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furrowed from the top to the base ; and ble to this liquid are clay. Those ta seem to testify that Ruffiberg, in different which it cannot insinuate itself are freeepochs, and on different parts of its sur- stone, generally speaking; for the diffeface, lias suffered dissolutions similar to rent layers are not alike susceptible of that which has lately happened.
decomposition. Their plane in the top The summit* of the mountain has not of the mountain descends towards the fallen : it presents a horizontal line, bottom of the valley, parallel to the slope which unites two inclined planes, cover- of Ruffiberg, under an angle of twentyed with grass; one plane directs itself five degrees. This angle is least towards towards a point intermediate to the the middle and lower part of the mounlakes of Zug and Egeri, and the other de- tain, for its slope from the bottom to its scends towards the lake Lowertz. It summit has the form of an arc, whose was upon this last surface, and about a chard must be supposed to be up in the toise below the summit, that the separa- air. This wall, and all the beds of which tion began to be felt. The direction it it is formed, are split transversely to the pursued was, before this catastrophe, direction of the fallen part by large and slightly cut like a gutter, or little valley, almost vertical clefts. rather deep towards the bottom of the The layers of free-stone and clay are mountain, but losing its cavity near the contiguous. There may be seen, bowe summit. Along this way, throughout the ever, between them, just below the summeadows and wood, were to be seen mit, a layer of pulverulent coal blended, blocks of blend here and there, half bu- with clay. This layer was not above an ried.
inch thick. The upper part of the cut The east side of the driven cliff towards is covered sometimes with vegetable Schwitz, evidently shews that in the tract earth, and sometiines with great blocks made by the separated section, the of blend, which never mix with the free higher layers sunk vertically on the lower spone, and are of a different nature. It ones, by reason of a void space formed was in some measure the weight of these between them, in a direction parallel to blocks on the layers of the softened free their planes, and to the slope of the stone which occasioned their pressing, mountain.
and, finally, their falling into the bottom of This side presents a cut, or vertical the valley. It is also to be conceived that wall, which was not seen previously to the lower layers were decomposed bethe drifting: the height of the wall, above fore the upper ones, by the introduction the upper surface of the drifted and of water through the clefts. This liquid, fallen section, shews the thickness of the after having arrived at their lower ere pressing layert at the summit of Ruffi- tremity, insinuated itself between the berg. This cut is about fourteen feet the layers, run parallel to their plane, high, near the top of the mountain; but towards the foot of the mountain, and it increased insensibly, and at some dis- decomposed them throughout their whole tance lower it seemed to be above one length. hundred feet. It then gradually disap- The vertical section of this cut or peared under the rubbish of the drified wall, parallel to its length, appeared to part. The rock constituting this wall is be in a great measure owing to a vein of a calcareous and argillaceous free-stone calcareous spar, which covers, like a disposed into layers, of which the section varnish, the surface of the wall brought only is visible; they degenerate into to view by the pressure. The vein thus marl, and, finally, into elay, by the ac- cutting vertically several layers of free tion of water. The parts most accessi- stone has established between its parts a
solution of continuity which has occi
sioned a clear fracture, and on a distinct There was formerly on this summit a fort, which served for an advanced post in t
plane. ancienthoars which the Swiss sustained against
The west border of the driven cliffter the Austrians. Though M. S. went to the minates insensibly, and does not, bke the spot, he could not discover the slightest ves
east border, present a vertical cut, or riges of niasonry, or buildings of any kind. wall
. We shall now notice the space in. He was, notwithstanding, assured by others cluded between these borders. that some traces still iemain,
The summit of the mountain is an bo+ This indication is correct only as it re- rizontal line that unites two plaucs of Jates to the oil near the summit, for ia that turf, inclined and supported against each place alone there was pressure without falling other in form of a roor. Aboui a trise fowards the bottom of the valley.
