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form an ample collection of inscriptions, ma- that this country does not gain any acBuscripts, and medals, and other valuable cession of riches from her trade; that monuments of antiquity, whether Hebrew, her wealth, her prosperity, and her Phenician, Greek, or Romun. 18.- Estimate of the present population of inherent in berselt; and consequently

power, are wholly derived from resources Palestine, with details of the manners and

that we have no reason to be alarmed, customs of the inhabitants.

19.-Vestiges of ancient cultivation in although our enemies should succeed in parts of the country now desolace and unpro

their attempts to exclude us from comductive.

merce with every part of the globe. 20 –Weights; and measures of time, dis- A new Sparrish and English Gramınar tance, and capacity.

is announced by Mr. Tuomas Plana 21.-The present moles of dividing the year and day, in use ainong the Arabs, The first number of the Transactions of Turks, Christians of each denomination, and the Entomological Society of London, is Jews, as well as the state of trade and manu- expected to make its appearance early factures within che limits of Palestine, and in June. its vicinity.

Mr. BREWSTER, of Edinburg', has inA variety of other subjects of inquiry of a

vented a new Astrometer, for finding the more particular and detailed nature cannot

rising and setting of the stars and planets, fail to suggest themselves to the committee, when they are preparing their instructions for and their poeition in the heavens, which their travellers.

is said to be more simple in its construcThe following is a list of the members of tion, and more extensive in its applicathe committee appointed by the association: tion, than any before invented. The use

A. Hamilton, D.D. F.RS, V.P.A. Pre- of this instrument is thuis described: To sident.

find the name of any particular star that is Earl of Aberdeen, Treasurer.

observed in the heavens, place the astroWilliam Hamilton, Esq. F.S. A. Secretary. meter due north and south, and when George Browne,' Esq.

the star is near the horizon, shift the Rev. W. Cockburn.

moveable index till the two sights point J. Spencer' Smith, Esq. LL. D. F.R.S.

to the star. The side of the index will F.S.A.

then point out, on the exterior circle, the Mr. BYERLEY's Translation of Machia- star's' amplitude. With this amplitude vel's Prince, is in the press, and will enter the third scale from the centre, and be printed in an elegant octavo volume, find the declination of the star in the emhellthed with a head of Machiavel. second circle. Shift the moveable lorary

The same gentleman's Translation of circle, till the time at which the obserDon Quixote, which has been finish- ration is made, be opposite the star's ed these two years, will be inme- declination; and the index will point to diately put to press, and appear in six the time at which it passes the meridian, elegant cabinet volumes, embellished The difference between the time of the with engravings.

stairs southing, and twelve o'clock ac Mr. Divdin, the celebrated composer, noun, converted into degrees of the proposes to publish a new periodical equator, and added to the right ascension work, consisting of a series of short and if the star comes to the meridiat after simple Essays and songs; calculated in the sun, but subtracted from it if the star their general operation, progressively to sonths before the sun, will give the right assist the musical education of young ascension of the star. With the right ladies at boarding schools, called the ascensions and declinations thus found, Musical Mentor; or, St. Cecilia at

enter a table of the right ascensions and School.

declinations of the principal fixed stars, An Essay on the Authenticity and An- and you will discover the name of the tiquity of the Poems of Ussian, in winch star which corresponds with those nitra the objections of Mr. Malcolm Laing, bers. The astroneter may be employed are particularly considered and refuted, in the solution of various other probleins, is preparing for publication, hy PATRICK Dr. THORNTON hastaid before the pub, GuaEAM, D.D. minister of Aberfoyle. lic two new cases, lil which the urgen

Mr. WILLIAM SPENCE, F.L.S. bas in gas has performed striking ca es in als the the press a work, enti led Britain In- ma. The subject of one of these was, dependent of Commerce. The object Mr. Williams, who had been aflicters in of this publication is to show, in opposi- the most alarming manner for several tion to the commonly reccived. doctrines, years, but who, by inhalioz the oxygen gas, aided with tonic medicines, was about five feet and an half; its diameter perfectly cured in a few weeks.

