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leturned Bishop: The right reverend au- báron and báron, in lídel and léter, il thor fays, “Iline au venit, ut fyllaba Reading, the name of the place, in which acatæ proxima pro correptâ habeatur, thefe obfervations are written, and the breviorque acuta videatur, etiain cum ipia participle reúding."* quoquc brevis est." If I underliand this

I am, &c. sentence aright, I would translate it thus: Rovenfoncdale, J. ROBINSON.

_" Hence it happens, that the fyllable Jun. 5, 1007. on which the acute accent falls is rendered thort, and one which is naturally To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. fort becomes more thort by being ca SIR, the acute accent mult double bedt I Samswer to the query of J. P. of Tod

dington, in your Magazine for Novemover which the accent is placed. If Mr. ber, p. 353, I will be obliged by your inP. Mould disputellus, I will endeavour to sertion of the following, as it may, in case give hin an inttance in point : Some of no other of your correipondents answer it the Cumberland papers lately aflerted, more fatisfactorily, be acceptable to him. that bills til heen, polied up in the city in one of my manufcript Receipt-books, of Carlitle, announcing that a gentleman I find the following observations on the on a certain day and bour, would walk use to which “llorse-Chelnuts" may be over the river Eden, very near the bridge. applied. Mr. Marcendie, having expeNumbers were induced by curioficy to rienced the efiicacy of horte chesuuts, in attend at the time appointed, that they the bleaching of linen and cleanling of might witness this extraordinary action. woollen futfs, made likewise use of an inAccordingly, the gentleman appeared, tusion of them in water, as a lye for preand, in conforinity with his promise, paring hemp. walked over the Eden so very near the The manner of making this lye is to bridge, that he paljcd over it, to the no peel the chesnuts, and ralp them as tine Imall confusion and disappointment of as pollible into foft water, in proportion the spectators. I am not aware that the of two or three nuts to every quart of word proximus conveys a meaning dif- water. This is done ten or twelve hours fcrent from that which I have given it. before the inixture is to be used, and in

The sentiments of Dr, l'alpy, of Read- the mean while it is fuired from time to jug, in his Greek Grammar lately pub- time the better to diffolve these raspinys, lithed, agree fo well with my own on the and impregnate the water. The lait itir subject of Greek accents, that I fornple ring is given about a quarter of an hour pot to make an extract froin that valu- betore the water is drawn off from the able work, in confirmation of what I have thickelt part of the rafpings which subbefore advanced : “ For the proper mo- fide, and this is done, either by inclining dulation of speech, it is necetrary that one the vessel and pouring off the lye gently, fyllable in every word Nould be distin- or by ladling it out by hand, while the guished by an elevation of the voice. On water is yet white, and froths like soapthis fyllable, the accent is marked in the fuds. In order to use this lye, it is made Greek language. This elevation does not rather hotter than the hand can well dengthen the time of that syliable, to that bear, and the hemp is then steeped and accent and quantity are confidered by wailed in it as in Soap-luds. Linen the best critics as perfectly ditinct, but may also be wafhed in this lyc, and even by no means incontittent with each other. when very dirty, much leis foap will be That it is pollible to obferve both accent required ilan is commonly used, it being and quantity is proved by the practice of futicient to rub the dirtieft parts only the modern Greeks, who may be supposed with the foup. He adds, that the raspings to have retained in fone degree, the pro- of the chesnuts which link to the bottom nunciation of their ancestors. Thus in -of the lye, are good food for fowls and FunTquíny they lengthen the firt and the pigs. Hemp, as abovo prepared, mny bc ladt fyllable, and elevate the tone of the dyed like tilk, wool or cation, and may penultinn.

be made into finif and garments of all “In our language the distinction be- kinds, and that a great advantage attendtween accent and quantity is obvious. ing the use of this material is, that it will The accent falls on the antepenultima, not be destroyed by thofe iofećts which equally in the words liberty and library, devour woollen cloth. yet in the former the tone only is elevated, in the latter the syllable is also lengthened. The func diffurcuce will appeur in

