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different decanters. It will be found could estimate, he could live for one half that their motions are very uncertain, of the lum. Still, I am of opinion, that and that even tometimes each will afford household expenditure may be more aca different indication. No dependance, curately rated at a third only of what it therefore, can be placed in them; and is in England: for new settlers can thele living barometers can deserve to be scarcely be fupposed to have become faconfidered as little better than playthings miliar, in so thort a time, with all the for children.

ways and means of getting things at the It may not be improper, at the conclu- cheapeli rate; particularly in Poland, fou of this article; to describe the specific where they must be continually liable ditierence which exills between the me- to the extortion of the Jews. Besides, dicinal leech, and the horte-leech, fince, trom my own observation, I muti rate. from the circumtiance of their intiabiting domestic expences lower. At respectable the fame waters, and being nearly of the hotels in Wartaw, no more than about a fame size, they are frequently confounded thilling is paid for a dinner, though noby ignorant people.

thing be erpected to be drunk afterwards. The medicinal leech is of a blackish I tpeak now of a commum table, it is true; brown colour, marked along its upper but it is well and abundantly furnished, part with several lines of yellow dots, is attended by people of reipećtability, extending from one end of the body to and a billiard-table itands in an antiroom. the other. The under part of the body What I conjectured, or rather what is usually fomewhat lighter, and marked I stated with a full conviction in my sewith yellowish tpots. The principal cond paper relative to the difficulty of characieristic, however, conlilts in the maintaining larye armies in Poland, has dotted lines,

been recently verified by a ftatement in The horie-leech is nearly of an uniform one of the French bulletins, which affirms black colour, except on the under part, that beet is half a crown a pound at Warwhich is of a cinereous green, and faw; that is, it is risen to ten tiines its usually marked with black 1pots.

cutionary price. Februury, 1807. W. BINGLEY. The manufactures of Poland are very

few and inconliderable, confifting chiefly

of the coarse linen cloth worn by the For the Alonthly Magazine. peasants. The late king established, in PARTICULARS of the PRESENT STATE 1776, at Grodno, the principal of town

of POLAND, by an ENGLISH GENTLE- of Lithuania, manufactories of cloth, MAX, recently returned from that camlets, linens, cotton, tilks, stuffs, &c. COUNLRY, after a RESIDENCE in it of Of the tate of these eltablishments I can TWO YEARS

give no distinct account: for, of Russian price of provisions Poland Poland, I know absolutely nothing from partition; but as money has increased in There is, in Galicia, one manufactory proportion, no complaints are made of of earthenware and of porcelain; and dearth. The ordinary price of the best the china it produces is fufficiently deat, Mambles-meat is about three-pence a though there is no approach to elegance. pound, Engliflı money; whereas betore These are perhaps the only manufacturies the two lati divilions, it was often at a in Poland of any articles above what penny, and never exceeded three half- uniry be confidered as absolutely necefpence. The molt intelligible ftatement, fary in every country, that has the smallI could probably give relative to this to- eft claiin to the epithet of civilized. pic is the following :- The Count Za. Hence the price of ali manufactured armoyiki, when in England, three or four ticles is extremely high. A hat of the years ago, took over with him feveral value of a guinea in England will cost English mechanics, and ainong the reit an equivalent to a guinen and half in Poa porter-brewer of fome respectability. land. The fame proportion takes place Happening to see the last of thele per- in the two countries, in the price of a fons, when be had kept house in the coun- yard ut cambric, for which have also try about six montlis, I enquired of him paid a guinea and half. A coat, of wbich what were the average expences of his the cloth may be bought separately, and living? He said, it was difficult if uot im- made by a dirty Jew in an insignificant pollible to live jo well in Poland as in Polish town, will cost little less than five England, though there should be no want guinens. Other articles of dress are in of the means; but that, as nearly as he proportion.


The manufactures of England are in tion, the peasants constitute a large magreat requisition, notwithstanding the jority. prohibitions wbich existed, before the ar- A Polish peasant is thort in ftature, rival of the French, against their impor- and appears as if stinted in his growth. tation. You cannot enter a shop in any He bas finall grey eyes, a thort nose, large town, but every thing of this de- generally somewhat turned up; hair in fcription is English, even to an ordinary general approaching to yellow, though it bilk' purse. Of course, this cannot be sometimes inclines to a darkish colour; always, though it is frequently, true. his coinplexion is also of a yellow hue; I had occasion to buy a bat at Lem- his general aspect dull and dejected; his berg. The naine of the maker, of the gait heavy and devoid of life. Sull, the street in London, and number where he Poles allert that he may be drilled into lived, were all distinctly noted on a label; a very good foldier. The peasant wobut from fome particular and decisive men are usually very short, and syuat. marks, I could not hesitate a moment to From their extreme dirtiness and geneconclude that the hat had never been in ral unsigh:liness, nothing in the forın of England.