gas,

Mr.

two and a half, and that of the flues four Willianis has now been tree fronı asthma inches. This external part is constructed upwards of two years, which be ascribes of brick, and the internal parts of thin entirely to the poeumatic medicine. Ryegate or fire-stone, except the top of

Mr. TAUNTON, surgeon to the City and the tire-place, which is a plate of caste Finsbury Dispensarie,bas again appealed iron. This stove might be adapted to to the public tipon the necessity of esta- 'the drying of malt and hops, perhaps of blishing a fund, to be connected with herbs, corn, and seeds, generally. It charitable institutious, for ibe relief of miglit also be accommodated to the purthe raptured poor. He contends, that poses of sugar-bakers, connected with die nearly one-tenth part of mankind are grcat tres employed for their builers. afflicted with hernia: of course the pre- Dr. Paarilias laid before the Bath vention of an evil attendant upon this Society, some account of his improved calamity, is of the utmost importance. sheep by Spanish mixture,, in a series of The distressing scenes which he is called propositions which lie demonstrated ly on frequently to witness, and which specimens exhibited before the society. he has described very pathetically, Dr. Parry in his experiments einployed miglit, he says, generally be prevented llerefordshire ewes, and the rams eby a proper bandage or truss, applied in ployed for the original crosses were Me the beginning of the disease, and con- rinos. (1.) The first proposition is, that tinued with care. This might be ac- the wool of the fourtii cross of this breed complished at a small expence, com- is fully equal in fiveness to that of the pared with the good that would accrue male parent stock in England. (2.) By to society; it would even be a saving to breeding from select Merino-Ryeland the community at large, by the preven- rams and ewes of this stuck, sheep may tion of accidents which always tend to be obtained, the fleeces of which are increase the parochial rates.

superior both to those of the cross-bred Dr. Olkers has written to Dr.Young, parents, and of course to those of the foreign secretary to the Royal Society, original progenitors of the pure Merino announcing his discovery of another new blood in England. (3.) From mixed planet, on the 29th and 30th of March rams of this breed, sheep may be oblast. This planet, which he calls Vesta, tained, having wool at least equal in fineis apparently about the size of a star, of vess to the best that can be procured the 5th or oth magnitude, and was first from Spain. (4.) Wool from sheep of a seen in Virgo. On the 29th of March, proper modification of Merino and Ryeat 8h 21", mean time 18-1° 8': N. de- land, will make cloth equal to that from clination 11° 47'; on the 30th at 12h 33m the Spanish wool imported into this mean time 1890 52: N. declination, country. (5.) The proportion of fine 11° 54'. It has since been seen by Mr. wool in the fleeces of the cross breed, is GROOM BRIDGE, at liis observatory on equal, if not superior, to that of the best Blackheath, who says, it appears like a Spanish piles, and it is more profitable star of the sixth magnitude, of a dusky in the manufacture than the lesi Spanish. colour, similar in appearance to the (6.) The lamb's woul of the Merino-RyeIterschel

laud breed, will make biner cloth than In the Duke of BUCCLEUGH's Collection, the best of that of the pure Merino tliere has lately been found a curious breed. (7.) Should long wool of this ne manuscript of the Statutes of the orders grce of tineness he wanted for shawls, of the Garter and Bath, with vamous old &c. this can be effecten by a wing the drawings; among the latter are portraits fleece to remain on the animal wasbura of Richard III, and of Anne, bir queen. two years. (8.) This stock is already These drawings prove to be the originals much improved as to the forın of the car from which the late Lord Orford's out- case, compared with the Meruos ori lines were taken, us represented in his ginally imported. “ Historic Doubts."