Elements of Creek Grammar,


Afethua of extracting Starch from Ilorje prized that, amidit the great variety Chesnuts.

of inforination contained in the different In the year 1796, William Murray, numbers, I have not had the pleasure of el. (commonly called Lord Williain seeing any account of the School-Masters' Murray,) obtained a patent for extract- Society, the oatlmes of which I hope ing itarch from hørse-chefmuts, of which you will allow me to lay before the pubthe following is a copy of the process as lic, through to popular a mediuin. deferibed by the patentee:

This society is composed of the mafI firit take the horre-chesnuts out of ters of endowed schools and boardingthe outward green prickly buiks, and then schools, who meet annually in London, ether by hand with a knife or other tool, to elect a coinınittee, to admit new memor else with a mill adapted for that pur- bers, and to pay their subscriptions and pole, I very carefully pare off the brown benefačtions; and their meetings have rind being particular not to leave the conttantly been honoured by numbers of fmallelt speck, and to entirely eradicate our first' literary characters, who are the iprout or growth. I next take the nuts ftrenuous fupporters of this laudable unand raip grate or grind them tine into dertaking. water, either by hand or by a mill adapted Two separate funds have arisen out of for that purpose. The pulp which is the inftitution; the one called the Joint thefeby formed in this water, I walh as Stock, and the other the Charitable Fund. clean as pothble through a coarse horfe The joint-itock consilts of the subscriphaur lieve, this I again wash through a tions of meinbers only, who pay tive finer fieve, and then again through a ftill guineas a year each to this fund, and finer, constantly adding clean water to whose families are, in right of lurvivor prevent any ftarch adhering to the pulp. thip, entitled to its benefits. The last procefs is to put it with a large Every member may bequeath his share quantity of water, (about four gallons to in the joint-stock of the society to his a pound of starch,) through a fine gauze widow and children, in fuch proportions mullin or lawn, fó as entirely to clear it as he thall think proper; but it' he die of all bran or other impurities; as soon intettate, or if he omit to mention the as it fettles, pour off the water, then inix clain in his will, the committee will pay it up with clean water, repeating this it to his widow and children, or to such operation till it uo longer imparts any of them as may survive hiin, an equal green, yellow, or other colour, to the thare to each. water; then drain it off till nearly dry, The charitable fund is supported by and let it to bake either in the usual the benefactions of the public, as well a's mode of baking starch, or elle spread out of the profession; for, being intended before a brisk tire, being very attentive for the relief of distressed teachers in to itir it frequently to prevent its horning, general, and their faunilies, it requires & that is to fay, turning to a patte or jelly, more efficient support than school-matters which, ou being dried, turns hard like alone can afford : every member of the born. The whole process thould be con- society muit, however, become a benedated as quickly as poflible.

factor to it of five guineas at least, which Huil,

Your's, &c. constitutes a governor of this charity. Nor. Oth, 180G. WILLIAM Prous. The committee have power to distribute N. B. If any of your correspondents would annually, for benevolent purposes, a quin have the goodness to answer ne the following not exceeding half the income of the fueries through your Magazine, I thall think charitable fund for the preceding year; myself greatly favoured.

but donations beyoud this proportion can 1. The method which the late Signor Ro- only be made by permitiion of the geignol led to imitate the finging of birds, &c? neral meeting. Application for reiet

. The method of bronzing plaste: -figures, fruin the charitable fund inust be ada and giving casts of plafter a polith like marble? dreiled to the commnittee at their acete

3. The method of browning gun barrels ? 4 The method of making a powder for ings, which are held four tiines a year, at cleaning Alver plate ?

the Crown and Anchor Tavern.