below this summit, and in an loriangal
length length of two hundred and sixty paces, decomposition seems to require a long the soil begins insensibly, on a slope of series of years.. twenty-five degrees, to divide itself, and A manuscript of 1352 relates, that a in a soft argillaceous earth covered with village, named Rothen, once stood on turf, to present numerous fissures, often that part of Rutfiberg where the late transversely to the course of the dissolved calamity happened. Tradition, consection. These fissures are wider and firmed by several monuments, informs nearer each other, the further they are us that this village was destroyed by a from the summit of the mountain. catastrophe very much like the one now
We find here and there, casually, described, and it has been rebuilt by among these fissures in the vegetable little and little, and chiefly within a cenearth and clay, isolated fragments of tury, on the ruins of the ancient village. truisks and branches of trees converted We can conclude but little from the past into coal of a smooth, brilliant, trape- in elucidation of the present, in events zoidal, and lamellated break, aud trans- so little susceptible of calculation; but verse to the direction of the woody it appears to M. Saussuire, in offering confibres. These fragments are often cylin- jectures on this subject, that it would redrical, and bear only on their exterior quire inuch longer than a century to effect surface the mould of vegetable fibres. this softening of the layers. One of them was fourteen inches long, The fall of the roins of the drifted part, and nine broad; but in general they are is at present, much less to be dreaded much less. They are not at all pyriteous, than that of some parts of the mountain no more than the rest of the mountain. which have not been removed. All the Their presence in this place was known vertical range of freestone which forms before the separation, and did not con- the eastern border of the dissolved part tribute to that event. They are not must fall; for the principles of destrucfound in large quantities, except on the tion are in a very advanced state and presummit of Rutfiberg. The entireness of cisely similar to those which produced the the ranges of turf included between the last separation. fissures, shew that there was no decom- A month after this catastrophe, and position of the part near the summit of when much rain had fallen in the interval, the mountain, but merely a sinking, the Ruffiberg daily resounded with the which is nianifest from the height of the explosions of rocks made with powder to scarp, or cut, of free-stone, at the foot of forin a way across the fallen part; yet which these tissures are discoverable. there had been no remarkable changes Their number increases proportionably in effected among the ruins. Some stones descending, and they soon multiply and suspended here and there between blocks enlarge to such a degree, as to present of softened clay took a more fixed situanothing but blocks of argillaceous earth tion but they gave but little way, and orerturned in every manner. It is here, there had been no such motion in the and about thirty toises below the sum- wood as to apprehend its gliding further. mit, that one could discover green wood, The ruins in parts parallel and inferior which had all at once changed place with to this wood become stoney or composed the bed of earth on which it vegetated. of great blocks of blend, with interlayers The further falling of this wood is much of softened clay: it declines on the west dreaded; but such fears do not appear, border by a scarp or cut of blend placed at least for the presenc, to be well found below the principal ridge. Thus were ed, because the sinking is complete. The formed two stony torrents, which after agitation which resulted from it has given having descended in a parallel direction. the present soil a solid station. The one above the other towards the S. E. wood itselt stands on a plane, inclined at and destroyed the little villages of Spitzinost about twenty-five degrees, and this bull, Ober Rothen, and Under Roslupe is too gentle for it to make much then, situated on the slope of the mounway, by the mere effect of inclination. tain, reunited at its foot, traversed the Some few trees may be separated, or, vallcy of Arth, which is here half a league perhaps, rooted up, but they will not broad, and, by extending themselves, coglide with all the ruin of a dissolution to vered three fourths of its length to the the foot of the niountain, until the layer distance of a league: they proceeded on of free-stone, or blend, which forins their one part to heap themselyes at the foot basis, shall have been destroyed, and of Mount Rigi, and on the other to fall sottened by the action of water, and this into the lake of Lowertz,
There are still seen on Ruffiberg, along Arth, situated on the western extrethe western border of the fallen parts, mity of the valley, has suffered no injury. some scattered houses wbich have almost The first village destroyed between Arth miraculously escaped the destruction. and Lowertz is Goldau, next Hueloch The houses, excepting one at Spitzbuhl, and then Bussingen which are entirely have not been abandoned since the ca- buried; and lastly at the eastern extretastrophe, notwithstanding the injunction mity of the valley, the village of Lowerti of governinent to that purpose; but the which has lost more than two thirds of inbabitants reside with the remainder of its buildings. their flocks in perfect security.
