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France and Germany; the fifth exhibit. Quintilian," published under the iming a statement of the sentiments and mediate direction of the University of sects of modern Jews; and the sixth Oxford. The text has been accurately shewing the views of eminent divines, re- collated and cleansed of the numerous tyspecting their future conversion to Christ, pographical errors which marked the ediand restoration to their own land. The tion of 1738. The editor, we understand, six Sermons by Evangelical Ministers was the Rev. J. Carpenter, of Hertford which follow, and more to the bulk than College. the value of the work. Dr. Hunter's Nor is less praise due to the publicaDiscourse at the end is worth them all. tion of the “ Catalogue of the Manu

Of another work which has been lately scripts, and Books with Manuscript Notes, published, of a different kind, it may be in the D'Orville Collection," purchased by quite sufficient to record the title. Let- the University about three years ago. ters to the Editor of the Christiun Obser- The Paraphrase of an anonymous fer, in Reply to their Observations on a Greek Writer, (hitherto published under Pamphlet entitled, ' A few plain Answers the name of Andronicus Rhodius), on the to the Question, Why do you receive the Nicomachean Ethics of Aristotle," has been Testimony of Buron Swedenborg ?" by the translated from the Greek, by Mr. Rev. J. CLOWES.

BRIDGEMAN. In regard to the Paraphrase Among the SERMONS, we cannot fail itself, though we allow it in many into give a conspicuous place to those of stances to possess a great share of merit, Mr. VAN MILDERT, containing An we certainly agree in the observation of Historical View of the Rise and Progress Salmasius, that it differs from Aristotle of Infidelity, with a Refulation of its in many particulars. As a fair specimen Principles and Reasonings.” They were we shall transcribe the whole of the preached, at the Lecture founded by the eighth chapter of the fifth book. Ilon. Mr. Boyle, in the parish church of * In what manner a man may act unSt. Mary-le-Bow; and are calculated not justly, and still not be unjust.” only to interest but to instruct. The ar- “ We have discoursed universally, guments are selected with judgment; and therefore, concerning justice and injustice; the language they are clothed in is strong also concerning the just and the unjust, and unaffected.

and detined the nature of each. But Beside these, we have scarcely any since there are certain unjust actions, Sermons, in an aggregate form, to men- in which, though the agent acts unjustly, tion; detached Sermons, however, have nevertheless he is not unjust, let us now been produced by the press in great abun- investigate what those actions are. In dance.

the first place, however, we will show The Duty of Stedfustness in Church that certain things may be done unjustly, Communion," has been ably treated by and still not be unjust; as, for instance, Mr. PEARSON.

a man may steal, or coramit adultery, Dr. MALTBY'S “Sermon" before the and yet be neither a thief nor an adul University of Cambridge, on the import- terer. For if any one should steal a ance of improving the early part of life, sword from a maniac, lest he should deserves attention beyond the limits of wound himself, such a one steals indeed, the audience to which it was addressed. but nevertheless is not a thief. So also

Nor would we bestow a smaller share if any one commits adultery for the purof praise on Dr. Gaskia's Sermon, iiti- pose of enriching himself, he commits the tled, “ The English Liturgy, a' Form crime indeed, but still is not an adulterer, of sound Words."

but a lover of' riches. If also a physician In Dr. Knox's “Sermon," however, should deceive a sick person, in order to preached at the Opening of the Philan- preserve bim, he deceives, yet he is not thropic Society, we contess ourselves to a deceiver. It is manifest, therefore, have been disappointed.

that certain things may be done unjustly, Of the remainder of those which have and yet not be unjust according to that fallen into our hands, we have found lit- particular injustice, the work of which tle either to praise or censure. A few, he accomplishes. But let us consider it are only to be commended for their good a general way what these unjust actions intentions.

are. They are such then as a person CLASSICAL LITERATURE.

does unjustly, not for the sake of the end Among the more valuable works in this which is adapted to that particular injussection of our Retrospect, we cannot fail tice, of which the action is performed, to place the new edition of “ Gesner's but for the sake of some other end, wheMONTILY Mao. No. 159.