The object which this society bas in

view is too lauciable to need any comTo the Editor of the Monthly Ilugazine. ment: they wish to establith a túnd for

the benefit of the widows and orphans TAVING been a constant render of of those belonging to their profession; many years, I have often been fur- as my become Decellious through Mo-tuly Msc. No. 133.


m infirmity or misfortune; and to eastern and western entrances, which are hold out a prospect of encouragement the principal, are joined by the lange and consolation that may leffen their gojë, or long street, a bich passes nearly present anxiety.

through the centre of the town. This I am well aware, that to establish an fircet is by no means uniformly built, inftitution of this fort, its nature and me- nor of an equal width throughout; it rits ought to be clearly stated; I cannot, confills rather of two or three different therefore, but presunic it would be difti- Areets, running the one into the other: cult to point out an einployıncut of more The ftreets cross one another at sight angeneral importance to fociety than that, gles; those parallel with the long fireet the profefiors of which this intitution are the widest and best built. Some few propoles to encourage and relieve. In of these have also rows of treos on cach addition to the importance of the pro- fide. Many of the others are rather feßion, I may, and I hope with pro- laves than itreets; the whole are paved, priety, urge the great labour and anxiety though they are entirely without nags. attending its practice, and the inadequate As the exterior form of the houses in compensation afforded by it. In a word, this town is tingular, and seems common as no profeflion has an equal influence in this part of the world, the reader may on the happiness of society, I have no perhaps not be displeased with a brief doubt but the liberal part of the public description of it. The houses, then, comwill be sensible that, in whatever degree monly prelent a narrow front; and apthey inay estimate the exertions of indie pcar as if the gable euds were turned .vidual school-malters, they will benefit towards the street. The oppolite fides of their own times or potierity by lending the root, however, do not converge in their support to this well-conducted et straight lines, and terminate in a point; tablishment,

but deviate into various ornamental curs The joint-llock at present amounts to vatures, and finally terminate in rounded 41001., and the charitable fund to 19001.; fummits, fimilarly to what may be obmaking a to al of 6000l: a sum refpect- served over the windows of fome old balls able, but scarcely fulficient to answer in England. all the benevolent purposes of the infii- On the west, immediately without the tution. I am, Sir, your's, &c.

moat, arife heights which completely

S.I. TOMLINSON. command the town. One of these little -Salisbury, Jan. 16, 1807.

hills is as conveniently situated for m

eneiny, as if artificially thrown up for For the Monthly Magazine.

his purpose. I attempted to afcend it,

in order to look about me; but a fonui. PARTICULARS of the PRESENT STATE nel foon obliged me to retreat. On the le

of POLAND, by an ENGLISH GENTLE- cond partition of Poland in 1793, when MAN recently relurned from that the King of Prussia usurped the fuveCOUNTRY, after a RESIDENCE in it reignty of Dantzic, his first object was. of two YEARS.

to obtain possession of this height, whence L.ANDED at Dantzic, formerly an he overawed tbe town. I

independent town under the protec- The trade of Dantzic has been said to tion of Poland; and as it has always be, for some years, on the decline : yet been intimately connected with that a new custom-house has been lately country by the trade in corn, some ac erected, far more capacious than the compt of a place fo conliderable, yet fo former one : belides, the barbour at FairLittle known, may not be unacceptable water has been enlarged and rendered before I introduce my observations on more cominodious. I am unable to adthe interior. This city is become an ob- duce the comparative ftate of the cur ject of particular interest, too, from toms, of exports and imports, in any events now evolving.

given number of former and late years. Dantzic is situated on the Vifuln, in The prevalent religion at Dantzic, as an immense plain or marth, about four throughou: Prullin, is the Lutheran ; miles from the Baltic. Its population (as though there are several catholic churches, I learnt from a inerchant of the place) one of which is of confiderable magniis, as flated by others, 36,000. It is re- tude, and adorned, as usual, with a vagularly and strongly fortified. Its cir- riety of superb mouuments and fine cumference, within the fortifications, is paintings. The largelt Lutheran church about four miles, as I ascertained pretty is ftill more capacious, but totally withAcarly, by walking entirely round.' The out ornament. The difference in this