woman can be conceived less lovely. I Trade almost of every description is, have never seen in a young peasant girl, for the most part, conducted by Jews. In even when clean and neal, the lightest all the large towns, and indeed in the approach to beauty. fmall ones, their thops are not only the The dress of the peasants confifts molt numerous, but the best. These ihops chiefly in a coarse upper garment of a have their emissaries, who are interior dark reddith colour, more like a mantle Jews, and whose business it is to loiter than a coat, which reaches below the about the town, and particularly about knee, and is confined round them with a the hotels and taverns to collect cuf- girdle. This, in winter, is lined with tomers. A stranger no sooner arrives at Theep-lkins. They bave belides, a little an hotel, than he is accosted by some fur-cap, and a few other articles of dress, dirty Jew, who will even enter his apart- all of the coarfest materials. The dress ment without ceremony, and is ready, of the peasant women is scarcely to be on a favourable answer, to conduct bim analysed, at least by a man.

When they to the shop of his employer. It is cu- are dressed on a Sunday, it is tawdry berious to see the officious eagerness, the yond description, consisting of a great persevering importunity, the unceasing variety of different colours, as in patchwatchfulness of every motion of the work, of which, however, red is the prestranger, which distinguish these emiffary dominant one. When ihus accoutred, Jews, and the alacrity with which they they look as if made up for scarecrows. lead the way, when they have gained In lummer, the women have nothing on their point. The thops even in Warsaw but a mere fhift and an under-petticoat, make but little exterior display. Those which extends scarcely below the knees; which are abundantly furnished with va- and are commonly without shoes or luable goods, have windows of inconfi- stockings. derable dimensions.

Their diet is very scanty. They have There are many Jews, who have even rarely any animal food; their best ohtained farms of the nobles. One of things are their milk and poor cheese, these was pointed out to me at Dantzic, which they have in sufficient abundance; who was relident there for a time to sell but the staple of their diet is the coarse his corn. He had divested himself, how- rye bread I have before inentioned, and ever, of his beard, and of the black robe which I have attempted in vain to swaldistinctive of his order.

The general population of Poland is The political condition of this wretchftated at 15 millions. It was thus efti- ed race of beings, is still wore degrading mated before the last partition : but the to human nature. I have before given nobles are fond of thinking that it has some account of a Polish farın; and have declined Gince that event. The accounts now to add a few particulars, as conof others, however, who may be fup- nected with the subject of the peasantry. posed less interefied in the independence When a farmer rents a farm, the villages of the country, do not confirm their opi- situated on it, with their inhabitants, are nion ; nor, from the various marks of im- considered as included in the bargain; provement discoverable, particularly in and the farmer derives a right to the lache Prullian part, would a itranger be led bour of the peasantry for the cultivation to such a conclufion. Or this popula- of that farm. The relation between the



peasant and the landholder is this on bim. I stood at a distance, and perceived the marriage of a young peasant, his that he did not yield to their supplicaLord alligns him a certain quantity of tion. When he had dismissed them, I land, luthicient for the maintenance of had the curiosity to enquire the object himself and family, in the poor manner of their petition, and he replied, that in which they are accutiomed to live. they had begged for an increaled allows Should the family be numerous, they ance of land, on the plea that what they have fome increase of land. At the same had was insufficient for their support. time they obtain alfo a few cattle, as a He added, “ I did not grant it them; becow or two, with fieers to plow their cause their present allotment is the usual land. These are fed in the stubble, or quantity; and as it has futiced hitherto, in the open places of the woods, as the lo it will for the time to come. Belides, seafon admits. In conlideration of these (laid he) if I give them more, I welí grants, the peasant makes a return to the know, that it will not, in reality, better landholder, of one half of his labour; their circumstances." that is, he works three days in the week Poland does not furnish a man of more for his Lord, and three for himself. If humanity than the one who rejected this any of his caitle die, they are replaced by apparently reasonable petition. But it the master; a circumstance which ren- must be allowed, that he had good reasong ders him negligent of his little herd, as for what he did. Those degraded and the death or lots of fome of them is a wretched beings, instead of hoarding the cornmon occurrence,

