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For the Alonthly Magazine. apples, leaves, stones, &c. and continuing On M. PESTALOzZi's NEW METHOD of IN- the calculations by means of tables conSTRUCTION, by c. L. STRÖM, of co- structed in a particular manner for that PENHAGEN.
purpose; it teaches by degrees the chilTHAT the first instruction of chil- dren to understand with facility all possi
dren is a matter of the greatest im- ble numerical relations, and to apply portauce, is admitted by all; as on it de- them by heart, or without the aid of cipeuds, in a great measure, their progress phers, to all the calculations usually re
more advanced age, not only in arts quired in common life. and sciences, but in wisdom, the guid- The third is a species of geoinetry, but ance of which they will stand in need of wholly adapted to the cupucity of children: during their whole life. In proportion -a prelummary geometry, the demonstraas the education of the child is conducted tions of which are not founded on maaccording to reason, will the man be able thematical reasoning, but solely on the to improve upon it, and learn to conduct evidence derived from ocular inspection. himself in, or to extricate himself from, It begins with making the children obsuch affairs and difficulties, as require serve, on a table constructed for that purpresence of mind and a sound judgment. pose, horizontal and vertical lines, and Such has always been the opinion of the their different parts: then it shews the sages who have turned their attention to mode of constructing angles and squares, this subject; and accordingly several of their sections, the relation of these secthem have, from time to time, pointed tions to each other, the oblique and curve out errors, and endeavoured to remove lines, the circle, &c. and all this in a manor rectify such errors as they observed. per which not only enables the pupils to Their efforts have not been fruitless; but judge, with the greatest precision, and much still remains to be done, and it without the assistance of instruments, of would seem that the completing of the the true torm, size, and just proportions reforin was reserved for Pestalozzi. of all visible objects, but leads bim to ge
The principal object Pestalozzi had in ometry properly so called. view was to conduct the elementary in- With these exercises of the eye and struction in such a manner that the re- the mind, Pestalozzi combines those of the form he proposed might have an influence band. The child who, by the use of the upon the whole life of the pupil, with re- geometrical tables, has acquired an idea spect to his manner of thinking, reason- of proportion and symmetry, is excited ing, and acting. Finding that all our to acquire it in a still greater degree by knowledge is derived from three ele executing the same things ou a slate. ments, language, numbers, and form, he After having exercised himself in tracing has divided elementary instruction into regular lines, in forming with them anthree branches.
gles, squares, and other higures (always The first, that which regards languages giving an account of wliat he does), he behas for its object to initiate the child in gins the art of writing by tracing the the physical world, and to regulate the first lines of the letters and the letters impressions thereof. Beginning with the themselves in a series of squares; an exobservation and the naming of visible ercise by which he lays the foundation of objects, as, for instance, the human bo- a steady, free, and bold band-writing. dy, plants, &c. he by degrees leads to At the same time he begins the art of the noticing of the different parts of these drainage by tracing, in sinar series of objects, the relative situation of their squares, figures which he copies from ano parts, their connection, their qualities, ther design, traced in the same manner. their uses, &c. thus gradually multiply. These exercises give facility not only in ing the seosations, the perceptions, and drawing regular ligures, the models of the general ideas of the children, till which the children accustom themselves they have acquired the elements not only to find in their own imaginations, but of physics, of natural history, of anthro- likewise the designing of maps or other pology, and of several sciences of which works, the exact proportion of which it forms the basis, but likewise, at the astonishes all those who see that all this same time, a grammar, the rules of which is done without having recourse to either the children have themselves found by rule or compass. practice.
The above are the elements of M. Pese The second is a kind of arithmetic, but talozzi's art of instruction, as far as it can wholly intuitire, beginning with the num- be put in practice without the aid of the bering of visible objects; for instance, pupil's parents. The mode of communiMUNTILY Mag. No. 158.
cating cating them to the children is quite sim- tion: but in the new method all the ple. All the objects of instruction being branches of elementary instruction are arranged in such a manner as to leave no conjoined with each other by a natural doubt with respect to their truth, they do progression. not require any explanation on the part . 3. To imprint these elements on the of the preceptor: nothing more being ne- minds of the children, he uses the comcessary, but to shew to the child that mon mode of intuition, but in an improved which is to be taught, acquainting him at manner; for instead of a simple passive the same time with the name of the thing impression which objects make spontanewhich he has observed. It is thus Pesta- ously on the senses (in which the essence lozzi proceeds. The master names the of intuition had hitherto been placed), thing a bien pointing it out to the pupils,who he has made the culture of the mind an express what they see by the same word indispensable condition of it; and, as that has been used by the master; and for the gradation from what is known to in general they recite their lessons all to what is not known, which has always gether, and in cadence. At the end of been observed in exposing the objects each paragraph, the master puts some to the eyes of children, he has adopted questions relative to the objects which it in the strictest manner, not regulating have just been treated of, that he may it with respect to the objects, but the learn from the answers of the pupils, progressive capacity of the children. whether they have sufficiently imprinted 4. It is generally a distinct character it on their memory, or whether it will be of his method to observe e strict grase. necessary to repeat the lesson.
