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painted by the late Mr. Barry, is now incidents, relating to the finding, te engraving by Mr. Anker Smith, and to covering, and at length placing the Holy be published by Mr. Manson. This Cross at the Gate of Jerusalem. They being painted when he was much younger, exhibit specimens of the art of painting may be fairly presumed to be a more in two distinct ages, but both prior to characteristic resemblance, than any of the Reformation, and were brought to those which have preceded it.

light by the accidental removal of whiteMr. Desenfans' very fine Collection of wash, during the repair of the chapel in Pictures is selling by private contract. 1804. The subsequent destruction of Many of the most capital works in this the originals, suggests the propriety of collection are said to have been a short now offering copies of ihem to the pubtine since the property of a recently lic. As specimens of the arts of painting created Peer.

and design in the 13th and 15th centuIn the Summer of 1804, a number of ries, they will be found curious, especie ancient, allegorical, historical, and le- ally to those who are fond of comparing gendary paintings in fresco, were dis- the progressive advancement of this dis covered on the walls of the chapel of the vine art from the rude beginnings of Holy Trinity, at Stratford-upon-Avon, in uninformed genius, to the perfection of Warwichshire. Drawings were made modern times. Descriptions of the from them at the time, by Mr. Thomas Paintings, and an Account of the proFisher, who proposes to publishı seven- bable Periods of their Execution will be teen of them by subscription, with views annexed. The size will be super-royal and sections, illustrating the architec- folio, and the publication will be in three ture of the chapel. The greater num- parts, at two guineas cach. ber of these paintings represent various


REPORT of the TRANSACTIONS of the puy- are five in number, and the calyx is die

SICAL ond mathEMATICAL CLASS of vided into equal segments; the fruit,
the NATIONAL INSTITUTE in 1806. which is inferior and unilocular, contains
By M. CUVIER, SECRETARY to the several seeds.

The second is called calothamnus, from
MONG the botanical works, pub- the elegance of its powers, the numerous

lished during the present year, M. Stamens of whicb stand upon a large fila. Cuvier notices, in a very distinguished ment, divided into two at each extremity, manner, the continuation of the Fiora of while the other are sierile. The fruit reNew Holland, by M. de la Billardiere; sembles, in every respect, the metrosidethe splendid Description of Malmaison, ros. by M. Ventenat; the Flora of Owarree The third, called calytrir, is known and Benin, by M. Beauvois; and the Ru- by its tubulated calyx, placed above the ral Botanist, by M. Dumont. We like germen, and divided into five parts; each wise learn from this Report, that Courset, of which is terminated by a long awn or a corresponding member of the Academy, bristle. The capsule contains only one and M. de Lamark have given, conjoint- seed. ly with M. Decandolle, a third and en- The fourth has received the name of larged edition of the French Flora, capnalotus, and belongs to the family of

M. Bilardiere has, in his valuable the rosacea. The species termed follicuwork above inentioned, made known to laria, is perhaps still more remarkable us, in particular, six new genera of than the sarracenia, and the nepenthes, plants of New Holland. The three first“ by the form of some of the leaves, which are naturally arranged among the myr- represents very nearly a purse, surinounttles, which form a very numerous family ed by an operculum, and bordered with in New Holland, and from which medi- hooks, directed towards its inner side. cine and the arts may derive much ad- The fifth is named actinolui, and has vantage, as the trees and shrubs belong- all the appearance of a plant belonging ing to it furnish aromatic oils.

to the corymbiform tribe, though in fact, The first genus, denominated pilcanthus, it belongs to the umbellarze. The two is very remarkable by an envelope of a sin- stigmas, which swell towards the apex, gle piece inclosing each flower; the petals arc surmounted, on the internal side, hý a bristle, resembling the feelers, or an- he treats of the fossil bones of the bear, tennæ of insects, as in the lagoecia. It rhinoceros, and elephant. The bones of contains only one seed.