respect refpect was to me very striking, having On the north, we have a view of the gone immediately from the one to the Baltic; of the bay of Dantzic, its butother; and I very senlibiy felt on this tom adorned with forefis of pine ; of the occasion, that I was not to rigid a pro- barbour and shipping at Fair-water, with testant as to be prevented from feeling a the vellels pulling to and fro between higher gratification on entering a-temple that and the town. To the eart, is the of religion resplendent with the tasteful city of Dantzic, with its walls and towproductions of the fine arts, than on bes ers; from which, on the south and eati, holding only the bare and mouldy walls (retches a fertile plain, in appearance of of another, though faričtitied by the aua inmeatureable extent. On the west, the thority of the renowned and preritorious profpect is completed by the adjuceno Martin Luther. But religion docs not woudlands. appear to be much in falhion at Dant- The vaft inarth which stretches out zte. Both in the Lutheran and in the from Dantzic for an extent of forty Catholic churches, I observed that the miles, is of singular fertility. It'is cultiCongregation conlilled chiefly of peasants vated partly in corn, and partly in pal and of the lowest claffes of' tlic people. turage. The farin-houfes are good, and The merchants are, in general, proteiled the burns uncommonly capacious. Hence unbelievers; and in no town, that I have this town is abundantly supplied with seen, does infidelity appear fo widely excellent shambles of nieat, as well as diffused among uneducated and illiterate corn; and, as it is somewhat cheaper people. I was told by a merrliant, who here than in England, the masters of our leemed very solicitous that I lould con- trading-veflels often choofe to take in hider hinu of the class of gentlemen, that their fea-ttores at this place, rather than it was ungenteel to go to church, and in their own country. Through this thus few but the vulgar, particularly the plain wiads the Viftula, discharging itself peasants, would be found zealous fre- into the Baltic at the bottoin of Faire quenters of the temple.

water, about four Englilla miles below The places of public annusement are Dantzic. This river is so swelled in the more frequented.' Within a very few spring by the melting of the winter's years a new theutre has been built bere; mow, that its stream has been confined which, agreeably to the custom of the by two prodigious banks, which seem to continent, is always open on Sundayscommence at the fouth-eattern extre'The scenery is tolerable, though the ye- mity of the marth, extending downwards neral appearance is heavy and inelegant. through a distance of at least twenty or The pit lns no feats, except a few thirty miles, and gradually disappearing hear the music-box : the greater part as the river approaches the sea. Thele of it serves as a sort of parade for banks are nearly a mile afunder, though loungers,

the river itself is rarely a quarter of a The other Sunday araulements, during mile wide. They are, at the least, the summer, are rupe-dancing, tumbling, twonty feet in perpendicular lieight; are &c. ; in which may be added, the vilito broad enough at the top for two carri, ing of public gardeus, where you are ages to pass with difficulty, and at the regaled with coffee, punch, &c. and the bafe are proportionally extended. The gaguess of the scene is heightened by a river is palied here, and in various other band of mufic. But the inolt celebrated places, by a boat capable of containing tea-garden is situated in a village, about two coaches and four in fuccellion, and three miles to the wett of the town. cwo abreatt, with a number of persons The red to this village runs, for two betides. The ends of the boat are miles out of the three, in a ttraight line adapted to a fiall pier at the side, to between a double row of lofty trees; which when the boat is lathed, carriages, and between the rows on each side is a &c. are easily driven ilito it. During walk ten or twelve feet wide, completely the winter, most of the streams throughoverdhadowed by the arching of the op- out Poland are crotled on the ice, which polite branches. In this village, and its is coinmonly covered with low. In vicinity, many of the inerchants of Dant- fome places indeed, which are comparazic have country relidences. I have tively few, there are bridges of hoats; mentioned this place chiefly, becaule it and on piles, of course all of wood. affurds many picturesque and beautiful Soon after crolling the Vistula, at the fuenes; and because, from the adjoining eastern extremity of the plain of Dairt, teisits there is the nolt extentive pro zic, the country affumes that appear. Spect of the whole furrounding country. ance which, with light variations, it