tion throughout, so that each part, and Though the above account gives but a in particular each fundamental part, be faint idea of what is done in a school indelibly imprinted on the mind before where every thing is calculated for oral any other be added; and with this view demonstration, this sketch may never- he' has combined all the points of his theless suffice to shew to those even who system with such order and precision, are least versed in the art of teaching, that the child, in increasing his knowthat the spirit of Pestalozzi's method is ledge, is only continually adding small very different from the common routine. supplements to the notions he had alThe following are the different points ready acquired. which seem to characterise his discovery: 5. Another characteristic trait is, that,
1. The elements of instruction are fired according to his method, knowledge is by M. Pestalozzi with greater precision not communicated to the children by reuthan they were before. The elementary soning with them, but by furnishing them instruction of children generally com- with the words which they must use in amences with reading, writing, and cipher- quiring a knowledge of things. This cir ing: but no one inquires why it should cumstance gives to his method a mechabe so. Pestalozzi at last proposed this nical air : but if the spirit of this instrucquestion, and has endeavoured to solve it tion be duly attended to, it will soon be himself. Iu searching for the way which seen, that the teacher, who seerns to be nature herself indicates for the develop- loading the memory with words, is only ment of the mental powers; he has found furnishing the terms most proper to es. the basis of all our knowledge in lan- 'press the sensations which the child bimguage, numbers, and form, whence se- selt experiences. sult the abovementioned three branches 6. This method is not less remarkable of elementary instructiou; and if he by being founded altogether upon practite. has not been able to exhaust the en. The common mode of teaching by quiry, lie has at least the merit of having means of certain rules which are given to first pointed out the road, and made con- the children, to be by them applied to the siderable progress.
objects of instruction. Here ihe tencher 2. Every one will adidit that in mak- only gives them exercises; but in pi ing these three elements the basis, and forming these exercises, they are made to putting off the art of reading to a more practise the rules without having them mature age, he has preserved en intimate formally pointed out to them; and its connection between the different branches of not till after the children have acquired elementary instruction ,ind, by these means, the necessary expertness iu ady art, the a conformity hitherto unknoan in the they are led to draw thence the rules of progression of the whole art of instruc- it. Virtue itself, according to this tion.
tem, must have become theulty before The arts of reading, writing, calculat- the actions be regnlated by matims. ing, and design, had not before any rela- 7. Lastly, by facilitating the executie
of his system, Pestalozzi has merited the make astonishing progress, while others gratitude of all who are employed in the seem to be becoming from day to day instruction of children, His elementary more stupid. If his first elementary books do not, as is commonly the cuse, give lessons be repeated with sufficient per separately the objects of instruction in the severance, no one will be lett wholly bemethod of teaching; but they give the bind. matter itself in the proper words and forms, These are considerable advantages: so that the master who follows thern lite but let us see what effects the mode of rally, will attain his aiin without any instruction will have on the cultivation of danger of going astray. It is on this Peso the mind. According to the old method, talozzi rests his assertion, that any person the first notions were most imperfect and who is not altogether deprived of reason erroneous: that of Pestalozii, on the may teach according to his method; that contrary, does not admit of any incomevery mother, even the most simple, may plete, vague, or false, notions; there is a berself direct the lessons of her children; certainty in every thing he teaches, beand that even a child who is a few cause it is drawn from mathematical steps farther advanced than its brothers science or visible nature; every thing is or sisters, will be enabled to instruct them evident, because it is to the senses he adwith success.
dresses himself; nothing is barren, because Thus the method of Pestalozzi will each idea springs spontaneously from the avoid all the inconveniencies to which the exercise of the child's understanding. The common mode of instruction is exposed; facts cannot be either effaced or and, on the contrary, there will result changed; for they are presented quite from it advantages incompatible with the naked to the eyes of the child; they are other.
