to speak Ick en kan niet peynsen hoe ickt t'uwaerts more correctly, of circular muscles, which verdient hebbe: nu mercke Ick wel, dat are the principal organs of motion. The ghy soudt doen seer luttel voor my, als ghy surface of the ikin, in the different species, my ontseght soo kleynen duick.

is more or less rough with minute tuberDwoorden ende ghedachten en ghelycken cles. To the touch, however, these tu. niet wel d'een den anderen : dat ghy my versocht haddet van dinghen van veel meerder circumstance of their being always {mcared

bercles are scarcely sensible, froin the importancien, ick en soudese u niet ghewey with a viscous fluid indiffoluble in water, gert hebben. Het is wel waer dat mensen which transudes from them. By means of meynlyc seyt: Men behoort altoos fyn vrienden te proeven eer dat men se behoeft: this fluid, the progress of the animals, in want die te proeven in den noot, dat waer swimming, as well as in palling through te spade : Dacrom het is my ghenoech u mud, or amongst the carices, reeds, and beproeft te hebben.

other aquatic plants, (about the roots and German.

leaves of which they are cliefly to be Mein guter freund Peter, ich wunsch euch found,) is greatly facilitated. alles guts : wiffet das ich nit wol zu frieden The head of these animals, in a state bin mit euch, das jhr abgeschlagen habț mir of dilatation, is considerably less pointed zu leyhen ewer buch. Fürwar ich kan nit than their pofterior extremity. They gedencken wie ich solches umb euch verdient have the power of attaching theinfches hab: jetzt aber merck ich was jhr von meinent wegen thun würdet, dieweil jhr and tail; but it is difficult to comprehend

to any bard substance, both by their head mihr versagt habt so ein klein ding. Euwer wort vnd gemuth bedüncken mich nicht by what precife means this is effected. zusammen itimmen: fo jhr begert hettet All we know is, that they form a concavon mir fachen daran viel mehr gelegen wer, vity beneath each of these extremities; ich wolts euch nicht versagt haven. Aber es

by which, in the manner of a cuppingo if wahr wie dars gemein sprichwort ist; glass, they adhere fo firmly, that in fome Man sol probieren einen Freundt, eche instances their body has been torn alunman fyn bedarff: denn in der noch pro- der, in attempting to detach then. The



structure of the fleshy difcus, which per- ever, no eyes are to be seen, even with forts the office of fucker, cannot eatily high magnifying powers. be ascertained, for when the tkin which If a leech be cut in two, that part covers it is removed, we observe only which contains the head will continue in some minute fibres interwoven in dito life, and, after a time, greater or less acferent directions. In confequence of the cording to the seafon, will become a new vacuum, formed by the contraction of the animal, differing in no respect whatever difcus, the aniinals are fixed by the pref- from others of its species. It ihould apsure of a column of air, corresponding to pear froin this fact, and from some other their diameter.

obfervations, that leeches increase in lize, They swim like cels, by a ferpentine not only by the developement of their motion. When they would change their parts, but likewise by augmentation, that place without swimining, they begin by is to say, that old leeches have a greater fixing their body at one of the extremi- number of muscular rings than the young ties, by means of the fucker that termia nates it. The circular inuscles of the Leeches are furnished with the organs skin then separately act, by which the of both sexes; and are viviparous or probody is elongated, by dinivifhing its di- duce their offspring alive. ' In the same ameter. When the free extremity has manner as in the snails, their generative reached the place to which the animal is organs are situated near the ælophagus. desirous of extending it, it is applied and They usually breed about the beginning made fast to that tpot by the fucker, and of the tpring, and as many as seventy becomes the fixed point of a new motion, young lecches have been counted in the The animal, baving now removed the body of an old one. sucker firii made ule ot, draws it, by the Some species of leeches are found in operation of the longitudinal fibres of the alınost all waters; but the greater part of lkin, towards the other fucker, and pro- them prefer such as are muddy, and ceeds, in this manner, to fix each extre- afford growth to numerous aquatic plants. mity alternately. These motions are ex- They are coinmon throughout the whole ecuted with conliderable rapidity. of Europe, but sess so in the southern than