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ther it be good or base; and though, ac- divesting it of the historical and mython cording to this, he acts unjustly, never- logical digressions, and of the long qon theless he is not unjust. For a physician tations from the classics, with which it is may deceive without being a deceiver, encumbered. He has also made great since it is not his end to deceive, but to use of the Trarels of Anacharsis, bruise preserve his patient. In like manner Abbé Barthelemy, of the Antiquitates also a person stealing a sword from a ma- Græcorum Sacræ of Lakeinacher, and of niac, does not seek to receive the more the Antiquitates Græcæ of Lambertos for himself, and to gain secretly from his Bos, enriched with the notes of Frederic neighbour, az a thief would do; but the Geisner; and he has occasionally coaend he has in view is the preservation of sulted the Dissertations on the Greeks, the maniac. Every action, however, re- by De Pauw. The second bouk, howceives its form and definition from the ever, on the Civil Government of Sparta, end, and through this also its name; appears to have been chietly compiled since a name is a concise definition. For from Cragius's work de Republica Lacewe do not say that a general, who fre- dæmoniorum. At first, Mr. Robinsoo quently prepares belepolides, or other says, it was his intention to have extended warlike engines, for the purpose of be- his enquiries to the manners and custon.s sieging a town, is an architect or a car- of the several states of Greece, and epenter: he performs the works indeed of pecially to those of Athens, Spania, the architect and the carpenter, and is Thebes, Rhodes, and Macedon. But said to build; but because he has not the the difficulty of obtaining the necessary end of an architect in view, but that of materials, obliged him to relinquish a pari a general, be is not an architect, but a of his design, and to limit himseit chetly general, and is called by that name. to Athens and Sparta. There is, borThus also he who violates his neighbour's ever, perhaps, no great reason for rebed, but does not deliberately intend to gretting this abandonment of a part of do so through intemperance, but through his original plan. The Atheniaus ani a love of money, is not an adulterer, but Lacedæmonians were, properly speaking, a lover of riches. It is possible, there- the only original nations in Greece; and fore, for a man to act unjustly, and yet all the others could only be considered as not to be unjust according to that parti- shades, partaking, more or less of these cuar injustice of wbieh he does the deed; two principal colours. The inhabitants but he is either not at all unjust in the of Crete, Rhod Megaris, Messent, same manner as the physician above- and some parts of Peloponnesus, imitamentioned, or be acts unjustly according ted the castoms of Sparta; while the to a different species of injustice, in the other Greels of Europe adopted in genesame manner as the adulterer: and how ral the modes and civil institutions of this happens has been already explained. Athens, unless where local circumstances It is also possible, in another manner, for occasioned sopie deviation, too trifling to a man to act unjustly; as for instance, excite a general interest. An account of a man in the night not knowing a thief, the manners and customs of Sparta i: and killing some other person, acts un- certainly necessary in a work of this 118justly indeed, but nevertheless is not un- ture; and it affords matter of surpre, just.'

that Potter, Bos, and other writer wla With respect to the translation, it ap- have treated on Grecian Antiquites, pears to have been faithfully executed; should have scarcely noticed those of so and retains much of the manner as well considerable and peculiar a state as Lace as the matter of the original. Our Retro- demon. As preliminary sulyects, tre spect is, from its nature, confined; or we have a brief History of the Grecium should have gladly given a inore extend- States; followed by Biographical Skeiche ed account of the Paraphrase on the Ni- of the principal Greek Autluss, tik comachean Ethics.

short comments on their writings. Tie The value of Dr. Adam's work on work itself is divided into five books; Roman Antiquities has been so long ac- the first relating to the Civil Gorenibers Loowledged, that we feel a pleasure in of the Athenians; the second to the Cannouncing a companion to it in Mr. vil Government of the Spartans; the Robinson's " Archeologia Græca." In third book treats generally of the Rele the Preface, Mr. Robinson contesses him- gion of the Grecks; the fourth concerts self very much indebted to the well their Military alinirs; and the fifth their known work of Archbishop Potter, which private Life. As a specimen, wc del bebas, indeed, wade the basis of his own; quote the twenty-second chapter of the

third book, relating to the Pythiun 'Icepe Bos, in which Apollo dared Pyılıon Games.

