« PreviousContinue »
disadvantage of remitting inoney at particular times niust be obvious to our Commercial Friends.
The 3 per cent. corsois this month have been from 634 to 6);.
The following are the average Prices of Navigable Canal Shares, Dock Stock, and Fire Of. fice Shares, at the office of Mr. Scott, 95 Bridge-street, London:— The Staffordshire and Worcestershire Canal, 6001. Share ; the dividend for the nalf year to Christnias last was 181. net clear of the Property Tax.---Swansea, 85l. dividing 51. per Share per annum.--Grand Trunk Mortgage Bonds, 871. 10s. per cent. bearing Interest at 51. per cent. --Ashton and Oldham, 901. - Peak Forest, 531.-Grand Junction, 901. -Croydon, 601.—Kennet und Avon, Origitt. Shares at 20!. --New ditto, at 21. per Share Premium - West India Dock Stock at 1501. per cent. dividing 101. per cent. niet.-London Dock, 1181.- East India Dock, 1231. -Gobe Insurance, 1111. per cent.-Rock Life Insurance, 's. to 45. per Share Premiom. Golden lane Brewery, 1091. per Share.-Southwark Porter Brewery, 101. per cent. Premium.
MONTHLY AGRICULTURAL REPORT. THE warm weather which succeeded the heavy rains in the early part of the month, has
much improved the growth and appearance of Wheat, which stood well, and look very promising. The spring corn and the grass-seeds lately sown, are equally thriving; and those crops which were top dressed in the spring grow fast. In the Fens, where the farmers were much impeded by the rains, their spring sowing is finished; and the grain, already above ground, locks well. Some Winter Tares, on rich warm lands, have been already cut, and in snost situations are nearly ready for the scythe. -The average price of Wheat throughout England and Wales is 75s. 11d. ; Barley, 385.; Oats, 27s. 10d.
The young Clovers are equally forward, and afford excellent keep for feeding Sheep, Ewes, and lambs. The Turnips are generally in a state of great forwardness, and many acres are e ready sown with the Sweedish sort. Those Lands, buth open and inclosed, which are to be tallowed for Wheat, are every where broken up. The setting of Potatoes has this spring been very general, and much land finished. · The Meadows, though sonewhat late, begin to grow fast, and the Pastures in general af. ford a full bite to dairy and feeding stock, which have been for some time turned out; and owing to the late rapid improvements in the Pastures and artificial Grasses, a great demand has been made for all kinds of Live Stock, which have considerably advanced in value at the late Fairs.-In Smithfield Market, Beef fetches from 4s. 8d. to 5s. 8d.; Mutton, 5s. to 53. 8d. ; Pork, 4s. 84. to 6s. 8d.
Young fresh Horses, either for the Collar or Saddle, were never, at this season, dearer, or more in request. Sows and Pigs, and small Stores, find a quick Sale, being much wanted.
The Orchards in the Ioland and Fen Districes looked this spring beautiful, a fine blow, and very promising. The Gardens, in general, are equally good, shewing a profufion w Berry Fruit.
NATURALIST''S MONTIILY REPORT.
Airs, vernal airs,
The trembling leaves.
April 25. The hawwe borri has just put forth its leaves. N. B. When I fisk of a tree being ir: leef, I man th.a so many of its leaves are out that at a list'e distance it aj piars grcedes
I this day saw for the first time the stvallow and house martin; but a gentleman of my acqurintance informis me that he has observed not only these, but also the sand mariin, nearly a week agu. The stuiff was dirst observed about the Sd of May.
April 27. The borse chesnut and privet are in leaf; and the sice rborn is both in leaf and hower.
The death-watcb (prinus tessellatus) of Linnæus begins to beat: it will continue to do so for about a month. This is an extremely interesting little insect, and, instead of exciting seas, is in the whole of its economy entitled to our highest admiration. It never beats except for a short time in the spring of the year; and this circumstance alone is " surely suši. cient to put an end to all alarm respecting its noise being portentous of death." From the 20th to the 27th of April we have had a succession of clear dry wzarber; and in some of the days the heat was as great as it frequently is during summier. Since tbis time we had a considerable fall of rain.
May 1. The nightingale is beard tu sing. The wbite-si reat (mo:acilla sylvia, of Linnæus) and the wheat car (motucill ænanthe) are arrived.
I this day saw the comincn cepfer burrerfly ( *p...ofbleas) and the cockchaffer.
Common fumitoryn (fuma in lüinalis) greater sien wort (stelaria bolustea) and Cuckio pini, (arum maculatum) are in flower.
