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In experimenting on the non-venomous species, which exert an attractive force, independent of it was found that they, also, would not take the will of the subject acted upon. This theory their food when any person was present; but is based on the belief, that all persons are surthat, when alone and secure, they would eat rounded by an emanation, or adumbration, of ravenously ; one of them, the common bull. their moral natures, which has an attractive or snake, having eaten nine young birds in a few repellent force upon those coming within its hours. Profiting by this discovery, a rat, two- influence; that some are surrounded by this thirds grown, was thrown to the rattlesnake, moral atmosphere to an extent, or in a degree when it immediately struck it twice. The of force, far exceeding others of the same moral victim soon exhibited signs of dying, and the type ; that this attraction resembles the chemical box was closed and locked. Upon examination, affinities which combine, into one crystalline fifteen minutes afterwards, the rat had been inass, the atoms of pure quartz, or those of the swallowed, and the serpent's thickness pro- diamond -- like attracting like ; that, among portionably increased.
mankind, the pure, the good, the true, attract By this experiment, and others similar, it was each other with a force corresponding to the ascertained, that the rattlesnake does eat food | degrees of strength of moral character possessed which has been poisoned by its own venom; by each; the weaker being attracted by the and that it is probable that it always captures its stronger, while those of an opposite character victims by striking them, as, unconscious of are repelled with equal force ; and that this danger, they pass its place of concealment; the influence is invariable in its character, the good poison of its fangs being a much more efficient never attracting the bad, nor the bad the good. agency than the fascination of its eyes.
Take an example: A lady of much intelli. It may be remarked, in explanation, that gence, during a discussion of the merits of the although the poison of serpents, infused into modern spiritualistic creeds, thus stated her own the reins and arteries, is always fatal to the experience, as a reason for her belief in the smaller animals, yet it may be received into the theory of an emanation of moral influence stomach without injury, as it is easily digested, surrounding all persons : and exerts no prejudical influence upon the “I pass within a door where a social party system. In the smaller animals, killed by the are assembled. My eye surveys the group, and bite of the snake, no inflammation, no swelling of all are repellent. Not a single countenance the body takes place, as in the case of the larger comes to view with which I can be in sympathy. animals, for the reason that the extinction of life Instinctively I shrink into a retired spot, with occurs too soon to allow of any such effects. I chilling sensations paralyzing my heart. Pre
If, then, the venomous serpents eat the food sently, upon closer scrutiny, a pleasant face, killed by their own poison, and the non- overlooked in the first survey, is discovered. It venomous species can climb almost everywhere indicates, unerringly, that the person belongs to that birds build their nests, where is the necessity the pure, the good, the true; and I am attracted, of any of these reptiles being endowed with the irresistibly, toward the spot, in the firm belief powers of fascination? They possess the means that an affinity exists between us. My expectaof attack and defence, independent of the power tions are realized, and pleasant sensations preof charming, in a degree fully equal to the vade my soul. The pure, the good, and true necessities of their existence, and, in this are all combined in my new-made friend, while respect, are not behind any other order in the all others in the room are evidently in a condition animal kingdom. Why, then, should they be of antagonism to the impulses of my heart. I given such an advantage as fascination would have no sympathy with them, am strongly reconfer, over the other orders of the irrational pelled from them, and cannot approach them but creatures ? But we need not prolong our with feelings of dread.” remarks on these topics ; another claiming some In the course of the discussion, this lady attention in tbis connection.
readily admitted such facts, when stated, as It is well known that modern spiritualism has were fatal to her theory; but which, until their received much advantage from the common true bearing upon the question was pointed out, belief in serpent-fascination. The truth or she had never thought of interpreting in a falsity of this belief is. therefore, a question of philosophical manner. This done, she frankly considerable importance. How far the credi- admitted her error, and wondered that she bility of spiritualism and its allied delusions are should ever have deceived herself. A single affected by the discoveries noted in this article, statement may serve to show why she so readily is left to the decision of the reader. It may be relinquished her opinions. She admitted that safely claimed, however, that too much doubt is she had been deceived, at times, in the moral cast upon the theory of fascination, to justify character of those who had attracted her; and appeals to it in support of any systems of that, instead of belonging to the pure, the good, doctrine or belief.
