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Egypt never transaéted business on the 3d happy by the Romans, such as the day of day of the week, and abstained even from facrifices to the dead; of the Lemuria, food till the evening, because on that day of the Feriæ Latinæ, and of the Satura Typhon, who was contidered by them as nalia; the 4th before the Nones of Octhe cause of every evil, was born. The tober, the 6th of the Ides of November, 17th of the month was also deemed un

the Nones of July, called Caprotinæ, the fortunate, as on that day Oliris died. The 4th before the ones of Auguti, on acGreeks, too, had their unlucky days, count of the defeat at Canna, and the which they denominated a rompee des Ides of March, eteemed unlucky by the The Thuriday was generally coniidered creatures of Cæfar. There were heldes by the Athenians as of foʻunlucky an days which every individual confidered import, that the assemblies of the people as fortunate or unfortunate for himself. which happened to fall on that day, were Augulius never undertook any thing of always deferred. Heliud enumerates importance, on the day of the Nones. the days when it might be proper to

Many hiltorical obfervations have concommence certain undertakings, and tributed to favour there fuperltitious no. thofe, when it was necessary to abstain tions. Jofephus remarks, that the temfrom every employment. Among the ple of Solomon was burit by the Babylatter he mentions the 5th of

Ionians on the 8th of September, and

every month, when the infernal Furies were

was a second time destroyed on the fame fupposed to bestride the earth. Virgil day by Titus. Emilius Protus also obhas the same idea

Terves, that Timoleon, the Corinthian,

gained moti of bis victories on the anniQuintam fuge :-pallidus Orcus Eumenidesque latæ tom partu terra

versary of his birth.

To these facts, drawn from ancient fanco Ceumque lapetumque creat, fævumque Ty. history, many trom more modern times phea,

may be added. It is faid, that most of Et conjuratos cælum rescindere fratres.

the succefles of Charles the Fifth occur.

1 Geor. 479. red on the testival of St. Mathias. HenThe Romans also demonstrated in their ry the Third was elected king of Poland, calendar, the implicit faith they placed and became king of France, on Whitin this distinction of days. The foriunate funday, which was also bis birth-day. days were marked in white, the unfortu- Pope Sextus the Fifth prefered Wednetnate in black. Of these were the days day to every other in the week, because it immediately after the Calendæ, the was the day of his birth, of his promoNonæ, and the Ides. The reason was tion to the cardinalate, of his election to this: in the 363d year from the building the papal throne, and of his coronation. of Rome, the military tribunes, perceiv

Louis the Thirteenth aflerted that Frie ing the republic unsuccessful in its wars, day was always a tavorable day to him. directed that the cause thould be in- Henry the Seventh of England was parquired into. The Senate having applied tial to Saturday, on which most of the to L. Aquinius, he answered “That when happy events of his life had taken place. the Romans had fought against the Gauls

But if it were necessary to adduce near the River Allia, and liad experienced examples against a sentinient fo contrary so dreadful a defeat, facrifices had been to rcafon and common sense, it would offered to the Gods, the day after the be easy to enumerate instances of good Ides of July, and that the Fabii

, having and ill fortune occurring on the fame day. fought ou the same day, at Cremera, Pompey was afasınated on the day of were all destroyed.” On receiving this, his former triumph over Mithridates. aufwer, the Senate, by the advice of the Alexander, who had received better in pontiffs, ordered that, for the future, no Ytructions from his preceptor Aristotle, military enterprize should be formed on once ridiculed with ipirit an oblervation the days after the Calends, the Nones or of one of his officers, who represented the ldes. Vitellius having taken poffef- to him that the kings of Macedon never tion of the fovereign authority on the commenced a march in the month of 15th of Auguft, and on the same day June, and that he inight encounter some promulgated fome new laws, they were unfavourable event if he neglected to folill received by the people, because' on low the ancient custom, " It is neceflay that day had happened the disaftrous (laid he) for once tu infringe the custom; battles of the Allia and Cremera.