Mr. Tuelwall is about to commence, Mr. GEORGE FIELD has invented an at his Institution for the Cultivation of iinproved store for heating rooms, or English Qratory, aird Cure of Impedidrying various articles, whicle unites the meals, in Bedford-Place, a Course of six various advantages of beaty, boiling, Lectures, particularly addressed to the steaming, evaporating, crying, ventila- junior Members of the New Parliament, ting, &c. The height us the slove is va the objects and genuine characteris.

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SWEDN.

DENMALE.

ties of senatorial and popular cloquence, for it, in the history and geography of the causes of the present deciming state their country. None are to be dismissed of oratory and popular talent, and the tiom school before they can read both mems of improving our mina elucu- print and plain writing, and give a ration. The lecillie's will comiuence on tional account of the principles of christhe trend ui Monday, June 8th, and tranty. These reunations are, for the first, will be continued on Monday evenings limited to the inunds of Lund, Funen, only. They will be illustrated ly orit- Coland, and Gister; but atter they have torical recitations, extenporary decla- been tried, they will, no duubii, perhaps inations, and critical sketches vi scieral with some alterations and improvements, of the most celebrated stuesmen and be extended to all the rest of Depark, partia'cuiary orators of the preceding The Supreme Court of Justice at CoDurati; oluling Lords Chata, penhagen, has laid before the King an Mineld, Camden, Ashburton, Vri account of all criminals in the Danish Gienville, Claries Townshend,' 'Pitt, dominions, including Iceland and the Burhc, Fox, &c. Mir. Thelwall alv Indiau colonies,) on whom sentence has profers his private instructions to young buen passed in the year 1806; in which Stuators, desiruls of improving their it is stated that two hundred and five crtorntorical talents; and oters to superio- minals, eighteen of whom were foreigners, tend a select nurber of pupils from the were in that year sentenced to corporeal colleges and public schools, during the punishment, five for murder, ciglie for approachung recens.

other capital crimes, scen für tinery,

the rest for interior silences, and but the A Swedish naturalist has discovered number of criminals bcars a proportion the smallest animal of the order of mam- to the whole population of the kingiloin malia that has been yet seeu: be calls and colonies, as one to ten thousand. this aniinal sorer cuniculatus; it is a kind A. Gross, a turrier of Copenhagen, has of earth-mouse.

invented a method of making black huts

of scal-skin, and has obtained a royal Much has of late years been done in patent, which entitles lim to the sole Deumark för i he education of the poor.

lubrication of that article for three years. A law, respecting the establishment of An utiicial paper of Copenhagen, yives country schools, which was promulgated an account of the state of the Danish in October last year, seems to crown

colonies in Cireenland for the year 1804; the honourable endeavours of the from which it appears that there were in Danish

government towards this imporm that year cught forty-seven whales, five tant object. Schools for the peasants thousand une luwired scals, six bcars and and the poor bare long been established two humed and mety unicorns, Seven throughout the country; but parily they ships were employed in the trade, and were too low; part! the school-inasters exported goods to the amount of snya Mere not sufficiently paid, and therefore wine thousand one hundred and tire rix mostly compelled to seek a livelihood dollars, of which were provisions for by other employment. The present law twenty-five thousand three buwred and directs that the country shall be divided furty-five ris dollars. The total popuinto school-listricts, in ench of u bich lation of all the colonies was, as far as there is to be a school, and no district could be ascertained up to June 1803, must be larger than the children may, as six thousand and forty-six persons, which to the vistance, without inconvenience is an increase of one hundred sud ciglityattend the school. A decent income, one tice the year 1802. It is much with free bouse, is appointed for the complained of that nothing could till masters; and ali parents are compelled to that time be done in the inoculation of semi thur chukiren regularly to school the con-pock, because tho inatter : ent after the age of seven years. The chil- from Copenhagen had been found indren are divided according to their age effective. and proficiency into different classes,

GERMANY. which are to attend the school at dif- Dr. SCHRETER, froin a variety of obje ferent cines of the day and the week, -o servations made at Lilienthal, has reason that no child is taken away from its to believe that the planet discovered by parents more than a part of the day. Dr. Olbers, sume tiine back, and called Instruction is to be given in reading, by his name, is about the size of the writing, antlumetic, and religion, and to mon; that the Parri is about threethose who have capacity and inclination fourths of the size of the Olbers; and thor Aloa IULY Mac. No. 157.