a bristle

two species of bears, at present unknown, The sixth, called prostanthera, belongs are found buried with those of the siger, to the lubiute tribe." The calyx is com- hyena, and other carnivorous animals, in posed of two complete divisions, the a great number of caverns, in the motslargest of which proceeds towards the talus of Hungary and Germany. other, and covers it, as soon as the corol Bones of the rhinoceros and elephant has dropt off. A filiform appendix pro are tjund in abundance in every part of ceeds from underneath each of the an- our globe. thers. The fruit is, in every respect, si- Accounts have been transmitted to the milar to that of the genus prasium; but author, from which it appears, that eleone thing very remarkable in this family phants' bones have been dug up in more of plants is, that the einbryo, or corcle, than six hundred places of the two coris enclosed in a thick and fleshy albu- tinents. Still more recently have the ja men, whilst in the other labiate plants, bones and tusks of these animals been hitherto observed, it is naked.

found in the forest of Boudy, in digging M. Beauvois having investigated cer- the canal, intended to bring the waters tain mushrooms, in all the various stages of the river Ourgue to Paris. The fare of their growth, found, that their forms ther we proceed towards the north, these became so inuch changed, at different bones are found in a still more perfect periods, that several botanists had thence state of preservation. An island, situabeen led to place them in different ge- ted in the Frozen Sea, is almost entirely pera, according to the age at which they composed of them. These facts were examined them: thus, according to this previously known; but the results of a author, the rizomorpha of Persoon is comparison made by M. Cuvier between only a mushroom in the second stage of these fossil bones of the rhinoceros and its growth, and becomes a boletus at the elephant, with those of the saine kind of third; the dematrium bombycinum of the animals existing in Africa at the present same author becomes, at the termination day, clearly prove that the former were of some time, his mesenterica argentea. of a different species from the latter. It then thickens, acquires a cellular tex- Exclusive of the different structure of ture, so as to resemble a morel, and, like the muzzle, the fossil rhinoceros apo the rizomorpha, at length becomes a bole- pears to have had much shorter legs, a tus. This plant, however, requires larger and more elongated head, then farther investigation.

the rhinoceros now known. The jawThe researches into natural history, bones of the fossil elephant, as well as we learn from this Report, though less nu- the head, and particularly the alveola of merous, during the present year, than the tusks, appear also to have been of a those made in botany, are yet far from different structure from the same parts being uninteresting.

belonging to the present species; the M. de Beauvois has begun to publish proboscis also differs in its proportions. an account of the insects which he .col- On the whole, the author thinks thero jected, during his travels in Africa and is reason to conclude that these two spe America. Two numbers of this work cies are now extinct, as well as many have a'ready made their appearance. M. others whose bones he has examined, and Cuvier intimates to the academy that of which ten or twelve species, deemed he himself continues to pursue the re- non-descripts by most naturalists, have searches, in which he has been engaged been found with their bones encrusted for several years, on the animals without in the plaster-quarries near Parts, vertebræ, and on the fossil bones of qua- He also thinks, there is reason to sup drupeds.

pose, that these species have lived in the In the continuation of the first great places where their bones are found, and division of his work, he has given, that they have not been transported thi during the present year, the anatomy of ther by an inundation, asis generally seven genera; the scyllea, glaucus, colides supposed ; since these banes are not in colimucia, limax, Linned, and planorbus. the least worn down by friction, We Even the external appearance of the two should acquire a very superficial knor. first was little known, and the reporter ledge of natural bodies, continues the ne has rectified several mistakes, into wbich porter, and attain very imperfect ideas of naturalists had fallen concerning them. the different phenomena they present, i In the continuation of the second part, we confined ourselves merely to the de


scription of their external parts, and did thollet alleges, in reply to this opinion, not endeavour to obtain a more intimate that, if this were the case, the sulphuric knowledge of their structure, by means acid poured on a sub-carbonate would of anatomy and chemistry.

immediately seize upon the uncombined M. Fourcroy bas published a new and alkaline molecules, previously to entering enlarged edition of his Philosophy of into union with those combined with the Chemistry, which M. Cuvier justly con- carbonic acid. Now, that is not the siders as the best elementary work on fact; for the sinallest drop of the former that science.