I therefore order that this June, which There were other days esteemed un- is so inuch dreaded, Ahall henceforili tee

called

called the second month of May." Lu- ter; but on the 3d of September 1958, cullus replied in the same manner to he expired. those who endeavoured to dissuade him Though this distinction of good and from engaging Tigranes on the Nones of evil days be in reality as absurd as it apOctober, because the army of Cepio had pears to be, I much doubt if it be yet on that day been defeated by the Cimbri. entirely eradicated. When it is confiderAnd I för that very reason, (faid Lucul- ed how muny things concur to keep up lus), will render it for the future a favoura- an error of this kind, and that among the hle day for the Romans.” He attacked great, as well as with the vulgar, opinithe king of Armenia, and defeated him. ons as puerile as this are not only reLeo the Tenth was inaugurated Pope on ceived, but even made a rule of action, the anniversary of his imprisonment the it may be inferred, that in erery age and year before.

Oliver Cromwelt had al- every country, however civilized, fuperways confidered the Sd of September as . ftition always maintains its influence, fortunate for him. On the 3d of Sep- though it may occalionally vary in its obe tember 1650, be defeated the Scotch at jećt aud naine. The human mind, alterDunbar, and on that day, in the follow- mately wise and weak, indiscriminately ing year, he gained i he battle of Worces- adopts error and truth.

NEW PATENTS LATELY ENROLLED.

MR. G. A. ECKUARDT's and MR. J. Lyons's MR. JOHN FLETCHER'S (CICIL STREET,

for a new Mode of boring Pipes. STRAND,) for a Composition, for AgriHIS invention, if such it may be call

cultural Purposes, which acts as a Ma

nure, and is efficacious in the Deftrucuniting them to one anotherinitead of mak- tion of the Fly in Turnips and other lite ing them of the whole length of a tree. The

fels. usual mode of boring pipes from elm or

The composition here defcribed conother trees is now very generally known; lists in mixing 1000 buthels of pulverized this is totally rejected by the patentees, gypsum, 100 bulhels of pulverized oylierwho form thort lengths from timber, fome- hells, and five hundred weight of the thing in the shape of the staves made use sulphate pf barytes. No account is of by coopers, but with a less degree of given of the mode of application; of the curvature. Pipes formed after this plan quantity to be used in a given portion of are inade of a conical shape, in order land; or by what means it is destructive that the several parts may be the more

to the turnip-fly, and other insects, whe readily bound together by iron hoops ther by prevention in mixing the seed and these parts may be dove-tailed, and with the composition or otherwise. In the hoops faitened on the pipes by means these and other particulars we deem the of wedges.

The patentees have also specification deficient, at least as far it mentioned the mode of uniting the smal- is intended, as all fpecifications lliould ler pieces of pipe to as to form one long be, for general utility: one, and the method of painting or pitching or várnilling them, both within and

MR. JAMES WINTER's, (STOK E-UNDERwithout, but as there cannot claim any

HAMDON) for Machine for feuing title to novelty, we presume the invention,

and pointing leather Gloves. as such must be in the uwon of the staves The drawings attached to Mr. Winter's or other pieces of wood into the form of specification are 'ncceffary to the full era hollow-pipe, instead of boring it out of plication of his invention. The princifolid wood. Upon this part of the speci- pal apparatus contists of jaws made er fication we must be allowed to observe, ther of wood or metal, and are intended that the principle which these gentleinen to hold the gloves for sewing, and indices hare applied to water pipes, has many for the direction of the needles. Thele years been adopted by Mr. George Smart indices are made witha grooves on their in the construction of his hollow-mafts

, faces, and contain from 18 to 30 grooves and therefore it may be doubted how far in an inch. They are of different lengths their title to an exclusive right can be and breadths, and are varied in thape. maintained.