to engage by invectives; 3. Aéxturas, “ The Pythian games were celebrated which was sung in honour of Bacchus '; in honor of Apollo, near Delphi (Pind. 4. Kfgrunds, in honour of Jupiter; 5. Mm. Python. Od. V'T.), and are supposed by opūst, in honour of Mother Earth; 6. Evsome to have been instituted by Am- piquo;, the hissing of the serpent. But by plictyon, the son of Deucalion, or by others, it is thus described : 1. lluifa, the the council of the Amplictyons. Some preparation; 2. K&T&M&Mevgues, the chalrefer the institution of them to Agamem- lenge; 3. Icepe boxos, the fight. 4 Etorderos, non (Phuvorin.): and some to Diomedes the celebration of victory, from otevdiv, (Pausun. Corinth.). But the most com- to otfer a libation; 5. Kataxópsions, the mon opinion is, that Apollo himself was dancing of Apollo after the victory (Poll. the author of them, atter he had over- Onom. lib. IV., cap. 10). coine the python, which was a serpent

“ In the third year of the forty-eighth (Ovid. Met. 1. 145); and hence these Olympiad, ilutes (avaweocze), which had not games were sometimes called a zvyugis till that time been used in this solemnity, opeus (Clem. Aler.). Al first they were were introduced by the Amphictyons, who celebrated once every ninth year (Plit. were presidents of these games (Strab. Quæst. Grac.), and hence that period lib. IX.; Pausan. Phoc.; Plut. Sympos, was denominated évvea Tipus; but, after- V., probl.2); but, because they appeared wards, they were observed every fifth more proper for funereal songs, they were year, which period was called TVTAL- soon laid aside. The Ainphictyons also Ingr;

add.:d all the gymnastical exercises used * The rewards were certain apples in the Olympian games (Parsun. Phocic.;. consecrated to Apollo ( Luciun. de Gym.), Schol. Pind.); and they cvacted a law, and garlands of laurel (Pausan. Phocicoi that none but boys should contend in

Elian, Vur. Hist. III., 1; Pind. Pyth, running. Afterwards, horse and chariot Od. VIII., v. 28). At the first institu- races (Pausan. ibid.; Schol. Pind.), and lion of these games, the victors were contests in poetry and the fine arts crowned with garlands of palm (Plut. (Plut. Sympos. V. probl. 2; Plin. lib. Sympos. VIII., probl. 4), or of beech III., cap. 57) were introduced. The Ocid. Met. I., 7.419). Some say, that, lauiel, with which the victors were crowne in the first Pythian solemnity, the gods cd, was brought from Thessaly (Lucan, contended in horse-races, running, throw- I'I. 409). ing the quoit, boxing, wrestling, &c. and “ These games were celebrated on the that Apollo honoured them with crowns sixth (Plut. Sympos. I'III., 1; Quæst. of laurel; but others ailirm (Strab. lib. Græc.), or, as others say, on the se-, XI.; Pausan. Phocic.), that at tirst there venth day (Schol. Pind.) of the Delphic was only a musical contention (xidaçwo month Bvoros, which corresponds with diz), in which he who best sung the the Athepian Orpynabwe; but whether praises of Apollo, obtained the prize, they continued more days than one, is which was either gold or silver, but which uncertain.” was afterwards changed into a garland. Such is Mr. Robinson's Archeologia If the prize was money, the games were Gracu. It is accompanied by a map of called 'aywvas ágyugıtar; if only a gar- ancient Greece: an Index of remarkable Iand, αγώνες σεφανιται, φυλλιναι, &c, things: and an Index of Greek words

" There was also another song called and phrases. Ποθικός νόμος, to which a dance was The last work we have to notice in this performed. It consisted of these five class, is formed by the smaller works of parts, in which the contest of Apollo Ruhnkenius, which have been collected by and Python was represented (Strub. lib. Mr. KIDD, and deserve attention, both IX; Poll

. I/. 10, seq. 84): 1. Avézpectsfrom the scholar and the critic. which contained the preparation tu bat

ANTIQUITIES. tle; 2. "Aqumespa, the first essays towards The seventh and eighth Portions of lit; 3. Kataxiasvouds, the action itsell, Mr. Biuston's " Architoclural AntiquiLand the god's exhortation to himself to be ties," beside the coucluding part of

courageous; 4. *leybov xar daxTudou, the Malmsbury, concain a Sequel to the Esinsulting sarcasms of Apollo over the suy on Round Churches, in the History of vanquished Python ; 5. Euforuds or Lú- that of Little Maplested, in Essex: folpryge, the hiss of the serpent as he died. lowed by an Essay on the History and Some divide this song into the six parts Description of Colchester Custle. following: 1. Hipe, the preparation; 2.