acid instantaneously produces an effer. Attraction and repulsion. These two vescence, and extrication of the second. powerful agents in nature have, during The acidulous sulphate of soda effloresces the present year, as we learn from this Re- on exposure to the air; that is, it parts port, attracted the attention of philoso- with its water of crystallization, which phers.

could not happen, were the sulphuric It is well known, that ice is lighter than acid uncombined with it, since there is water, since it swims in it. On the other no substance that more greedily attracts hand, hot water is, in general, lighier the moisture of the air than this acid. than that which is cold. But does not this M. Berthollet has furnished us with fluid become uniformly condensed, in the means of estimating the degree of proportion as it is cooled, and expand acidity of the different acids, and the al suddenly at the moment of its congela- kalinity of the different bases, by the tion? This, however, is not the case ; for quantity which it is necessary to employ water is at its maximum of density, when of each of these substances, completely a few degrees above the freezing-point. to saturate or neutralize the other, so This M. Febvre-Gineau proved by direct that no sign of any superabundant acid experiments, several ycars ago, by means or alkali is perceivable in the combination. of the thermometer and hydrostatical ba- lle confirms this method by shewing, lance. Since that period, Count Rum- that the proportions of these quantities ford has, by well devised experiments, are uniform, and that if to one basis rendered the facts still more evident. ** twice inore of one kind of acid be ne

M. Berthollet perseveres with indefati- cessary to saturate it, than to saturate gable industry in his Chemical Resear- another basis, the first will also require ches, a continuation of which has ap- twice more of any other kind of acid thau peared during the present year.

the second. He therein proves that, by means of But the degree of resistance to heat pressure, we may combine, with the docs not correspond with this force, and three alkalies, a much greater quantity it is inore easy, for example, to decomof carbonic acid than usual, and thus pose by fire the carbonate of magnesia form neutral salts, as well as with the than that of lue, though the affinity of other acids. He restricts the use of the these two earth; for the acid be nearly term carbonate to these combinations, equal: the reason of which is, that the while he gives to those usually formed former carbonate contains much inore with this acid and the alkalies, the name water; and other experiments shew, that of sub-carbonates; and shews, that there water favours the disengagement of carare between these two many interme- bonic acid. diate states,

The consequences deducible from The same holds equally true in these facts, in every branch of chemistry, the earthy carbonates, and many and particularly in the theory of analyses, other salts. The phosphate of soda, for are incalculable. example, is crystallizable, both with The tables of the affinities, and a great an excess of acid, and an excess of part of the analyses liitherto made; are basis. The partizans of the old doc- invalidated by them, and experience, in trines suppose that, in such cases, no fact, proves that these data require to be combination takes place, but, that the revised. For example, M. Kliproth, and superabundant principle remains mere- afterwards M. Vauquelin, found a fifth ly'interposed in a free state, between of fuoric acid in the topaz, in which the niolecules of the two principles, com


before suspected to Lined in the usual proportion.' M. Ler- exist. This stone must, therefore, be

now transferred to the class of substances An account of these experiments will be containing acids. fount in vol. xxii, p. 474, of the Monthly Another mineral, hitherto considered Magazine.

as a stone, is now found to be a metal.



It was formerly termed by Delamethieré History, without an exact acquaintance oisanite, and still more recently by M. with geography. Hence it appears, that Haiyanathase. M. Vauquelin' las, this knowledge is scarcely less necessary however, found in it nothing but the to the naturalist, than to the astronomes oxide of titanium, as in the other mi- It is well known, how much we stand inneral denominated red schoerl.

debted to scientific travellers; and u. This fact may be considered as impor- Olivier has furnished us with new proofs tant, since chemistry had not at ihat of this truth, in a Topographical Account time been able to discover any essential of Persia, which he has just published. difference in the composition of these He describes the chains of the mountains, two minerals, though their physical the course of the rivers, and explaius the qualities and their crystallization were nature of the productions by that of the wholly different.