either firaight or circular, corresponding

to

to the part of the glove to be fewn there behind each other. On one Gde of the in, and may be formed of ivory, bone, velicl there is a trough, which receives brass, &c. The grooves in the index the materials of the paper through bules, mott be of the depth required for the each of which is provided with registers ftitch, the leather being placed even to regulate the supply of she laid matewith the face or top of the index, for its rials which are eated in the trough, proper ftuation for fewing.

wbile they pass or low tu ile outer ed re Tue chief novelty laid claim to in this over which they fall upon the moulds be. invention, is the application of the index neath. for the serving and ornamenting of gloves, Upon and near the other extremity of and the casy method of hoiding them by the platform, which is not remote troin means of the jaws. The advantage the place of agitation, is a cylader, gained is the strength of the sewing, for having its axis parallel to the surface of “ nothing" fuys Mi. Winter, “is fò well the moulds, and in a plane at right auadapted for that purpose as the machine gles to their course. The cylmder is updefcribed.” What is called double lew- ported by, and connected with the plating is with glovers only an increaled num- form, fo that the agitation does not alter ber of Ritches; but the fewing with this the relative fituations of the cylinder, machine is really double, as the glove is platform and moulds. There are other fewn over twice, the second sewing hav- cylinders, and their oses described in the ing no connection whatever with the virtt. specifications, but these, we are told, are

not eflentially neceflary. MR. HENRY FOURDRINIER'S (SHERBORNE be thus defcribed: a series of moulds is

The process of the manufacture may LANE), for a Method of nuking a Miu- duly placed and connected upon the platchine for, manufacturing Paper of an

form, so as to occupy the same. "The indefinite Length, laid and wove, with machinery is then thrown into year with jeparated Moulds.

the first mover, which causes the cylinder, The moulds, which are similar to those and also agitating axis, to revolve at the commonly used, except as to the thinness same time that the paper, stuff, or materiof the framing, on eae part of two al is permitted to flow from the trough and opposite tides, by which means any num- fall upon the moulds. The cylinder which ber of thein ma; be brought into contact is connected with the platform, rasts upso as to form oplog mould, upon which on the moulds, and, by means of its telt, the paper is to be made. Instead of the takes hold of that inould which may be deckle being applied to each mould, there immediately bencath it and causes the is an edge bar, joined by hinges to whole ferics to advance by an uniform moeach of those fides of the moulds which tion the edge bars of each mould ; being are not intended to be applied to each thrown and kept back by an obstacle or prom other. 'This bar may be raised to per- jećting piece on each lide of the platforin form the office of a deckle, by prevent- previous to its arrival at the cylinder. ing the paper, &c. from flowing beyond As the moulds advance, a workman who the fide cages, and the edge-bar is by stands near the agitated end fupplies and weights, fprinus, &c. madle to affume a comects other moulds in fuccellion; the perpes.dicular position, exceptiog when it moulds are also disengaged and taken is wanted to be deprailed or turned back. away in fuccellion by a workman who

Another principal part of the engine ftands at the other end of the platform. is a platform: upon which the moulds are By the continuance of this process the to be upported daring the time of work, moulds which have received the paper, in such a manner, as that the moulds ftuff, or material, which is duly diftrithall be at liberty to flide alorg in one buted upon their surfaces, do arrive bedirection and in no other. The paten- neath the first cylinder of which the felt tee has here given the details of his mode web takes off the paper, and conveys it of operation in, which our limits will not to the first pair of presling cylinders, fuffer us to follow himn.

whence it proceeds to the fecond pair, Above the platforn, he disposes a vel and afterwards to any fit place of recepfel, containing the paper ready to be tion. And by continuing the faid promade in theels, in such a fituation as to cess, the faid paper, whether laid or wore, allow the inoulds to be successively intro. may be manufactured of an indefinite duced in their places upon the platform length with separate moulds. MONTHLY Mac. No. 156.