the true, they had afterward proved themselves One subject only need be examined, to enable to be the reverse. On the other hand, on better the reader to comprehend how it is, that so much acquaintance with those who, at first, repelled self-deception exists in relation to questions her, as she imagined, they had often turned out involving the action of the mental faculties. It to be persons of the most amiable dispositions is believed, by many, of a certain school of and unquestioned moral excellence. The theology, that affinities exist, between individuals, I decisions, therefore, which she had at first made, were the result of the action of her own mind, , suffer themselves to be duped, let him open the induced by the fanciful estimate she had formed pages of the book of Dr, Hare, of Philadelphia, from the personal appearance of the parties, on “Spirit Manifestations," at page 295, and read severally, and not from any influence emanating what he inserts in reference to the "believing” from them and controlling the action of her visitors, at the establishment of Jonathan Koons, mind. Had the latter been true-had her in Athens county, Obio; and then let him look mind been controlled, involuntarily, by a moral up the report of the self-constituted committee atmosphere surrounding the persons she ap- of “unbelievers," who attended the manifestaproached-then she could not have erred in her tions of Koons some time afterward, and exjudgment; but as she did err, then the mistake ploded the whole imposture, by seizing the originated in her own mind, and the whole illuminated “spirit hands” which played the theory she had embraced was evidently a piece musical instruments, &c., and found good. of self-deception. Of the truth of this view, sized Hocking County girls attached to them. she became fully convinced ; and the same We should imagine that the gentlemen who so results must follow, wherever the claims of eloquently describe the proceedings, and attest spiritualism are subjected to the strict analysis their truthfulness so positively, must have felt of philosophical investigation.
themselves in no enviable position when the Should any one be desirous of finding an humbug was exploded. But more of this example of the strongest character, of the hereafter. extent to which men of reputed intelligence may
BRAZIL AND BRAZILIAN SOCIETY.
Translated from the “ Revue des Deux Mondes,”
BY ASHER HALL.
where nothing but French is spoken. It is here
that are found those luxurious stores that give RIO JANEIRO.
birth to all the requirements of the most reI had heard the imposing beauty of the road fined civilization, and especially that retail trade stead of Rio Janeiro much vaunted; but ac- in povelties in which the Parisian excels. Every customed by long experience to find, in most branch of industry requiring taste and skill cases, the reality in perfect contrast with the seems to fall exclusively to his lot. Clothing is pompous descriptions of travellers, I did not set the specialty of the Germans. The large commuch value upon the wonderful spectacle which mercial houses are kept by Portuguese. The had everywhere been promised me. At length Italians, as usual, reserve to themselves the de. I entered the roadstead on one of those bright partments of plaster images, hand-organs, and mornings of the tropics, and, for the first time, vermicelli. perhaps, I found the picture excelled the de- | Before this ever-increasing influx of foreigners, scription-so impossible is it for the exaggera- there is no custom, however inveterate, that does tions of man to contend against the exaggerations not finally get broken in upon; consequently the of nature. Imagine an immense basin, sur- old Portuguese peculiarities tend more and more rounded on all sides by a girdle of granitic to disappear. Gas has begun to take the place mountains, covered with the richest vegetation of oil-lamps, and the urubus are relieved of a ever dreamed of by man, and you will form a part of their work; unpaved streets are befaint idea of the roadstead of Rio Janeiro. It coming more and more rare; here and there must be added, however, that there is another sidewalks are observable-of scanty proportions, roadstead still more beautiful, more majestic, it is true, for the circumstances will not admit namely, the roadstead of San Francisco. of much width. As in all towns in warm
In spite of the yellow fever, which, for the past countries, the streets are narrow, and it is an few years, has established its quarters here, Rio object to exclude the sun as much as possible, Janeiro is the first city of South-America, both This sometimes gives rise to grave inconvein commerce and population. It is to this point niences. During the summer solstice, when that almost the entire current of European avalanches of water come down into the city, the einigration converges. Hence, the traveller streets are changed into brooks, and the lower finds himself jostled every moment by French, rooms are often invaded. Though this rainGermans, and Italians. I have been assured water is far from being cold, it is necessary to that the number of the former reached ten avoid it. A German, who took a fancy to bathe thousand. I think these figures exaggerated; I in a stream that a rain had improvised before but I can affirm that there are whole streets his door, having entered a venda, before changa 60
ing his clothes, to relate his emotions, which re-1 Portuguese ......... ..
764 minded him of old Germany, was seized with
French ......... ..
139 chills on the following night, and expired the
82 next day a victim of yellow fever.