climate. By reason of the great drought A similar example had formerly oc- which so generally prevails throug bout curred in mineralogy. I here allude to this vast empire, not above a twentieth the arragonite, in which chemistry dis- part of it is in a state of cultivation. covers nothing but a carbonate of Time, There are many provinces in which not thongh neither, in weight, hardness, a single tree is to be seen, escept such as fracture, nor crystallization, does it re- have been planted and watered by the semble calcareous spar, or

common hand of man. This evil progressively carbonate of lime.

augments by the destruction of the A different example, but which esta- canals which conduct the waters from blishes also a species of opposition the mountains; and the lands being de between the physical and chemical cha- serted become impregnated with salt, racters of minerals, has occurred during which renders them for ever sterile. the present year. It is an iron ore,

The labours of naturalists who, isknown under the imme of spathic iron. stead of exploring foreign countries, purIt uniformly exhibits the same crystalline sue their studies at home, may also prore appearance as carbonated lime, and, in useful to the improvement of geography, like manner, contains a great proportion by suggesting lights calculated to assist of it. M. Haüy had arranged it among the inquiries of travellers. the varieties of this species, considering M. de Lacepede, after examining what the oxide of iron merely as accidentally is already known respecting Africa, conmixed with it, during the crystallization paring the size of the rivers which flow of the lime, ncarly in the same manner into the sea, with the extent of the as the sand, in the curious crystals of the country, on which the rains of the torrid hard grey stone, found in the forest of zone fall, and with the probable quantity Fontainbleau.

of water carried off by evaporativn; forIt had been indeed long known, that ming, in short, a judgment respecting the quantity of iron contained in it, is the number and direction of the mounextreinely variable; hut Messts. Drapier tainous chains in the interior, by those and Descotils have discovered, that the with which we are acquainted on the proportion of lime varies still more; that borders of this great division of the globe; very frequently it scarcely contains any, from all these circumstances be has and that the magnesia, and the oxide of been led to conjectures respecting the manganese, are found in very different physical disposition of the unl nown requantities in different specimens. gions in the center, and particularly in

Such are the various combinations regard to the inland lakes and seas, which occur under the same form. which must, he thinks, exist therein. lle

These apparent oppositions, concludes has sketched out the routes which ought, M. Cuvier, between two branches of the in his opinion, to be pursued by traid same science, or between two modes of lers, who intend to explore these yet alle viewing the same objects, can only pro- discovered countries. ceed from some imperfection in the There is also another kind of spece principles of the one or the other of the lative geography, which endeavours to two methods, and merit the attention of ascertain from the present appearance men of science.

of countries, their state in past times. The productions of nature are so in- M. Olivier baj, we learn from the pretimately connected with, and so materi- sent report, investigated in this way, the ally modified by, the climates, in which probability of the communication, which they are found, that no improvement can was formerly supposed to exist between be made in any of the branches of Natural the Caspian and Black-Sra. lle is op



opinion that this communication must Mediterranean, in consequence of being have been to the north of Mount Cau- suddeuly augmented by the same cause, casus, and that, at last, it was interrupted had broken down the pillars of Hercules, by the alluvial depositions of the Cuban, and formed the strait, which now unites tle Wolga, and the Don.

it with the ocean. Since then, the Caspian no longer re- But M. Olivier conceives that, if the ceives any rivers equivalent to the water Euxine had ever been inore elevated carried off by evaporation, it has greatly than at present, it inust have found a sunk, and is now, at the present day, natural outlet by the plain of Nicca, and sixtv feet below the level of the Euxine. by other vallies which lead to the Pro

It is thus, that it has been separated pontis, and the Archipelago; that, in any from the sea of Aral, and leti exposed other case, the narrow channel of the the immense plains of sand, which lie to Bosphorus, could not furnish sufficient the north and east.