3P

Harduig

FRANCE.

Harding rather more than half: that less intense, by diluting the solution of the atniosphere of Piazzi is nearly fifteen indigo with a weak ley of caustic potasli. times denser than that of the earth; that M. V'EAU DE LAUNAY, in a letter to the atmosphere of Olbers is about ten M. De Lametlerie, says, he has fretimes denser than that of the earth: and quently repeated the experiments made that the atmosphere of Harding is nearly by Messrs. Pacchiani and Brugnatelli, equal to our own. But he adds, that there relative to the formation of the muració is still reason to suppose its atmosphere acid, and always with success, that is denser than that of any of the earlier- with the formation of the muriatic acid discovered planets, froin the changes in at the zinc pile, in a manner niore or less the appearances of its light.

perceptible.

Messrs. Biot and ARRAGO hare fiM. DE LALAADE, to whose scientific nished a grand work upon the altlabours this Magazine has been so fre- nities between the different gases and quently indebted, died at Paris or the light. 7th of April, aged 75. By his will he

ITALY. ordered his body to be dissected, and the M. Piazz at Palermo, and M. CALLASskeleton to be placed in the Museum of DRELLI at Rome, have recently nado Natural History. His relations, how- observations on several stars, from which ever, regardless of the injunction, caused it appears that some of the stars give a him to be interred a few days after his grand parallax of five seconds, particudeath. His funeral was attended by the farly Lyra, which, next to Sirius, is the meinbers of the National Institute. most brilliant star in our hemisphere,

The ciass of sciences in the French from whence it would result that it is National Institute, has just published the one of the least distant. If there be five first volume of Memoirs presented to it seconds of simple parallax, the distance by learned foreigners, and vol. ii. of its ought to be fourteen hundred thousand own Memoirs. It has also published millions of leagues, that is, five times the first volume of The Meridian of Dun- less than has previously been supposed. kirk, being the basis of the metric-deci

EAST INDIES. mal systein: this work will contain all The city of Batavia contains about the observations and methods of calcu- one bundred and fifteen thousand iphalation, which have fixed the tur:damental bitants, the annual loss of which by death principles of the metrical system, the is about four thousand; and the Dutch m metre and the kilogramine.

proportion to their numbers, contribute Mr. Ila usmeN has given an account most largely to this list of nortality. The of the manner in which the solution of Dutch, including the half-cast, lose nine indigo is prepared by means of an alka- in one hundred; the Chinese, three and line solution of red arsenic, for the use of three-fifths; the natives and Malays, inn calico printers. He merely makes a and one-fifih; and the slaves, seren and caustic alkaline solution of red arsenic, four-titths. The mortality among Euto which he adds, while it is in a boiling ropean females is not nearly so great as state, a sufficient quantity of indigo among the males; and this fact proves bruised, in order to obtain a very deep that intemperance is the principal cause shade, which may be rendered more or

of mortality.

PROCEEDINGS OF LEARNED SOCIETIES.

SOCIFTY.

NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FRANCE. REPORT of the TRANSACTIONS of the Phy- It will be recollected, be proceeds to

SICAL and MATHEMATICAL CLASS of say, that in endeavouring to discover the the NATIONAL INSTITUTE in 1800. cause of the different colours of the triBy M. CUVIER, SECRETARY to the ple salts of platina, M. Descotils per

ceived that the red colour of some of D URING the year 1806, M. Cuvier them was owing to the presence of all

observes, several new and import- unknown metal. ant experiments have been made by dif

Fourcroy and Vauquelin, on their terent distinguished chemists on crude part, examined the black powder, wincha plauna, from which the most clear and reinains after dissolving platinn; and finde satisfactory results have been obtained. ing that, wv some of their expermeuls