May 3. The cuckoo sings; and the shrub srai's (izele arvast **.) appear abroad.
The crown imperiai, soft leaved cranesiili (s ruonium culie) gleuccus leaved kulstia (kulmia glauca trailing dapone dephrie cueorum) are in tower. The bedzes are green; and the flowering stalks of the bawikorn begin to appear.
For a tew days past the perch have collected together in great numbers in some particular parts of the rivers where here is no current, and where the bottom of the water is covered with weeds, for the purpose of depositing their spawn. I was she wil one place where there must have been at least five hundred of these tisis.
The young fry of some species of fish are now swimming abosit in immense quantities in the shallows. Several of them are not more than a quarter of an inch in length, and they are much bruader across the eyes than in any other part of their body. They are proba. bly either reach or dace.
May 10th. In consequence of the rain that has fallen in the course of the last fortnight, vegetation has come forward in a very surprizing manner. Several of the trees which usually pai forth their leaves at the distance of some days from each other, are all coming into leaf nearly at once. The elm, the sak, the miple, and the lime, are all beginning to appear green. The subterranecus trefoil (trifolium sui terronnum), germander (vercnica cbara deys), yellow berred puppy (Glaucium luteum of Smuti), the bareball (scila nutaus of Smith), and the broom (spartum, separium), are in Rower.
The sedge warbler, called in this part of the country, spire chatier (motacilla salicaria), is ar. rived, and its beautifully wild notes are now heard every day about the banks of the rivers.
May 19th. The weatber, for several days past, has been very clear and fine. Nearly all the more hardy fruit trees are in flower; and in consequence of the lateness of the season it is supposed that ihe crops will be very abundant.
Moy, 1807, inclusive, Two Miles N.W. of St. Paul's.
Wind East Luweit 29.0. May 6. Wind S.
20. Wind East On the evening of the 9th inst. the
This variation, whicb Greatest 49 hun- mercury food at
is but triling, has oc
Greatest variation in dredths of
29:37, and at the
curred three or four 24 hours. an inch. same hour on the
times in the course of 24 hours. JOth it was as high
the month. as 29.86.
The quantity of rain fallen since the last Report, is equal to nearly four inches in heiglat
. The temperature of this month has been at times uncommonly bigb : on the 27th of April the thermometer stood at 75o, we were told that in some parts of Loned it was as high as 80° in the shade; here, however, it was not higher than 75°, to which is resc
, also on 14 and ed days of May: and on the 24th it rose to 80°. The first instance was the more reruari. able as witbin eight days of the time, viz. on the 19th the ground was covered with so* and the thermometer two successive mornings was as low as 20°. The arerage temperature for the month is very nearly 59', which is about to higher than it was for the same personal last year; and nearly 100 higher than it was for Muy 1805 ; but in the same month, 1804, was 58o.' The wind has been chiefly in the East, but upou the whole the season is reblarka ably favourabic to fructification. What are usually with gardeners teruce Lliglta az generally supposed to come from the East : the wind has, as usual, come moch trong that quarter this spring, but the blights have not been very frequent nor very fatul. It'agades at Hampstead we saw a few days ago two trees only materially utiected with the brain and what seems singular, is, that those were almost the only trees in the garden (wbicka considerable extent) that seem completely shaded from the eastern aspect.
JULY ), 1807.
(6 of Vol. 23.
"As long as those who write are ambitious of making Converts, and of giving to their Opinions a Maximum of
* Inkuence and Celebrity, the molt extensively circulated Miscellany will repay with the greater Efied the * Curiosity of those who read either for Amusement or Inftru&ion." JOHNSON.
ORIGINAL COMMUNICATIONS. For the Monthly Magazine. three villages, and parts of two others. Authentic PARTICULARS of the fall of The torrent of earth and stones was more MOUNT RUFFI OG RUFFIBERG, in swit. rapid than that of lava, and its effects as
irresistible and terrible. The mounZERLAND, together with OBSERVATIONS on the causes and CONSEQUENCES of tain in its tremendous descent carried that disastrous EVENT. *
trees, rocks, houses, every thing before it.