The mouth is a triangular opening, the northern parts. The duration of their having three tirong and Marp teeth, which life has not been ascertainedl; but, bc meet in the centre, and are capable of fides the general causes of mortality to piercing not only the human tkin, but which they are subject, such as the drying even the tender parts of that of the horse up, but more particularly the putretacor ox. At the bottom of the mouth there tion (during the heats of sumıner,) of the is a kind of felly prominence, in which waters that they inbabit, they have many the tube terminates that conveys the enemies, which are in continual pursuit blood from the triple wound, formed by of them for food. These are chiefly difthe teeth, into the stomach of the animal. ferent species of fillı and water-fowl ; but The stomach conlitis of a great number there are also numerous larvæ of waterof membranous bags, furnished with small infects, and even of perfect infects which valves, in which blood has sometimes prey upon them. Even the lecches been known to continue for many inonths theinselves deliroy one another. Those without being coagulated. As none of that have been long without food fall, the leeches have more than one principal without mercy, upon such as are gorged, orifice in their bodies, it is extremely and fuck out or their bodies the juices probable, says Morand, who has pub- with which they are replenished. This lithed a Memoir respecting these animals, circumtiance has been particularly rethat all those particles of the blood they marked by Vauquelin and fome other swallow, which do not assist in nourishing naturalists. their bodies, may pass off by transpira- Thele animals will not only fuck the tion), and thus form the viscous Auid blood of each other, and of quadrupeds which exudes through the skin. This and hihes, but will tasten upon the larvæ Muid may be observed in blackish fila- of infects, and numerous kind of vermes, ments, in water in which leeches are &c. that inhabit the same waters in which kept.

they live. Whenever they have opporIt appears that leeches respire through tunity, they gorge themselves till their their mouth. The greater part are fur- ftomach will contain no more. On the nished with vryans of vision, varying in contrary, when food is not to be had, nunber, (according to the species,) from they are able to support life for many one to cight. In many of them, how- months without receiving any nutriment.


This is particularly the case during blood, on their making the attempt, bewinter, at the commencement of which ing unpleasant to their taste. The wound they bury themselves deep in the mud; they make out of water, is more fenfible they continue in a femi-torpid state, till than what they make in water; but in the warmth of the entuing spring again the latter cafe, particularly when the calls them to life, vigour and activity, water is fomewhat warın, the blood flows

Sea-lalt, tobacco, and in general all more freely. When it is necetsary they kinds of salt and acrid substances, applied should cease from fucking before they to the surface of their bodies, are fatal to have fully gorged themielves, a finail leeches. Some of these are always quantity of talt, tobacco or snuff, will adopted for destroying such as fallen upon cause them to drop off in convullions, and a man or animal, that happens unfor- they soon afterwards die. On the coutunately to go into waters where they are trary, when it is confidered neceffary that in great numbers. When forcibly torn they should draw from the wound more off, they almost always leave in the blood than their stomach will contain, wound fome part of their head. In this it is sometimes customary to cut of the case the wound has often been known to posterior extremity of their body, out of fester and become a troublesome fore, which the surplus of bloud will flow as We are informed by Pliny, that Mef- through a tube. salinus, a person of consular dignity, For some years it has at different times even lost his lisc by an accident of this been asserted, that by means of leeches kind..

it is possible to foretell the various Of the leeches employed by surgeons, changes of weather, both of heat and in phlebotmy, that called the medicinal cold, of rain and fair. The means of leech is preferred to all others. It is; doing this have been varioctly laid down. however, by no means true, that the A French clergyman, who attended to black or horse-leech, as it is usually de- this subject for many years, has afferted, nominated, bas any poisonous properties, that a leech kept in a decanter tiled with notwithstanding the prejudices which, on water in a window, will continue at the this supposition, have long been enter- bottom, without any motion, if the fol. tained against it.

lowing day is about to be serene and Leeches ought to be collected in the pleasant. "If rain is about to fall, before spring of the year, if pollible, and thould or after noon, he says, that the little anibe kept in vessels of pure spring water, mal will ascend the tide of the glais, to which must be changed very frequently, the surface of the water, and there conparticularly in summer. If they are very tinue till very nearly the time, when the numerous, they ought to have fresh water fine weather returns; and, previoully to as often as twice a day; but if they are the commencement of high winds, that it only in small quantity, once in two days will swim about in the water with great may be fufficient. All the lime which rapidity, and will not cease from this moaccumulates upon their bodies, fould be tion till the wind begins to blow. At the well cleaned away whenever they are approach of a storm, he informs us, that kept in any abundance, otherwise the it will continue entirely out of the water new water will be tainted, and become even for several of the preceding days, prejudicial to them from the moment appearing all the time agitated and reftthey are put into it. Violent noises and less. The same perfon, in conclufion, powerful fmells are alike injurious to afferts, that during frosty weather, the these animals; and on the latter account, leech will continue "alınost motionless, particularly, an apothecary's or druggist's and, as much contracted as possible, at Ihop, is one of the worst places in which the bottom of the decanter; and that they can be kept. The perfon employed always during snow and rain, it will fiis in removing them from one verrel into itself near the mouth of the decanter, and another, should have his hands in every there remain in a tate of perfect tranrespect as clean as posible.

quillity. There is no great art in applying There can be no doubt, but that the leeches to the body; but a person who is variations which take place in the atmoaccustomed to it, will always do it better sphere, have contderable influence spen than one who is not. In the most ex- these animals; but this influence is by no perienced bands, however, they will means fuch, as always to produce the sometimes refuse to fasten themselves, fame effects upon them. An easy and either from not being hungry at the time, satisfactory proof may at any time be or from the surface of the skin, or the bad, by putting four or fire leeches into


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