Goldau is buried more than one honThe separated part, in covering three dred feet below the hillock forned by fourths of the valley of Arth, and in de- the event. The inhabitants were crushed spoiling this space of every trace of vege- by enormous rocks, and their lives termitation, bas not spread its ruins in an uni- nated in an instant. But Lowertz, which form manner. The largest blocks of is not totally destroyed and in a great blend have formed, in the direction of the measure received only the softened clay current of the fallen part, a little bill from the borders of the fallen part, préthat blocks up the valley quite across. sented a much more distressing scene. This little bill is divided into two The space which this village occupies and pronys at its extremity towards mount Ri- all its vicinity present the image of an gi, and it is conjectured that its suminit is agitated sea. Here and there are per200 feet above the ancient level of the ceived on its surface the beams of rained valley. The rocks which compose the houses, and the branches and roots of elevation diminish in number and size, trees thrown down; a cadaverous smell the further they are from the line of im- for a long time was every where perceispulse. The lower parts of the ruins ed; the remaining inhabitants, with counparticularly on the east side, almost en- tenances melancholy and bewildered, tirely consist of clay and of yellow, grey were, when M. Saussure was present, buand black marl: this marl has a black sily engaged in searching for and guarding tunge in the part heaped on the lake of the rempants that had escaped from this Lowertz, and its neighbourhood, because species of shipwreck. It was there, prothe soil, naturally mossy in this place, was bably, that many of the inhabitants ilus furrowed and thrown up by the large buried, wished for the arrival of death, blocks of stone which are buried there. like that of a friend, and had to prolonga
Most of the rivulets which descend wretched existence in a living tomb. from Rigi and Ruthberg emptied them- “ I passed (says M. S.) two days in these selves into the lake Lowertz before the devastated places, and traced them in fall of Rutliberg; but, as they are various directions. I was prepared to stopped by its suins and lost in the in- attend to the solicitations of the wretchterstices, they again flow back on the land, ed, who were truly entitled to seek of a and here and there forın ponds. People stranger some consolation to their mihave attempted to give them an outlet, sery." I was mistaken in this expectaespecially on the side of the lake Lowertz tion. Not an individual demanded chawhich empties itself by its western ex-rity, and it was only on my interrogations tremity into the lake of Lucerne. The that they related their misfortunes." lake of Zug has no communication with it, The account from another intelligent but fons on the side of the town of the observer is as follows :--It was about same name, with a direction and fall al- a week after the fall of the mnountain most contrary to that of the lake Low- that our route through Switzerland led crtz.