imprinted on the memory by practice, In the common method of education, and are adopted only in consequence the child who, during its first years, was of the child's own conviction. There lett to the pleasing impressions of the obe is no room to fear lest the verbiage of jects around him, and to his own ideas, an unskilful teacher should spoil these must at the end of that period change all good effects; for this verbiage is preat once his accustomed inanner of instruct- cluded by the precision of the prescribed ing himself, and adoptanother, the contrast juethod; and the custom of making seveof which is sufficient to create disgust. ral children recite their lessons at the Here, on the contrary, the first glimpse same time, has a tendency to keep attenof discernment which is noticed in the tion alive. child gives occasion to its first lessons; We now coice to draw conclusions: and the mode of instruction changes so the child by this species of instruction little as it grows up, that the knowledge acquires a firm and solid foundation for acquired at the age of maturity is only almost all the sciences and faculties which a continuation of the notions which the he will stand in need of in the succeeding child had, as it were, imbibed with its mo- periods of life. For iustance, on the first ther's milk. The advantage of this must lessons are founded, on the one side, the be obvious. As instruction from the practical grammar spoken of above, and very beginning has only the appearance on the other all the sciences which are of play, and as it preserves this charac- intuitive; on the enumeration of sensiter in all the gradations that are to be gone ble objects arithunetic is founded, not through, the child learns with the greatest only that which teaches to calculate by ease, and at the same time with the heart, but that the operations of which greatest solidity, every thing which it is are performed by means of ciphers; and, necessary to tcach him; and gaily pro- lastly, on the simple exercises of meaceeding on the road towards perfection, suring and delineation, geometry properly he almost imperceptibly reaches the so called, and the ability to forin å goal. No new' encouragements are re- judgment of all measurable objects, as quired to rouse the attention of the pu- likewise the arts of writing and design, pil; this bas been sufficiently provided But this is not all: this method of instrucfor by the objects which strike the senses, tion, although it does not admit of reaby the exact gradation with which soning, nevertheless implants the dispon they are presented to them, and by the sition to become a rational being. By exactness with which the lessons are providing that the child be not forced adapted to the capacity of each scholar; to adopt a single sentiment on the av. for it does not bappen here, as in the thority of another, but that all his ideas, cummon modes of instruction, that some all his judgments, all his conclusions, be
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derived from himself, it causes his mind presents itself to his eyes; he is overpopto be developed in a manner the most ered and afraid; he begins to cry: the agreeable to the progress of nature, and mother takes him in her arms, and enhe will in time become a rational being, deavours to dispel his apprehension by whose conduct will be regulated by order, caresses. The troubles of the child vagood sense, and reflexion. I may even nish in an instant; his tears cease to venture to say, that his character will flow; and, smiling, he looks up to his thereby acquire firmness, constancy, and mother without any mark of uneasiness. solidity.
This is the nascent sentiment of confiBut it may be said, of what use is it to dence. The sentiment of gratitude and cultivate the understanding of the child, the habit of obeying are derived from the or even to impart a strong character, if same source; and from the union of all nothing be done to inspire religion and these sentiments spring the first germs of morality? Undoubtedly, if Pestalozzi had conscience. By degrees, the chuld comes been so imprudent as to neglect this most to discern, that it would not be just to important part of education, he would disobey his mother; that undoubtedly deserve severe reproach; but no one his mother does not exist merely for the has more seriously attended to it. His purpose of serving him; that those surideas relative to this subject are so re- rounding him are not made merely for his narkable, that they deserve to be well sake; and that tre himself does not exist considered by all who are engaged in the solely for the purpose of gratifying his education of children: but to put them desires : thus it is the sentiment of duty in practice, the affectionate care of a and right takes its rise. In the mean mother is so absolutely necessary, that time the progressive energy of the child they will be found suitaule only to do- induces him to quit the hand of his momestic tuition. According to Pestalozzi, ther: he has begun to feel his own the same person who undertakes the strength; and, without being sensible of teaching of the first primary elements of the change, he has begun to think that knowledge, should likewise be charged his mother is not so necessary to him as with the religious and moral education; before. The mother, who notices the and that the child's mother is fittest for progress of his ideas, makes use of this double task.
the favourable moment to suggest to bira M. Pestalozzi explains himself in the the most sublime sentiment: and, emfollowing manner :-“ What is it that bracing him with more than usual tendergives birth to the idea of a God? how do ness, she says to him with a most solemn I come to helieve, confide in him, to be voice - My dear child, There is a God! happy in loving him, to devote myself of whose aid and protection thou wilt to his service, to be grateful to him, and stand in need when thou thinkest thou obey his laws? I soon find that if I had may'st do without thy mother; there a not felt similar emotions towards men, I a God, who will provide for thy happishould never have risen to sentiments of ness when it will no longer be in my love, confidence, and devotion towards power.' From that moment the attachGod, nor acquire the pleasing habit of inent and affections of the child will take obeying hiin; ' for he who does not love a more elevated flight, he will give thein his brother, whom he seeth, how can he to God: he will fulfil bis duties, that he love his heavenly father, whom he does may please God, as he has hitherto tulnot see? On inquiring how these senti- filled them for the purpose of pleasing ments are awakened in the soul, it will be his mother. Thus the atfectionate care found that they are principally derived of the snother will secure the virtue of from the intimate relation which unites the child by means of religious seot:the child to its mother. The mother is ments, and strengthen his religion by impelled by instinct to watch over ber means of the moral affections." child, to nourish him, to provide for his From the above sketch it is hoped safety and well-being: guided by that ine that the method of Pestalozzi will apstinct, she furnishes whatever is necessary pear deserving of the general attention for his subsistence; removes every thing which it has excited. By its concorde that is disagreeable:-and the child, who ance with nature, by the solidity of the has experienced the tender cares of his instruction which it forms on the tomother, at the moment when her assist- tural vivacity and gaiety of children, unce was necessary, fects himself hap- by the ease with which it leads to py with her : this is the anscent sen- the sciences, by the disposition włoch timent of love! An unknown object it continually coinmunicaies to the ment,
and by the firmness of character which it as the law supposes they may when it adis calculated to inspire, it has already judges their loss to fall on the owner, if it charmed all those who have had an op- so happen. It is however provided by portunity of becoming intimately ac- the Stat. 1. and 2 P. and M. c. 12. that no quainted with it.