34

PROCEEDINGS

PROCEEDINGS OF LEARNED SOCIETIES.

ROYAL SOCIETY OF LONDON, nierely on the out-lide shell which has

R. GRIFFITHS bas, by the medium rather a smooth furtace, but imprelied

Royal Society, a Defeription of a rare with which it was in contact. It is the Species of Worin Shells, discovered at great bength and fize of these tht ils Kattoo, an island north-west of Sumatra. wluich are the largest of the teftacca uta These shells were procured in a finall tubular form yet discovered, and the diheltered bay, with a muddy bottom, vision of the upper part, which conltitute surrounded by coral reefs. It appears their principal peculiarities, that the aniinal throws out tentacula In a few weeks atier the foregoing from the two apertures of the apex description was read, Mr. Ilome condof tbe thell, that resemble the small nicated fome observations on the Shell actiniæ adhering to the rocks about of this Sca Worm, proving it to belong to Padlang, and that the body of the a species of the Teredo, with an account nell is filled with a soft gelatinous of the anatomy of the Teredo Navalis, fieth, fimilar to that of the teredo navalis. By analysis Mr. Hatcher found that the Mr. Griffiths did not obtain a single per- tell was composed of carbonate of lime, fećt thell, the longest that came into his and an animal gelatinous fubftance, pofleflion was five feet four inches in which is greater in quantity than in the length, and the circumference at the base chama gigus, but less than in the common nine iliches, tapering upwards, to two oyster. We cannot follow Mr. Home and a half inches; the colour on the out- through all the minute anatomical dehide was milk-white, the inner surface rae fcription that he has given, but felett ther of a yellow tinge. This specimen was fome of the more interciting observations nearly perfect, having a small part of the The heart is situated on the back of the lower extremity entire. In almost all the animal; in the middle between the mouth specimens the shells had adhering to them, and the lower end of the stomach : the about a foot or more from the top, the Structure is such that it adnits of only a small cockscomb oylier, finall serpulæ, tingle circulation, as in other animals &c. consequently they must have been at which breathe through the medium of that distance, protruded from the hard water, but the mode of its being performud, in consequence of a violent earth- med is different froint at in thes; in quake that had happened previoully to the teredines the bloc. passes directly the discovery of the shells. These tube- from the heart to the different parts of Miells differ much among themselves, not the body, and returns through the vells one of them being correspondent in size of the breathing organs to the heart, and thickness to another. The large end while in fishes it goes firit w the breatlung of the Mell is completely closed, and has organs, and then to the different parts of a rounded appearance; at this part it is the body. This peculiar circulation bevery thin. The small end or apex is very comes a link in the gradation of the modes brittle, and is divided by a longitudinal of expofiug the blood to the air in dilicfeptum running down eight or nine in- rent animals

, it appears to be less perches, forming it into two diftinét tubes, fećt than in' fishes, but is more perfect inclosed within the outer one, from than in caterpillars. whence the animal throws out tentacula; The mode in which the breathing-orthe subliance of the thell is composed gans of the teredincs are supplied with of layers having a fibrous and radiated water, makes it evident that all leaappearance, covered externally with a worms, as well as other soft animals, pure white cruft, and internally is of a which have no cavity for the reception of yellow tinge; the external surface is sea-water, must have breathing-organs frequently interrupted in a transverse di- placed externally. This is the case with rection by a sudden increase of thicknefs all the allinia inet with in the Wett Inwhich probably indicates different itages dies, called animal flowers; and the in the growth of the thell, although they beautiful membranous expansions they are at unequal distances, fometimes at display, resembling the petals of flowers, fix inches, at others at four in the fame are in fact breathing-organs, not tentacdfhell. These interruptions bear a rude la tor catching food. The teredo gigar end unfinithed appearance, and do not tea, when arrived at its full growth, closes extend into the radiated substance, but are up the end of the thell. This the teredo nas the drag