*The mass spread in every direction, so as tastrophe have already appeared in country more than three miles square. this and other countries, but they are, for The force of the earth was so great, that the most part, incomplete, many of them it not only spread over the hollow of the being exceedingly incorrect, and none of valley, but even ascended to a consithem containing any precise enquiries re- derable height on the side of the oppo specting the probable causes that pro- site mountain. A portion of the falling duced it. To clucidate this important mass rolled into the lake of Lowertz, subject, M. Saussure examined on the and it has been calculated that a fifth spot with philosophical accuracy, every part of it is filled up. On this lake are thing that could tend to the establish- two sinall islands, celebrated for their ment of such facts as might give confi- picturesque beauty: of these one is fiadence to the inhabitants of mountainous
mous for the residence of two hermits, countries, who, from deceitful appear- who were fortunately absent on a visit ances, might apprehend a similar misfor- when this event took place; the other tune; and that might excite others to has been long known on account of the retire from situations exposed to real and remains of an ancient castle, once belongimpending danger.
ing to the house of Hapsburg. So large The place in which this dreadful cala- was the body of water raised, and pushed mity happened, is in the canton of forward by the falling of such a mass Schwitz, situated between the lakes of into the lake, that the two islands, and Zug and Lowertz, on two sides, and the the whole village of Seven, at the normountains of Ruthberg and Rosi on the thern extremity, were for a time comothers. Here, says a person writing on pletely overwhelmed by the swell. A the spot, but three weeks ago, was one large house was lifted from its foundaof the most delightfully fertile valleys of tions, and carried to a distance from the all Switzerland, green and luxuriant; spot where it formerly stood. adorned with several little villages full
Mountains by the action of water, air, of secure and happy farmers. Now three and frost, have miversally a tendency of these villages are for ever effaced from to dissolution, and being reduced to their the earth, and an extended desolation, original particles, return to the bottom of burying alive several hundred peasants, the sea whence they probably arose; orerspreads the valley of Lowertz.
and where perhaps they are formed Early in the evening of the 2d of September, an immense projection of the
This decomposition generally operates mountain of Ruffiberg gave way, and by such slow degrees as to escape obser was precipitated into this valley., In vation; but on some occasions it an. four minutes it completely overwhelmed
nounces itself by sudden separations
which overwhelms a whole country, aoniThis account is partly translated from an able Memoir presented by M. T. Saussure 10 hilating the inhabitants, and leaving the Philosophical Society at Geneva; partly nothing behind but the image of disorder from the narrative of M. J. H. Meyer, and and destruction. partly from the published observations of other
The almost spontaneous decomposieye-witoesses.
tions that bave happened in different MONTHLY Nac. No. 158.
countries, manifest that mountains which rich in pasture, is a league and a half in
both composed of stones, rounded by But if the composition of a mountain the action of water, and of sand unitvàries, if one or more hard and inclineded by a cement partly calcareous and layers succeed layers, which are tender partly argillaceous, which is very often of and susceptible of being decomposed å red colour. This cement, which is by water, the hard layers remain en- pretty hard, becomes destroyed in time tire whilst that which is below wastes by the action of the air and of water, away. In consequence of this waste a and the surface of the rock then has space totally void, or filled with soft and the appearance of a word pavement. incolcrent matter, forms itself in the The pebbles of which it is formed, are interior of the mountain. The upper chiefly of a yellowish green, and have layer being whole, but wanting a point rough and compact fracture of secondof support, separates and sinks down at ary calcareous stones, apparently without ouce in all points. It takes the place of any petrifactions. Here are also found the decomposed layer, and rolls to the secondary petrosilex, quartz, red jasper, foot of the inountain with a velocity pro- reddish free-stone, and lastly granite: portionate to its degree of inclination, but the last is scarce, always of a sed and to the motion acquired in the act of colour, and might be easily mistaken for siking. Such is nearly a sketch of the porphyry. 'It is remarkable that all causes which produced the fall of the these stones bear no relation to the Diablerets, of Mount Chede near Ser- stones of the neighbouring mountains voz, and lastly of Mount Ruffi, or Ruffi- which are calcareous, blue, and have a berg.
lamellated or saline grain ; and it is like This mountain, which is also called wise singular that in bulk they never exRossberg, or Rosenberg, contains several ceed seven or eight inches square. parishes and estates; but these divisions The revolution which has heaped into are arbitrary, and not determined by any this place such an enormous quantity of natural cut or division; that the names of pebbles, rolled probably from a distance, Gnippe, Spitzbuhl, Steinerberg, and has been followed by a subsequent rero Kossbery, which have been given, with lution, which has brought upon these certain relations to the drifted mountain, mixtures, and into the bottom of the are only different pastures of Ruffiberg, vale, large blocks of granite, similar to through which the drifted sections have those found on Jura and Saleve. Similar passed. Besides, this last name is ones are to be met with on Mount Rigi, adopted in preference to that of Ross even at the height of two bundred toises berg, lest it should be taken for Rotze above the lake of Lucerne, in ascending berg, a mountain of a very different this mountain on the side of Weggis. appearance in the neighbourhood of Soine are also to be seen on Ruffiberg, at Stantz.