distress of cattle shall be driven out of
the hundred where it is taken, unless to To the Edilor of the Monthly Magazine. a pound-odert within the same shire, and
within three miles of the place where it is AM happy to see the attention of two taken; that the owner may know where the cruelty of permitting animals, taken It not owned or replevied, it is liable for distress, to remain several days in the to be regarded as an estray; in which common pound without sustenance: but character it generally belongs to the lord I fear that the law, as it stands at pre- of the manor as grantee of the crown. sent, cannot remove the evil.
But for this purpose the cattle must be The case to which your correspondents proclained in the church, and in two allude must, of course, be understood of market-towns next adjoining the place beasts taken damage-feasant; that is, where they are found, on market-days; doing damage to the tenant of the soil, by and then it'no man claims them, after protreading down his grass or the like: be- clamation and a year and a day passed, cause distress for rent-arreur may now they belong to hiin without redemption. be impounded where taken; and it may He who takes an estray ought to find it be sold and the expences of kceping the victuals; and to provide that it doth not same defrayed out of the produce; perish for want of good keeping; but whilst distress for damage-feasant, being otherwise if a distress. (Hil. 4 Jac. B. left as at common law, is regarded as a R. per cur. in Bagshaw and Gallard's mere pledge or security to com-vel the case). And if the owner claims them performance of satisfaction for damage within the year and day, he must pay done, and cannot be sold or disposed of the charges of keeping and proclaiming by the distreinor.
them. From the time, therefore, when the Ifa live distress of cattle be impounded lord regards such beasts as estrays, it is in a common pound-overt (that is open not likely that they will be in wantoffood; over-head) the owner must take notice of but this is not until after the first procla it at his peril; and he, not the distreinor, mation (lienly and Welch II. Mod. 89); must provide them with food and necese before which indeed they may die. And saries: nay, if the distreinor give them though Holt C. J. in that case said that ineat, he cannot compel the owner to pay the keeping for which the owner must for it;- and if they die for want of suste- pay (it he redeems them) commences nance, it is the loss of the owner, even from the seizure; yet it must mean from after a tender and refusal of damages. the seizure us an extray, and not from the (Doct. and Stud. Dial 2 c. 27. Bl. Com. taking dumage-feasunt. 3. p. 13.) For the common law of Eng- Fordistress, and not seizure, is the techland, which is ever wise in principle, nical word for the first taking; and Holt though sometimes insensible to those re- in the same case said that the owner is finements which were, indeed, the growth subject to pay for no more than a year's of later ages, supposes that the owner will keeping; which he might be, if it were to pot fail to seek for and feed his beasts; be computed from the impounding. Nay and if not, it punishes him with their loss, the law of distress and esi rays is so differather than impose the duty of maintain- rent, that he who takes a distress may ing them on the distreinor, who is already not interfere with it even for its benefic, dainaged by their trespass.
as to milk a cow; but as an estray he Nor, it should sees, is the bayward of may. (Cro. Jac. 147, 148. 1 Roll. Ábr. the pound obliged to feed them. For all 879. s Danv. 282). Indeed the law pre pounds have not haywards; and when sumes an intervening time during which they have, they are officers in leets, and the distress will want food, unless furthe law tahes not any notice of them: nished by the owner; and it has adand a pound is the pound of him that judged to him the loss accordingly. uses it; and if it be broken, he, not the It may happen, without the wilful dehayward, shall have his remedy for pound- fault of the owner, that, as a distress, his breach. (Per Hot, C. J. in Vaspor and Ed- cattle may have been inpounded several wards's Case, llil. Term. 1S. W. III.) For days without his knowledge; or a wealthy otherwise they would not perish for want, obstinate man may estimate their loss as