188 UNHEALTHINESS OF THE CITY.
Brazilians .................... 0
Slaves ....................... 10 Will all the efforts that are being made to render the city healthy diminish the figures
Total .............. 1387 of mortality? I am afraid not. The belt of mountains that encircles the city forms a cup, as It is seen that the Portuguese forın more than it were, at the bottom of which the sun's action hall the whole number, the French one-tenth, is added to the humid emanations of earth and and the Brazilians only one-seventeenth. Fivesea. Besides, ever since the yellow fever visited | sixths of the number are young people. The the eastern coast, there seem to have remained number of females is only one hundred and germs of disease, which, according to the old thirty-four. The small mumber of female emiinhabitants, did not exist previous to the advent grants and the sedentary life of the Brazilians of that terrible malady, and which cause fearful explain these numbers. The most dreaded ravages among the unacclimated. I will first month is March, either because the atmosphere mention pulmonary phthisis, or consumption, is no longer purified by the electrical discharges which alone, according to the records of the that daily shot through the air in the preceding Rio Janeiro hospitals, carries off a fifth part of months, or because the miasmas brought on by the patients. The greater part of these are per- the rainy season then reach their highest desons between twenty and thirty years of age, velopment. It may be added that the yellow particularly among the Portuguese. Emigration fever only visits the towns upon the sea-shore, affords us a key to the phenomenon. It is at and does not attack the negroes. It has its this age that the emigrant leaves his country to principal seat in the stomach, and manifests seek a fortune elsewhere; and Portugal sends itself by headache and intense heat. Cholera, the largest number of emigrants to Brazii. Some on the contrary, which by many is confounded physicians attribute the predominance of this with this disease, breaks out either on the coast disease to the pressure of the liver upon the or in the interior. It selects negroes for its lungs. Everyone knows that the liver acquires victims in preference to whites, has its seat in immense volume under the influence of warm, the intestines, and its special characteristic is moist climates. Without rejecting this explana- the coldness of the nervous centres. The first tion, I think the principal cause may be found thing to be done in both cases is to try to restore in the imprudences too often committed by perspiration. Infallible remedies are not wantstrangers at nightfall. The first hours of the | ing. Everybody has his own. I know a mascate, night are fearful under the tropics. The sky or peddler, who, not being very successful in being serene, the ground quickly cools, and disposing of his wares, one day improvised one sometimes the thermometer descends from of these heroic potions, and having provided one hundred to fifty degrees Fahrenheit. The himself with half a dozen certificates signed by effluvia that had risen into the atmosphere Brazilian doctors, set out for Europe, expecting during the day rapidly descend and poison to obtain "the cross," those who are so imprudent as to expose them
Without regard to these occasional epidemics, selves.
however, it must be observed that Europeans,
and especially those lately arrived, have to keep YELLOW FEVER.
constantly on their guard, if they would not be
come victims to one of those terrible maladies As for the yellow fever, it may be said its ap- | which the earth, the sun, the atmosphere, and pearance is now only an accident; and of every moisture seem to rival each other in engendering. three cases of the disease, there is generally but On my departure for southern lands, I only saw one that proves fatal, and that most frequently upon the ship's deck young men with cheerful belongs to a person of the labouring class. A faces, full of life and vigour. On my return to want of cleanliness, the poor food, and the im- Europe, I found many women clad in black. prudence of the labouring population explain They were widows, and told me their misforthis result. It is most liable to attack Europeans, tunes. Pneumonia, malignant fevers, and vioespecially Portuguese, and most frequently ex- lent enteritis, caused by sudden chills or impends its violence on young persons from fifteen prudent exposure, were the burden of their to thirty years of age. We have given an ex-story. All their husbands had been workmen, planation of this fact above. Below we give a and it is hard for these brave fellows to persuade list showing the nationality of those who died of themselves, in the ardor of their work, that they yellow fever at Rio Janeiro from December first, are in a country that is ungrateful to the artisan. 1856, to the thirty-first of May, 1857. By this This mortality contrasts painfully with the intable a pretty correct idea may be formed of the variable health of the quiet fazendeiros, who, in relative number of emigrants sent to Brazil by their opulent dwellings, have nothing to fear the different nations of Europe :
from rain, sun, or fatig nie.