“ The clinch of Maplesied, (Mr. 4 AI 2

Britton

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BIOGRAPHY.

Brit ton says, is singular in shape; and were all equally of Celtic extraction. con stituting one of the round class is ex- The usual derivation of Scotti from Scuith, tre nely interesting, as displaying a dif- a wanderer froni Scythia, hc deems abfer ent and later style of architecture than surd; deriving it rather from the Celtic ci her of the structures previously de. Scaoth, a swarm, or multitude. An anecsi ribed. With a circular portion at the dote toward the close tends very much

rest, and a semicircular east end, the to derogate from the high antiquity attriplan of the building is unique; and there- buted to the Erse poems by Macpherfore deserving particular illustration. Its son. exterior character, internal peculiarity, ground-plan, and entrance-doorway, are LORD ORroRD'S “ Catalogue of the correctly displayed in three plates : judy Royal and Noble Authors of England, ing by the peculiarity of its members, Scotland, and Ireland," first appeared which furnish the only clue in the absence nearly half a century ago. The extended of document, Mr. Britton refers its erec- edition of it, however, by Mr. Park, action to some period between or during companied by a series of portraits, is althe reigns of King John and Henry the most a new work. It is in gre volumes Third. The whole length of the church, octavo. Lord Orford's plan of giving a internally, is sixty feet. The circu- catalogue only of titled authors has been lar area twenty-six feet in diameter. enlarged upon, and short specimens of

“ Colchester Castle stands upon an their performances added, somewhat af. elevated spot of ground, near the north- ter the manner of Cibber's Lives of the east corner of the station supposed by Poets. Among the new Authors in the most writers to have been the ancient Royal List, we tind Richurd II., Hairy Camalodunum of the Ronians: and was VI., Anne Boleyn, the Princess Elizaformerly encompassed with a foss and beth Queen of Bohemia, Charles II. ert vallum. The remains consist mostly of Frederick Prince of Wales, father to his the shell, or exterior walls of what' ap- present Majesty. Lord Orford's appenpears to have been the Keep. The walls dix to the posthumous edition of bis Noare extremely thick, and of vast solidity. ble Authors could not be transferred to They are constructed with a mixture of the present, on account of purchased clay-stone, flint, Roman tiles, &c. the copyright; so that with that edition Mr. whole combined and strongly held toge- Park's but little interferes, except in the ther, by a proper quantity of lime-ce- correction of inadvertences, or the inser ment poured into all the interstices. Yet tion of casual omissions. In regard to strange as ic may seem, after an account the sum of his labours, Mr. Park obserres, of such materials, the structure itself is that what personal health has permitted, not deemed of a remoter date than the and family cares have allowed; what a Norman conquest. Caen stones and love of literature partly incited to alKentish rag are so much mixed with the tempt, and what plodding perseverance masonry, that an earlier period cannot be has enabled him to accomplislı

, is sabr assigned it.

initted with deference to the award of The doorway of the church of “South candour; not without some apprehension Okendon in Esses,” is another subject of being blained both for deficiencies and illustrated : it is a delicate specimen of redundancies, for having done too littie what is called the Anglo-Norman style. or :00 inuch, according to individual bias

These complete the first volume of Mr. for particular characters. Mr. Part con Britton's work: which, it appears, will now mences his annotations with the pretace be confined to four voluines. Hitherto to Mr. Walpole's first edition, and conte we have had no specimens of the earlier nues them throughout the whole of the Saxon style: but the subjects announced work. convince us that neither pains nor expence The new edition of Mr. CrusaktaXD's will be spared to make the Architectural “ Jsemoirs," in two volames octavo, Antiquities not only a beautiful and an accompanied by a Supplemcat; datrd unique work, but a complete one. We Feh. 19th, 1808. Among other articles shall continue to report its progress. of entertainment which occur in its cors