water to inundate the lotty mountains of M. Dureau de la Malle, a son of one of the Greece, which are more elevated than meinbers of the Institute, has discovered in any other on the borders of the Euxine; the Greck and Romani writers, numerous and still less to produce any perceptible testimonies of the former extent of the effect upou the vast expanse of the Mea Caspian Sea, and of its communications diterranean. with the Euxine and Aral, and has col- He is therefore of opinion, that the lected them in a Memoir, which he has relations of the ancients on this subject, presented to this class, and to that of originated neither from observation por Ancient Natural History. The ancients tradition, but merely in conjectures, ascribed the separation of the two for- which the physical state of the countries mer, and the great diminution of the entirely overthrows. It is equally true, Euxine itselt, to a disruption of the that thic part of the Bosphorus, nearesi to Bosphorus, which they supposed was the the Euxine Sea, exhibits traces of volcause of the food of Deucalion, the canic revolutions, while the remaining Euxine being thrown with violence, by part forms a natural valley. This holds this opening, upon the Archipelago, and equally true with regard to the Hellesthe shores of Greece, Some of thein pont. even imagined, that, at this epoch, the


the 20th of May and the 201h of June, extracted from the London Gazettes.


Degraves Peter Cheanaide, 2014 Thomas Painbridge

warehousinen. (Folkes and Co. Gray's inn (Ibe Solicitors' names are between Parentbeles) Davies jonn, Cardiff, builver. (Tarrant and Co. Chan

cery lwie ANDREW Charles, Bernham, bulcher. (Alexander,

Elsam Richard. Newingtoni, carpenter. (Theakston

and Washinan, Blackfriary Adams Robert, Southamptoo, ship builder. (Nicholls, Gibh, Robert. white Cross alicy. Chairmaker. (RUSSES southaftprou

Crow'11 Cort Alexander Henry, Moorfields, broker. (Maddock and Gibson William Hogartb, Saville ruw, warehouseman. ro. New square

Ledwich, Baldwin's court Brook Thoda, oston, ironmonger. (Lodington and Co. Ginsesa Richard, Scity coper. (James, Gray's inn Temple

Good Timothy Kings'ou upon Huil, shoe maker. Ellis Bullock James. Scott's yard, wine merchant. (Crowder Cursito street and CO Old Jewry

llebh William Astley, Bridge north, lines draper. (Smart Blackmore Edwird Menrietta street, taylor. (Henrich and Thoinas, Staple i and Co Temple Rr


William, Lower East Smith ld, victualler. Bridco Edward, Market street, maltster. Hind, (Turner. Edwort street Tent pie

Heads Joha, Charlotte street, taylor. (Harrison, Ingras Bing Airou Isacs, Great Prescott street, merchant. Cuurt (Willett and Co. Finsbury Sijuare

Hale John, Bedminster, victualler. (Edmunds and Bructuer John, South Molto street, ladies shoe maker. Nun. Exchequer office (Pike. Air slicet

Holder Johı. Fannewick, huicher. (Cooke, Strand Chirps George. Cecil street, taylor, (Hodgson and Co. Hooton Witam, Klintsbridge, Coach maker. (Hias Cierne's inn

rich, Palskrave piace Cooper Thomas, Wilbariton, draper. (Bowe 3d Co. Jackson Wulan. Bickfirt, Exeter, merchant. (WII. Tooke's court

Liam and Darke. Medfurd row Cand kichard, Frith street, painter. (Walton, Girdler's King Joseph, and Willa Edward King. King street,

slik mercers (Booth and Co. New square Culmer George Chilham, miller. (Nethersole and Portal Kekwick Joseph, Etham, dealer and chapman. sex trert

(Foulkes, Southain pron treet Ciert Richard, Falmouth, merchant. (Bourdillon Kendall Edward Tanerpacie walk, allow candler. and Cu). Little Friday street

Williams, Upper John street Carelo** Josepti. Maidstone, corn merchant. (Webb. 5:. Knight Richard Bath. chetsenooger. (Sheppard and Thuras' street

Co.fcdford w Carler Widia, the younger, Warminster, clothier. (Dz. Lapian John, Kighley grocer, (Alley and Co. Furnivaj's

vies, Luthbury Carney Rodrf, New Gravel lane, opseller, (Wilde, Middley Joseph, Leeds, grocer. (Meddowcroft, Gray's jun Castle street

10a MONTHLY Mag. No. 153.

4 C


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