ATTRACTIONS OF THE CITY-THE MUSEUM , the effect it produces on strangers who do not AND BOTANICAL GARDENS.
know its character. It is the ancient residence
of the Viceroys of Rio Janeiro, and the royal Once at Rio Janeiro, one is inclined to forget family remain there only a small portion of the the unpleasant influences of the climate. The time. They pass the summer in the charming city presents aspects that cause the traveller to villa of Petropolis, situated on the hills that forget the new country in which he finds him- surround the bay; and in winter, in the magni. self, and remind bim of the monumental wealth ficent residence at St. Christopher, a short of European cities. It is true one sees few distance from the capital. The Emperor visits monuments in Brazilian cities. The conquista- the city only upon important occasions. He is dores were soldiers of fortune and not artists, a man of large figure and very fine appearance. and the pursuit of gold and slaves absorbed all He is a German on his mother's side, who was their attention. Nevertheless, there is at Rio an Austrian archduchess, and there is nothing an aqueduct that would compare with those left in his physiognomy that indicates his Portuguese behind by the Romans, and a hospital that origin; form, features, and manners all announce would be no discredit to London or Paris. Two a Germanic nature. His broad, high forehead other establishments also deserve attention-the bespeaks great intelligence, and his mild eye a Museum and the Botanical Gardens. Many of sincere and generous heart. His tastes are the European capitals might covet the Museum; those of a savani. A Latin library, which he yet it is far from representing the wealth of the daily enriches with the best works in French, country, or satisfying the curiosity of strangers. English, and German, forms his principal and It is not an easy matter to make a complete col favourite distraction. Letters and the sciences lection of the arms, the costumes and ornaments, are equally familiar to him. All foreigners who and the various utensils used by the Indian visit him are unanimous in acknowledging his tribes before the arrival of the Portuguese; nor great learning and superior intellect. It is a of specimens of all the wild animals that people noteworthy fact that in Europe it is not generally the American forests, and samples of the dif- princes, who take the lead in progress. In the ferent varieties of diamonds and precious stones, New World, if a revolution breaks out, it is gold-bearing quartz, and other minerals con- | because the ruler advances too rapidly, and the tained in the soil of this immense empire. It country refuses to keep pace with him. may be added that the founder of the Museum is the Baron d’Uba, whose name is so dear to
THE PRESS. the savans and artists who have visited the country.
It is not uninteresting, in this connection, to The establishment of the Botanical Gardens cast an eye upon the Brazilian press. When is due to the King Dom João VI. of Portugal. the first insurrection broke out at Pernambuco, That unlucky prince sought to beguile the hours in 1817, it was necessary to have recourse to of his long exile in superintending and pro- the French and English soldiers in the harbour moting the progress of this magnificent estab- in order to get the proclamations printed. Since lishment, situated a short distance from the city. then, it would seem, the Brazilians have made An omnibus runs regularly between the two up for lost time, for at the present day the points. The entrance is imposing, and fully Brazilian newspapers exceed in size many of the accords with the majestic forests that surround journals of the continent. Unfortunately, howit. It is formed by an immense alley, bordered ever, whoever glances over one of those sheets with gigantic palms, whose branches seem to is soon compelled to see that he is amid an infant raise their thick fan-like foliage and clusters of society, whose elements have not yet been fruit into the very clouds. In the side-alleys regularly classified. The Diario, or daily, are found all the plants of the tropics remarkable besides an accouut of the sittings of the Confor their beauty or the products obtained from gress, contains little but insignificant corresthem-comellias, tea shrubs, cacao trees, pears, pondence, pieces of verse, etc., and a mass of nutmegs, vanillas, cinchonas, bananas, cocoas, advertisements of all kinds, which the skilfully lliadas, orchids, &c. Some trees bear fruit of ex- | graduated rates place within the reach of every traordinary size. It is fortunate that La Fontaine purse. If it is desired to give prominence to a did not know of this garden. If he had seen leilão (auction) or to a newly-established depot the enormous cocoa-nuts, and calabashes still of the fashions, the advertisement is surrounded more gigantic, proudly swinging in the air with a border, printed in large type, surmounted in response to the fresh ocean-breeze, and threat- with an immense attencão (attention)! If the ening the heads of the promenaders, Garo could advertisement comes from the domain of shopnot have made his philosophical reflections upon keepers and merchants, an attenção alone does the acorn, and we should have been deprived of not suffice; recourse is had to the superlativo one of the most charming fables of the immortal muita attencão (particular attention)! with a story-teller.
flowered border. Upon important occasions,
borders, large type, and the attencão are THE EMPEROR.