us to visit this scene of desolating; Some fears were at first entertained and never can I forget the succes that these rivulets would not direct sion of melancholy views which pretheir waters towards Arth or Zug, or sented themselves to our curiosity. In any new course, and that they would our way to it we landed at Arth, a town overflow the countries, but there is no- situated at the southern extremity of the thing at present to justity sueh alarms. lake of Zug; and we skirted along the eastThe lake of Zug has not changed its level. ern boundry of the ruins, by the side of Saven, a stream that empties the lake Mount Rigi, towards the lake of Lowerta. Lowerti, contains neither more nor less From various points on our passage we water than before the dissolution, and the had complete views of suchi'n scene of ponds are not sensibly increased although destruction as to words can adequately much ruin has falen,
Picture yourself a rude and min- We proceeded, in our descent, along gled mass of earth and stones, bristled the side of the Rigi, toward the half bus with the shattered part of wooden cote ried village of Lowertz. Here we sas tages, and with thousands of heavy trees the poor curate, who was a spectator torn up by the roots, and projecting in of the fall of the mountain. "İle saw every direction. In one part you might the torrent of earth rushing towards his see a range of peasants' huts which the village, overwhelming half his people, and torrent of carth had reached with just stopping just before his door. What a foree enough to overthrow and tear in situation! He appeared, as we passed, pieces, but without bringing soil enough to be superintending the labours of some to cover them. In another were mills of the survivors who were exploring the broken in pieces by huge rocks separated ruins of the place. A number of newfrom the top of the mountain, which made graves, marked with a plain pine were even carried high up the opposite side cross, showed where a few of the wretchof the Rigi. Larye pools of water were ed victims of this catastrophe had just formed in different parts of the ruins, and been interred. many little streams, whose usual chan- Our course lay along the borders of nels had been filled up, were bursting the enchanting lake of Lowertz. The out in various places. Birds of prey, at- appearance of the slopes on the eastern tracted by the smell of dead bodies, were and southern sides told us what the valhovering all over the valley. But the ley of Goldau was a few days since; general impression made on us by the smiling with varied vegetation, gay with sight of such an extent of desolation, con- villages and cottages, and bright with nected too with the idea that hundreds promises of autumnal plenty. The of wretched creatures were at that mo- shores of this lake were covered with rent alive buried under a mass of earth, ruins of huts, with furniture and clothes, and inaccessibie to the cries and labours which the vast swell of its waters had of their friends, was too borrible to be lodged on the banks. As we were walkdescribed or understood. As we travell- ing mournfully along toward Schwitz, we ed along the borders of this chaos of ruin- met with the dead body of a wornan ed buildings, a poor peasant, bearing a which had been just found. It was countenance ghastly with woe, came up stretched out on a board and barely coto us to beg a piece of money. He had vered with a white cloth. Two men, prethree children buried under ine ruins of ceded by a priest, were carrying it to a of a cottage, which he was endeavouring more decent burial. We hoped that this to clear away. A little further on we sight would have concluded the horrors came to an elevated spot wbich over- of this day's scenery, and that we should looked the whole scene. Here we found soon escape from every painful vestige of 4 paipter scated on a rock, and busy in the calamity of Schwitz. But we consketching its horrors. He had chosen tinued to find relics of ruined buildings a most favourable point. Before him, at for a league along the whole extent of the the distance of more than a league, rose lake; and a little above the two islands the Ruitiberg, from whose bare side had before-inentioned, we saw lying on the rusbed the Jestroyer of all this life and shore the stiff body of a peasant which beauty. On his right was the lake of had been washed up by the waves, and Lonertz, partly filled with the earth of which two men were examining, to asthe mountain. On the banks of this lake certain the place he belonged to. Our was all that remained of the town of guide instantly knew it to he the body of Lowertz. Its church was deinolished, but one of the inhabitants of Goldau. the tower yet stood, and the ruins, shat- If we had not been detained at Stras. tered but not thrown down. The.figures burgh waiting for passports for ten days, which animated this part of the drawing we should have been in Switzerland on ucre a few miserable peasants, left to the 3d of September, probably in the vie en te among the wrecks of their village. cinity of the lake of Loweriz; perhaps The fore ground of the picture was a wide under the ruins of Goldau. Several trade-orlate sweep of earth and stones, re- vellers, or rather strangers, have been dewered by the statiered roof of a neigl - stroyed; but whether they were there on bug outtage. Un incleit hand spread busquess or for pleasure, I know yot. the blue and tranquil surface of the lake Among tbem are several respectable inof Zug, on the margin of which yet stands habitants of Berne; and a young lathe pleasant village of Arth, almost in dv ul tme accomplishments and amiChwilact with the wins, and trembling able character, whose loss is much laa ErciIn its preservaiio.1.