valis does also, hence it has been inferred sons who have sunk under Water. In his that the animal, by this act, forined its description the inventor fays that he u*tomb, tince it could no longer def- dillikes the conttruction of drags hitherto troy the wood in which it was contained. in use both in this, and in othercountries. Dir. Home, however, has found that in Those used in píolland cannot without thie teredo gigantea, death is not the con- much danger be applied to the naked le suence of this feclution from the fub- body, and are applicable only in cales in ilance in which it is imbedded. He has which the subjects fall into the water adduced a variety of facts to prove that with their cloths on. The drag ured this teredo when arrived at its full growth, in London is clumsy and dangerous. To or when prevented from increating its remedy these defects Dr. Coyan hias inlength, clofes up the end of its thelFand vented two drags, of which one is recomlives a long time afterwards, furnithed mended on account of its cheapness; with food from the sea-water which it re- the other is applicable to every cate and çcives like the actiniæ.

is to contructed as to multiply the chanThe toredines in their anatomical ces of laying a secure hold of any part of fructure are more perfect than many of the body without the pollibility of an inthe vermes, and have a portion of red- jury. “ Had the dimensions," says Dr. blood. They turn round in their shell, C,“ been finaller than they are, with which the body has no attachment, would not encompass every part of the and with which their covering only has a human body; and without the partition light connection, at one particular spot, and curvatures at the extremities, the prevent the external tubes from being diítances would be too great, and the diliurbed. This motion of the animal body of a child night fall through the is for the purpose of boring. Their most intermediate spaces. By means of the striking peculiarities are having three ex- liding hooks at the ends, the instrument ternal openings instead of two: the sto- is adapted both to naked bodies, and mach being unutually large and the brea- those which are clothed. As bathers are thing-organs having an uncommon con- naked, the tharp-pointed extremities forniation. As the teredo gigantea might lacerate, in a disagreeable manner, bures in the mud, on which it cannot be or, by entering the skin, they might imfuppoted to fubfitt, it is become a question pede a firmer hold. They are, therefore, whether the teredo navalis receives its made to recede." fupport from the wood it destroys, or The upper extrenities are made both is fupplied with food from the sea. with a fucket and a loop to be used either Mr. Home produces arguments and with a pole or cord, or with both which facis in defence of the lait opinion, fup- are preferable to either fingly, because poring that it forms its liabitation in a it has been proved by experiment, that fubftance from which it receives 110 parts a cord tied to the ring or loop, and palOf its Sustenance: and that the law-duit fing through a hole made at the upper conveyed through the intestines is not end of the pole gives a double advantage. diyeited, particularly as that examined The drag with a pole attached to it may by Mr. Hatchet had not undergone the be projected several yards further than fighteft change: when burnt, the smoke without it; and in drawing forward had the odour of Wood; and it formed a the drag, till the end of the pole is brought charcoal easily consumed, and was con- within reach of the hand, the subject may verted into white athes in every respect be raised above the surface of the water like vegetable charcoal. The straight in the most proper direction. courie of the intestine in the teredines “ We have not,” says Dr. Cogan, as makes it probable that the law-dult re- yet had an opportunity of trying these fards the progress of the food, to as to drags on the human body; but upon an render convolutions unneceflary. In efligy made in every reipect as like as linne of the actinez the intestine is to pollible in form to the human body, much couvulated, that it appears to be both clothed and unclothed, they have wound round aceutral cytinder, in closely anfivered in the molt satisfactory mannercompacted turns.

The etfigy was brought to the surface in

various directions, without once flipping SOCIETY OF ARTS, COMMERCE from the hold. Í thall add, that with

AND MANUFACTURES. two drags and a boat, asliftapce given in

Dr. Cocan of Bath, for his luvention hook catching a fingle thread, will, it is of a Drag for railing the Bodies of Per- well known, be fuflicient to bring a hu

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