small surplus of their abfolute neceflities, Thas, though the Polish boors are not are almost universally accustomed to exa attached to the foil, in the feudal sense of pend it in that abominable spirit which the term, and absolutely subject to the they call schnaps. It is incredible what will of the Lord like brute beafls; yet, quantities of this pernicious liquor is they are still transferred as a part of the drank both by the peasant men and wostock of the etiate on which they live to men! I have been told, that a woman every fresh purchaser or tenant. They will frequently drink a "pint and even are not privileged to guit the soil, except more, at a fitting, and that too in no in a few inliances of complete enfran- great length of time. I have myself often chisement; and if they were, the privi- leen one of these poor women led home lege would be merely nominal: for between two men, fo intoxicated as to be whither should they go? No landholder unable to stand; there can be no querwould admit a fugitive peasant, through tion, that the excessive use of this whisky fear of encouraging a spirit of difastec- (were it not to libel whisky tbus to file tion. It is not ia their power, from the it) ought to be enumerated among the circumstances of their condition, to sell chief proximate causes of the deficient their labour indifferently to this or that population of Poland. It is indeed fo master; and if such obstacles did not op- considered by the Poles; and Count pose, the very extent of the Polish farms, Zamoyski has lately established a porterand the confequent want of a second brewery in Galitzia, in the hope of checkcontiguous employer, would suffice in ing eventually fo kurtful a habit, by the most cases to preclude a change of maf- substitution of that wholeselomne beverters.

age. It is said, that a few of the peasants

The farmers are intermediate between improve the little stock which is com- the nobles and the peasants. They are : mitted to their management, accumu- a respectable class of men; and have free lating some finall property; but their access to the noble's table. Hence, they conduct is far more frequently marked by sometimes acquire a degree of poliih sucarelessness and want of forecast. Besides, perior to what is usually found among it does pot appear, that their allowance English farmers, though tenfold more of land and cattle either is, or defigned to opulent. The situation of a farmer, be, more than enough for their scanty therefore, has fome peculiar advantages; naintenance. I was once on a short and it is accordingly, the highest object of journey with a nobleman, when we stop- ambition to a young Pole, not of indeped to bait at the farm-house of a vil- pendent fortune, to get the lease of a lage, as is common in Poland. The per- good farm; when he establishes himself in fants got intelligence of the presence of life, in the best manner which Poland adtheir Lord, and assembled in a body of mits. As a forft ftep, however, to the twenty or thirty to prefer a petitioa to obtainment of a tarm, it is often the cate, MONTHLY MAG. No. 156.



that a young man becomes connected I had seen. There were several rooms with a nobleman's family in some official larger than ordinary, well whitewashed, capacity, and turns farmer only when he and the furniture and general appearance marries. But even bis marriage does not sufficiently neat and commodious; yet necessarily, preclude his continued con- it was built folely of wood. It had also nećtion with the family; for thould his a spacious garden, fenced by a woodeu services be deemed of futficient conse- enclosure, and laid out into walks, &c. quence, a contiguous abode is provided I have been thus particular in my achim.

count of this purchase, because this lingle The houses of the farmers are com- instance furnishes a striking proof, how monly built of wood, and have merely certainly manufactures are followed by a ground-foor. On the exterior, they opulence and improvement. are, in every point of view, bumble, very often mean in appearance; the in- To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. terior is occasionally somewhat better ;

though an Englishman looks in vain for
any thing like comfort. There are usu-

N your very useful and entertaining

Miscellany, under the head Lite ally two or three ordinary rooins white

rary and Philofophical Varieties, I obwashed, though one only serves, for the serve announced, certain booksellers of most part, as a litting-room. The floors London have undertaken to publish a are fometimes of earth only, but more splendid and coftly edition of Hollinshead, frequently planked. A bed almost al- which they intend to follow by limilar cdiways stands in every room, fometimes tions of others of the early Chronicles of though rarely with curtains. The only England. It strikes me as very lingular, double bed, however, is that for the that they should have made fuch a grand mafter and mittress of the family; and mistake, as to begin at the wrong end, which stands in the; the and prefer Hollinjhead, who was only a others are mere couches for single per- compiler, and not an original author (ex'fons, placed in the corners. In the

cept what he relates in his own time. ) midst of all these homely appearances, It has been long lamented we have you are much, though equally, furprized had no Gibson to tranflate our Saxon auat seeing the table set out with confi- thors or manufcripts; all our modem derable neatness, and abundantly fup- publications on antiquities are moft miplied with good things. Every plate is ferably poor, and extremely unsatisfac-. furnished with a napkin and a silver tory. fork; the courses are almost as numer- The whole Society of Antiquarians hare ous, and follow the same order as in the never dared to publish our Saxon Chrohouse of a nobleman, froin which the nicles, but continue to go on working whole is obviously imitated. There is like moles blindfold for the good of the some little incongruity in all this, it muft general readers of Englith history. I be owned; but incongruities of this de- wish you would recommend through your fcription are abundant in Poland.