The following is a tolerably exact ac- From this point the communicating pipe count of the loss sustained:
proceeded along the top of the wall for two 484 individuals dead.
hundred and fifty yards in an east direction, 170 cows and horses--dead.
to the private door in the wall opening into 103 goats and sheep-dead.
the Mall, having on it thirty-two tubes 87 meadows entirely destroyed or burners, inclosed in glasses of different 60 meadows damaged
shapes and constructions, and some pa95 bouses entirely destroyed.
ked burners without glass covers. On one 8 houses damaged and uninhabitable.
of the piers of this private door, a four166 cowhouses, barns or stables entirely branch gas burner with reflectors, in iinidestroyed.
tation of the Prince's feathers had a very 19 cowhouses, barns or stables, damaged. pleasing and appropriate effect. From
The total damage is estimated at least this private door, the tube proceeded fifty at.120,0001. sterling.
yards further, withinside of the wall, to
the back gates of Carlton Gardens, and For the Monthly Magazine there terminated in a grand transparency ACCOUNT of the FIRST EXPERIMENT of erected over the gate-nay, consisting on
the PUBLIC Use of GAS LIGHTS. one side of a number of cut-glass stars O
Thursday evening the 4th of and other devices, with gas-lights behind
June, the first public exhibition of each, besetting the crown and letters Mr. Winsor's Gas Lights took place in G. R. The transparency after a while was honour of his Majesty's birth day, in the turned round and exhibited on the other lightivg of a great length of lamps, fimilar side in illuminated letters the following to the side of a street, at a considerable ode : distance from the carbonizing furnace. Sing praise to that power celestial, This experiment was made on the wall Whom wildom and goodness adorn! which separates the Mall in St. James's On this Day-in regions terrestrial, Park froin Carlton House Gardens. The Great George, our lov'd Sov'reign was born. works had been for some time in prepa- Rejoice, rejoice, 'tis George's natal day, ration, and private trials had previously Oh, hail this glad Day so propitious, been made, to prove the air-tightness of When GEORGE our dread Monarch appear'd, the tubes of communication: which were Remembrance to Britons delicious, of tinned iron, with soldered joints, ex- Of a King, as a parent rever'd. cept at certain distances where they are
Rejoice, &c. otherwise cemented together for the con- Vouchsafe, then, ye pow’rs celestial venience of removal. The diameter of the Long health to a life so endeard ; long pipe is 1 | inch; it commences in The greatest of blessings terrestrial the two close carbonizing iron furnaces God send to our King so rever'd! in Mr. Winsor's house in Pall Mall, one
Rejoice, &c. capable of containing and cokeing four The inflammable gas, which is quite pecks, and the other two pecks of transparent or invisible, began to low in common pit or coal; and by the pipes soon after eight o'clock, and a means of stop cocks, one or both of these lamp-lighter, or person with a small waxfurnaces can be made to send its gas into taper (the evening being quite serene), the pipes above mentioned; which first appeared and lighted the gas issuing from proceed south, about ten yards under- each burner in succession: some time ground, until they enter the Prince of after, a very large burner or assemblage Wales's Gardens belonging to Carlton- of small streams of gas was lighted on the house. From hence the pipe proceeds W. top of the transparency, which tras not for about one hundred and forty yards, however illuminated for a long time ale rising gradually against the garden wall, terwards. to which it is affixed, until it arrives at The hight produced by these gas lanıps, the NW.corners of the garden; whence it was clear, bright, and colourless, and is conducted one tandred and fifty-three from the success of this considerable es. yards S., on the top of the wall which periment, in point of the number of separates the Prince's from Marlborough- lights, the distance and length of wife, house Garden, to the door at the SW.cor- hopes may now be entertained, that this ner of Carltou Gardens. Here the first long-talked of mode of lighting our strEEDS light or illumination was produced by a may at length be realized. The Mull cont thiu and broad strean) of gas frun a small tinuod crowded with spectators, until wear tube or branch from the pipe; which twelve o'clock, and they seemsed much gave a very brilliant light in the open air an:used und delighted by this sorel exhi without a glass cover,
bition. Your's, &c.