abandoned, and lithography is resorted to. In
fact, nothing is so effective to seduce the reader The palace of the Emperor presents the aspect as to speak to his eyes. If he sees a villa of a barracks or a hospital. Such at least, is surrounded by palm trees, he knows that a country seat is for sale. If he wishes to pieces are nearly all taken from the French replenish his stables, he glances at the third repertory, and most of the artists come from Paris. page to see if some horse or inule is not pawing the ground in impatience for a purchaser. The
A MILITARY REVIEW. last columns, and the most numerous of all, are consecrated to the purchase and sale of negroes. / The Brazilians have no peculiar feature except Thus the same journals that, as M. Ribeyrolles the processions and public ceremonies. I select forcibly expresses it, “sometimes lament upon for an example a review of the national guard. their first page over the sacred misfortunes of On the seventh of September, 1859, the anniPoland and Italy," end by advertisementa versary of independence, every body was in line addressed to slave-dealers.
at Rio Janeiro when I arrived, and all things
passed off very well, with the exception of the EDUCATION.
bursting of a piece of artillery. Nobody, how.
ever, seemed to be surprised, as if these little Several attempts have been made to establish accidents were only a part of the programme. French journals at Rio Janeiro, and even at The whites, much more numerous than at Bahia, Petropolis, the summer residence of the court bore themselves irreproachably. It is impossible and the wealthy denizens of the capital ; but to say as much of most of the mulattoes and there is a serious obstacle to the success of these free blacks. Behind the ranks followed a troop journals; it is impossible for them to approach of negroes whom I at first took for simple questions of general interest. In Brazil, all spectators. I soon saw that their presence was discussion soon degenerates into personal debate. due to another cause. When the signal to break The true remedy for such a state of things, ranks was given, each of these blacks approached would be a better system of education, which is his master in uniform, who handed him his lamentably deficient. If Rio Janeiro, Bahia, | musket, sabre, cartridge-box, cap, etc. A Pernambuco, and São Paolo have for some years number of the mulattoes and negroes even took had schools of law and medicine, it must on the off their shoes. Those who had no blares other hand be confessed, that the population of requested their more fortunate friends to lend the interior are victims of the most deplorable them the shoulders of their servants, and the ignorance. The fault, to speak the truth, is not poor Africans were soon bending under the altogether that of the inhabitants. Previous to weight of half a dozen equipments each. As their independence, it was to a certain extent for, for the brave defenders of the nation, thus bidden them to instruct theinselves in their relieved, they went to rest from the fatigues in native land. The young people who desired to the neighbouring vendas, where they told over obtain an education were compelled to cross the the exploits of the morning, interrupting them. sea and obtain their degrees at Coimbra. This selves from time to time to sing a patriotic song. condition of affairs has left sad traces among Brazilian families that were in the very best MILITARY ELEMENTS-GARIBALDI. position for introducing new customs into the country. If you ask a fazendeiro if he is not The Brazilian is no soldier. It cannot be said, going to improve his son's mind by instruction, however, that military elements are wanting in this he will frankly tell you that in order to plant immense empire. Far from it. If you continue coffee and make sugar, his children have no need southward you will soon encounter the sturdy to know more than himself. Hence, scarcely | people of Saint Paul, Saint Catharine, and Rio any, except the few families that frequent the Grande de Sul, who rival the terrible Gauchos court, or a small number of the wealthy of the Banda Oriental, and who may be consi. merchants of large towns consent to send their dered the finest horsemen in the world. It was sons to Europe.*
in this rude school that Garabaldi commenced
his career. I saw a letter from the celebrated BRAZILIAN APATHY.
General, addressed to one of his old companions
in arms, in which he regretted not having at his In the early part of my stay at Rio Janeiro, I disposal a squadron of those centaurs of the thought the example of the French would cause wilderness to break the ranks of the Austrians. the Brazilians to wake out of their apathy, and give them the taste of exterior life. I was not long in becoining disabused. The Brazilian takes his siesta, smokes or plays in his rooms.
CHAP. XI. The theatre might be a place of reunion, but originality is here absolutely wanting. The
One cannot remain long in Rio without being * It would seem, moreover, that the Brazilians
led to reflect upon the political and social future are somewhat too distrustful of their own abilities,
of the empire, of which this great city is to be if we judge by all those classic editions of Latin and
the civilizing centre. Don Pedro I. gave Brazila Portuguese authors which, instead of coming from constitution strongly marked with the progresthe presses of Lisbon or Rio Janeiro, are sent from sive spirit of the age, and which would ensure Paris.
| the prosperity of the empire, if it were possible