E 2


universally retains through Poland. Have the eye might be permitted to rove' un ing described, therefore, the appearances impeded over a hemisphere of green and of an extent of thirty or forty miles, ļ delightful foliage, may be conqdered as having described During the summer-heat, the forests the whole region.

afford a very grateful thelter to the tra; The surface is slightly uneven, but not veller. In winter, the scene is totally fufficiently to interrupt the view towards changed. Every bough and brauch is the farthest pollible horizon. Hence, heavily laden with congealed fuow, and thvugh Poland is a fat country, it is not the ever-greens are completely bid bea perfect plain, as has been sometimes neath this white and universal covering, reprefented. Its surface undulates, but The pines lift their lofty beads in the never rises into hills, except in a few cold, clear air, huge and still as gianış places. The Carpathian mountains, enchanted into pillars of fiult. There which separate it from Hungary, do not are some lakes far more extentive than forin a proper exception to this general those jnft mentioned. The Vitlula ittels, appcarance. The town of Leinberg, from the great increase of its waters in however, is situated in a hilly dittrict; the Ipring, is expanded, in certain places, though the hills are too ftoney, too little into a sort of lake. There are also oce wooded and covered with grass, to ex- calional bogs, and ispatlable inoraffes. hibit a single specimen of the picturesque. At very diftant intervals are found There are a few pretty scenes; and I was plains of some extent, affording rich palinforiged that the vicinity of Cracow tyrage. The richett I have had oppresents others itill more worthy of at- portunity of seeing, are those contiguous tention: but it may be remarked, that io the Vistula, and which are periodję neither of these towns is inany miles cally overllowed by that river. Such are distant from the above mountains. thole in the neighbourhood of Wartaw,

The traveller sometimes finds himself and which supply that town with good in an expanse of surface, almost without butcher's meat. Ibele pallurc-lands, in a house, a trec, or any single object large general fo thinky (cattered, are faid to be enoogh to attract his . notice. Soon, more frequent in Lithuania however, are descried the fkirts of some On the firts of a forest (more rarely vast foreit fringing the distant horizon; in the midhi) are cominowy fisund the and on entering it, we proceed for eight villages; though they formetimes appear or ton miles (more or less) winding with wholly unheltered in a wide prended the road through lofty pines, &c. &c. plain, as above desc sord, l'aula vila preciuded from the light of all objects laye confits of a coll. : 104 of initerable but trees and thrubs. Sometinres, in the huts, from eight or tey to forty or sitty, midit of a torch we meet with a fhall alt of wood, a id rudely covered with spot or ground (for example, of ten or Araw and turf. A collection, Inc. very twenty acres) cleared and cultivated; worlt species of lruts fonnd in time paris its fides prettily fenced by the green furt of Scoilund, would he a farourable iperounding woods. Sometimes a fmall cimen. These hovels a ford fo induerent lake is found thus situated, its borders a protection against the rjgours of the ornamented in a limilar manner: and winter, that their wreiclid jubabitants these, generally speaking, are the pret- abfolutely itop up the vents of the chim tiest scenes which Poland furnithes. nies, preferring to be half {mothered These forests in some places are fifteen, with imuke, to expofing themselves to and even twenty, iniles in all directions; the piercing cold. The villages are thmly an affertion which will appear the more scattered : I bould not choose to bazurd credible, when I observe that of an ef an affertion of the average distance. They tate belonging to a certain nobleman, are fiuated more frequently, within about containing about fifty Square miles, four or five miles of each other, and ncarly one half is computed to be foreft. are often leis ditiant; but I have funcy It is not easy to traverse these sait wil times travelled for teu, and when more dernelles, without being filled with a miles, without feeing a imple, boule of sentiment of awful admiration! Their any defcription, ça cluding the autorven. frcquent and deep shade, conspires with tion of foretis, in which they feldom their never-ending extent, to suggest an appear. idea of infinity which approaches the The frit remove from the extreme sublime; and fublime indeed would be stretchedness of the villages, are the lica the prospect, if only a flitary inount tie towns. These are also of wood; but yeered above the tops of the trues, that the houses are larger, and better cut


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