,

it exhaled a strong metallic odour, andin black powder, is extremely volatile, havothers assumed a more fixed form, they ing a strong odour; it is very fusible, diswere led to regard it as a new metallic solves readily in water, exhales with it substance, the different properties of in the form of vapour, to which it imwhich they attributed to its different de- parts a strong taste and smell

. The sogrees of oxygenation.

lution becomes of a blue colour by the During this same period, Mr. Tennant addition of the smallest quantity of tincexamined this black powder, and suc- ture of walls. ceeded in separating it into two metals, We know not, adds M. Cuvier, wheone of which was fixed, and the other ther to be most astonished at the singulaextremely volatile; while Wollaston, rity of this mineral, or the sagacity and another British chemist, discovered that perseverance with which it has been rein the solution itself, which was supposed duced to its original elements. to contain only platina, there was a mix- The chrome which was several years ture of two other metals, which not only ago separated froin crude platina by differed from those which form the black Vauquelin, has lately been discovered by powder, but also from platina itself. M. Laugier to form a component part of

Thus after having been subjected to a meteoric stones. It has since been long series of the most accurate experi- found by M. Thenard, in those which ments during the course of forty years, lately fell near Alet, in the department chemists have succeeded in detaching of Gard, and which the Academy of eleven different metals from this singular Nismes caused to be collected, and sent mineral, viz. platina, gold, silver, iron, to the Institute. copper, chrome, and titanite; the two These stones, the fall of which is equallast were discovered by Fourcroy and ly well authenticated as that of the forVauquelin, in the different coloured mer, differ from them, however, consisands, which are always mixed with it. derably in colour and consistence, being The two new metals separated from the blacker, and more friable. But from the solution of platina in the nitro-muriatic analysis of M. Thenard, they would apacid, by Mr. Wollaston, are:

pear to contain nearly the same princi1. Palladium, a white ductile metal, ples, only the metals are more oxydized, heavier than silver, very fusible when and the proportion of carbon is someunited with sulphur, soluble in nitric what greater. This result, we are inacid, colouring its solution of a beautiful formed by M Cuvier, bas been verified red, precipitable in a metallic state by and confirmed by a committee of the the sulphate of iron; yielding a dingy physical class of the Institute. green precipitate with the prussiate of We last year, proceeds the Reporter, inpot-ash, forining with soda a triple salt, timated the opinion of M. Pacchiani, solable in alcohol.

respecting the composition of muriatic 2. Rhodium, a grey metal, easily re- acid, which, he conceived, could be producible, fixed and intuisible, imparting a duced by depriving water of a portion of rose colour to its solutions in acids, which its oxygen by means of the galvanic pile. is rendered much deeper by the addition This discovery would have proved of the of muriate of tin, precipitated by the greatest importance to chcinical science; alkalies of a yellow colour, but not at all but, unfortunately, subsequent researches by the prussiate of pot ash, the triple salt have shewn that it was not well founded, of which with soda is insoluble in alcohol. since, after the most accurate experi,

M. Cuvier concludes this part of his ments, Messrs. Biot and Thenard did not report by observing, that the two metals succeed in producing it, wlien all subdiscovered by Mr. Tennant in the black stances that could furnish marine salt powder after solutiou are:

were carefully kept at a distance froin 1. Iridium, a very hard white inetal the apparatus. difficult of fusion, nearly insoluble in the During the year 1806, a work on the subnitro-muriatic acid, and wholly so in all ject of refraction has been published by M. the others; oxydizable, and soluble by Biot, the original intention of which, we the fixed alkalies, the oxyde being soluble are informed, was to aid the progress of in all the acids, and imparting to the dif- astronomy. In the course of his labours ferent solutions various vivid and lively the author was led, however, to apply culours. It is these salts which give the the action of different bodies upon light red colour to those of the platina. to the analysis of transparent sulistances.

2 Osmium, a metal hitherto irreduci- It has been long known that the rays bile, the oxyde of which, in the form of a of lighi are relracted when they pass

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