Dr. Couper's “Notes and Obserpations tents, we have a few comments on the on the early Part of the History of the Reviewers. “ The friends (sats Mr. British Isles,” relate chiefly to the etymo- Cumberland), who knew with what besJogies of the names of nations and tribes; tation I yielded to their actrice, and a and he labours with no little success, dertook this task, can witness that I dd through sixty-six pages, to prove that they not expect to make my own irriarediate

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Memoirs entertaining to the public; yet times in which the subject of liis narraevery reviewer, who has condescended to tive bore a conspicuous part. A fairer 20tice them, those of Edinburgh ex- portrait of an honest statesman will hardcepted) have had the charity to make me ly any where be found. The Life itself think they had read me with complacen- does not occupy the whole even of the cy. Bui they were my countrymen; first volume. George Macartney, it apthey could feel for my inotives, they pears, was born the 14th of May 1737, could allow for my difficulties; they had at the family mansion of Lissanvure. At too much manliness of nature to en- the age of thirteen, he was admitted a deavour ai depressing me, and forbore fellow-commonerof Trinity College, Dubfor a time to be critics for the gratitica- lin, where he proceeded M.A. 1759. tion of exhibiting themselves in the more From Dublin he came to London, and amiable character of gentlemen.

was entered of the Society of the Middle “ I understand that these acrimonious Temple, where he formed an intimacy Northern Britons are young inen; I re- with several characters who were rising joice to hear it, not only for the honour into eminence: but not intending to of old age, but in the hope that they will stndy the law with a view to practice in live long enough to discover the error of that profession, he only remained there their ambition, the misapplication of till be had completed his arrangements their talents, and that the combination for making the tour of Europe. In the they have formed mortify their con- course of his Travels he became acquainttemporaries, is in fact a conspiracy to ed with the late Lord Holland, of whose ando themselves.". In these additions, family, on his return to England, he behowever, we do not find many anecdotes came an inmate; and soon afterwards a of primary importance. A copious Index representative in Parliament for the bowhich now accompanies the work will rough of Midhurst. About this time the be found extremely useful.

affairs of Russia having assumed an inIn the “ Public Characters" of 1807, teresting aspect for Europe, an alliance we announce the ninth volume of a with that power appeared desirable to work which has experienced a degree England, on many considerations, and of circulation almost unprecedented. particularly in a cominercial point of To give a complete analysis of its con- view. A treaty of commerce had for tents, here, would be impossible, as it some years before engaged the attention would occasion us to enter too much of the British government; but none of into detail. It may be sufficient to enu- its diplomatic agents bad either skill or merate the more remarkable persons weight enough to make any progress witla whose characters are drawn. The first the Russian cabinet. Under these cirand most prominent is Mr. Whitbread: cunstances, Mr. Macartney's abilities the next is Mr. Hobhouse. Among those were employed by Lord Sandwich, and who follow: Lord Redesdale, Lord $c- on August 22, 1764, he was appointed inerville ; Mr. Mittord, the historian of envoy extraordinary to the empress. On Greece; the Earl of Elgin, Mr. Sergeant this occasion he received from his MajesIlill, and Sir William Scott, may be men- ty the honour of knighthood. Having tioned as the principal.

laid the solid foundation of a good underConnected also with Biography is, standing with Count Panin, who was The Child's Welfare," by Mr. Hollo- then at the head of the Russian affairs, way, of Reading. It forms the sub- lie ventured to open the grand object of stance of a Funeral Sermon, and is stated his mission, and, after a close negociation to contain the Erperience of Miss Louisa of four months, the treaty of cihinerce Fuller; who died at the age of little more was brought to a conclusion. Owing to than eleven years. The preacher's own an ambiguity in one of its clauses, howe erperience we should suppose might have ever, it was not ratified by the English supplied him with more useful materials court. But, a second treaty being signedl, for an exhortation to his hearers than any the great object of his mission was ob thing, however, altered, in the corre- tained; and Sir George Macartney re$pondence of a child. At any rate to turned to England. On February 1, have preached such a

1768, lic was married to Lady Jane enough.

Stuart, second daughter of Jobu Earl of Mr. Barrow, in the “ Account," Bute, and in the following year was apwhich he has given “ of the public Life pointed chief secretary of Ireland, under of the Earl of Alacartney," appears ri- the administration of Lord Towoshend. gidly to have confined himself to those In 1772, he relinquished this situation ; general events and transactions of the being nominated about the same time a.

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