the beight of eighty toises between the Rutliberg, according to M. Ebel, is village of St. Anne, and the bamlet of elevated eight hundred and six toises Buachen, near the lake of Loweriz. They above the sea, and five hundred and eighty- are here so accumulated, as to esclude sıx tvises above the lake of Zug, or the every other kind of stones, and it would lower part of the vale of Arth, into which be impossible not to think one's self on a this mountain is partly fallen. This vale, soil purely granitic, were one not directed
from this opinion by a general inspection the country affirm, that the falling did of the country. These blocks are always not continue three minutes, and that it detached. Their presence being solely was telt at the same time both at the top limited to the lower parts of the moun- and foot of the mountain. Though this tain, their green or white colour, and calamity was sudden and unexpected, it their large size indicate that they never had been preceded several hours by enter, and never have entered into the certain indications, which it is of impor composition of the mixt layers.
tance to record, as they may at The separation and falling of Ruffiberg future time induce people to escape from took place at five o'clock in the evening. danger; and because they are the conIt was the consequence of the rain which sequences of causes that determined the fell abundantly in this country through- rapidity with which the fallen part slid out the summer, and parucularly during from its base. the tour and twenty hours preceding the An inhabitant of Spitzbuhl, a farmer 3d of September. It had honever ceased residing about two thirds of the way up before twelve at noon; and at the moment the mountain, heard arnidst the rocks of the catastrophe, it was quite clear. about two o'clock a kind of cracking,
This event was not caused by the fall which he attributed to supernatural of the sunnit of the mountain on the causes, and immediately ran down to inferior parts, but by an entire bed of Arth to procure a clergyman to come and layers, which, from the base, up to the quiet it. Almost at the same instant at summit of Ruffiberg, (being one hundred Under Rothen, a little village at the font feet thick, one thousand feet wide, and of the mountain, Martin Weber, while nearly a league in length) was separated striking his spade into the ground, to dig from the lower layers, and slid parallel up some roots, saw the earth spirt up. to their planes, into the bottom of the with a gentle explosion, and a kind of valley, with a rapidity inconceivable for whizzing against his head. He left bis such trifting inclination.
work directly, and went to reinte to his The peasant who conducted M. Saus neighbours the phenoinenon, for which sure in his excursion on this mountain, they could not account. had been an eye-witness to the spectacle. The sheplıerds, who still live in places He resided in the direction of the drifted intermediate to these two statious, assert section at Ober-Rothen, a hamlet situated that, froin morning and throughout the on the declivity of Ruffiberg; was en- day, the mountain emitted a noise eren gaged in cutting some wood near his to the moment when the separation haphouse, and within six or seven paces from pened. This they attirm was accompanied the place where the drifted section with such an agitatiod, that at the villages passed. He heard on a sudden a noise of St. Anne and Arth, situated within like a thunder-storm, and at the same twenty minutes' walk of the places laid time felt under his feet a kind of trem- waste, ali the moveable goods in the houses bling. He instantly quitted the place, staggered as if in : state of animation, but had scarce proceeded four or five Nothing, however, was either felt or paces, before he was thrown down by a heard at Schwitz, which is only a league current of air. He got up immediate and a half from the scene. The noise The devastation was begun, the tree heard previously to the catastrophe, prowhich he had cut down, the bouse he had ceeded from the breaking of the layout inhabited, every thing disappeared, and which had been undermined; it did not he saw, according to his own espression, begin to sink and slide until all its parts a new creation. An immense cloud of had been disunited. dust that iminediately succeeded, threw M. Saussure ascended the summit of a veil over the whole country.
Rusfiberg by its eastern side, passing Some accounts relate, that this catase through the village of St. Anne. The slope trophe bad been attended with flame and is always easy, and may be ascended on a sulphureous smell. But the most cre- horseback. The ground on this part is dible witnesses perceived nothing of the covered with orchards, meadows, and kind. Some colliers were burning char- fir-trees, thinly scattered; the rock which coal on the road which the sliding sec- serves as a base to the vegetable carth tion took; and it is possible that the is not perceptible, we only see here and sudden dispersion of their ignited heaps there large blocks of mixt, stone, but might have produced an appearance of these blocks have been a long time defame.
tached. They are found in a kind of The generality of the inhabitants of little vallies, ivith which the niountain is