useful Magazine, the early trantiation To give the reader fome idea of the into English, of all our Saxon manovalue of land in Poland, I hall mention scripts now lying dead and useless in the a purchase, with the particulars of which British Museum. I happened to be made acquainted. The Lam fully persuaded, Sir, were they manufacturer of porcelain, above-men- translated into English, and printed in a tioned, had become rieh enough to have neat, but not splendid or expensive ftyle, a quantity of superfluous capital, which that 6000 copies would be sold before a he was desirous of vesting in the folid twelvemontb. property of land. Accordingly, he pur- In every gentleman's houfe I go into chased an estate, for which he gave about in the country, it seems to be the gene two thousand pounds sterling. The ex- ral wish and defire. The foundation of aćt number of acres it is not in my our history at present is fo obfcured and power to state; but from the informa- clouded, that no man can tell whom to tion of a gentleman present who had been believe on the subject of our hittory prior in England, I learnt, that the whole to the Conquest. must be about two thousand acres, half Apologizing for the trespass on your of which, however, was in forest. The time, I remain with great respect, house on this eltate was the largest and

AN ENGLISH READER OF ENGLISH the bett, exclusive of those of the nobles,




1807.) Means of escaping from Hlouses on Fire.No Popery. 327 To the Editor of the Monthly Maguzine. occupies the space in immediate contact

with the floor. The fireman crawls then W Ꮃ

E read so frequently of persons into the house on his hands and knees,

being burnt to death, or maigi- and keeps his face, in his progress, as ing themselves by leaping out of win- close to the floor as poflible; and in this dow when a house is on fire, for want of manner he will go and return to any the means of etcape, that I feel it my part of the premises not actually in duty to mention à fimple contrivance flames. A knowledge of this practice which I have for many years adopted, cannot but be of extenlive use to the and which enables me to tleep in se- community, and I know no means of gurity.

conveying it with such effect and autho. I provide two or three of my cham; rity as the Monthly Magazine. bers with a moderate y stout rope, such

Common SENSE. as may be bought for a fhilling or eigh- London, March 28, 1807. teen-pence; I tie knots in them, and fallen one end either to a bed-post, to a

For the Monthly Magazine. tirong staple, or any other suitable fixe ture. In case of fire, and of my inabi- CONCERNING A WAR-WHOOP. lity to escape froin the lower part of the T HERE are not words in our lanhouse, either of these ropes thrown out


guage which have fo often been of a window, would enable me or my written in letters of blood, as No Por family to flip down it. The knots would pery. afford us retting places for the hands and Henry VIII. put to death Sir Thomas feet; and children and infirm persons More, Fisher, the bithop of Rochester, might be let down by means of a run- and numberleis inferior victims, that we ning noole, with which I always provide mnight have No Popery. the lower end of the rope.

Under Edward' Vi. Cardinal Beaton If from inattention, for I cannot fup- was alfalfinated in Scotland; Tonftal, pofe the practicability of the means will and other English bilhops, were impribe doubted, or the expence of the ropes foned, persecuted, plundered, and rebe begrudged, houses on fire are unpro- duced to misery, that we might have No vided with this simple means of escape, Popery. Leait this barbaric zealotry it is the duty of all the neighbours, fhould be called anti-religious; Joan of without delay or solicitation, to bring Kent was burit alive for denying the out and strew under the windows of the miraculous conception, and Vanparis house on fire, all their feather beds and for denying the divinity of Christ. Not mattreffes, till the family are in secu- from antipathy againtt

" intolerance had rity.

the cry been railed of No Popery. BuIn communicating these precautions to cer was the grand contriver of the docthe public, relative to the means of ef trine, the liturgy, and the discipline of cape from fire, I consider it very inn- the church of England. He fired from a portant to make known to the world a double battery at Papist and Unitarian, means of escaping fuffocation in a room declaring from the pulpit, that Cathofilled with smoke. It is practised by the licitin ought to be externiuated, and that, firemen in the metropolis, with a degree Servetus ought to have his 'bowels torn of fuccess and address which has en- out. Yet this man, whom our lawgivers titled them to the name of Salamanders. einployed to accommodate their statutes If a house were on fire, so that no or- to No Popcry, was borla Jew, and died dinary perfor! could venture into any part a Jew. of it without suffering immediate fütfo- Qucen Mary had the spirit and the cation, and its owner withed to rescue power to retaliate on the reformers. Affrom the danes any precious object, an ter the victory of her adversaries, the experienced London firenian will ex- acquired the epithet bloody, for rivalling tricate it without hesitation or hazard. Catharine dei Medici in cruelty of into

He effects this by means of a prin- lerance. Her motto was No Bucerism. ciple well known in the science of pneu- Elizabeth was not bloody. She prematics, but which the intellectual ferrer (tifling and strangling to bebeading powers of man would never apply a and burning. She stopped the breath of priori to such a combination of circum- one hundred and seventy-five Catholic Itances. The heat, finoke, and unre- priests, and of five Catholic women, fpirable air, ascend to the upper parts whose crime was no other than teaching of the room, and a stream of pure air their hereditary religion in England.



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