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to rely upon the energy of the officials charged who had just received her freedom once chanced with administering the law. Unfortunately, in to be with us under the veranda of her former so vast an empire, without roads, and covered master. She was sitting upon her heels, waitwith impenetrable forests, strict government is ing for her meal of feijão. A dog a little to her almost impossible. On the other hand, among left annoying us with his whining, the fazendeiro a mixture of races so different, a very high order asked her to turn it out. “ Si, senhor,” she anof social habits cannot be expected. The towns swered, rising, and, turning to her right, she upon the coast, constantly vivified by European started, to my astonishment, toward the room contact, present every appearance of civilization. where the negro servants were. Thinking she An attentive eye can nevertheless detect had misunderstood the request, I stepped to the through this exterior the signs of deep depravity. dog, and with a kick sent him away. The fazenLooseness of manners seem so natural to the deiro, who was used to the subtleties of the country, that the Creoles themselves confess the negro code, did not seem at all disturbed at fault, and attribute it to the influence of the cli- seeing the freedwoman move away from the mate. Travellers repeat this excuse, and to | animal. A moment after the negress returned, day, in the eyes of the respectable world, the followed by two assistants of her own colour. warm climate of the equator is the cause of all Not seeing the dog, they supposed it had left of irregularities of conduct between the tropics. | its own will, and all three returned to their These two facile conclusions ought to be re- places with the air of having done their duty. jected. Far from provoking the development of the passions, the extreme heat would rather tend VEUDAL CUSTOMS-PATRONAGE. to moderate them.
In spite of the constitution of Don Pedro I., LICENTIOUSNESS.
and notwithstanding the efforts of enlightened
minds, one meets at every step with some old The principal cause of the licentious character feudal custom imported by the conquistadores. of South American life has always seemed to me As in ancient Rome, every citizen of the lower to lie in the system of slavery. What, in fact, classes attaches himself to a wealthy person who is likely to happen with an opulent man, whose can aid him in misfortune, and protect him in prejudices of caste keep him from every occupa- the troubles that occasionally happen between tion, surrounded by a seraglio of two or three him and the law. Prudent parents often choose hundred negresses or women of colour? Shame-a patron for their children in advance, by selectlessness attains its extreme limits on the planta- ing him for their godfather. This title is oblitions of the interior, where, the slave being ac gatory, and there is not an instance of a Bracounted only as an apimal, the Creole has no zilian ever baving refused such an honour, in one to recal him to a sense of human dignity. view of the responsibility it entails. Such, howSuch examples naturally bear their fruit. The eyer, are the deviations of human prudence, that negro, proud of imitating the white man's vices, this custom, so moral in its principle, since it exceeds him in them, and transmits them to his has no other object than that of placing the children, of whom he is the only preceptor. The weak under the protection of the strong, often abhorrence of labour, and the scorn that would degenerates into scandalous abuse and crying be visited upon one who descended to such an injustice. If the protector is a person of some occupation, is the first lesson, and we might say importance, his wishes are above the law, and the only one the Brazilian is taught from the his recommendation assures impunity to the time he leaves the cradle. The consequences malefactor. Justice, being powerless, has then may easily be imagined. The slave will work only to shut her eyes and allow things to proonly under the rod of the feitor. As for the ceed. freed men, who wish to enjoy the privileges of the whites, they give themselves up to the most A HAUGHTY OLD MAN-A MALEFACTOR SET deplorable idleness.
EXAMPLES OF LAZINESS AND PRIDE. A few years ago, an inhabitant of Rio Janeiro
rendered himself culpable for some crime which A French traveller tells of a negro whom he | I do not now recollect. The charge was a grave had in his service, and who, being slightly un- one, and condemnation inevitable. There rewell, he released from all duty, directing him to mained for the criminal only one means of estake some medicine. In the evening, upon in- caping either the gallows or the prison, and that quiring as to the effects of the remedy, the sick was to obtain the influence of some powerful man gravely replied that he was unable to fol. protector. Recollecting that the judge's grandlow his prescription, as the Indian Firmiano, father was his godfather, he sent his wife to inwho acted as servant to the caravan, had not form him of his situation. “Tell my godson to been to the rancho, and he therefore could get be more careful hereafter, and that he shall be no water. A small stream ran directly before released to-morrow," answered the old man the door. I regarded this anecdote as the best without hesitation, and, taking bis umbrella, he illustration of the prevalent disposition to idle proceeded to visit his grandson. The request of ness; but it was afterwards my fortune to wit. an old man is not a prayer, but a command : dess an instance no less singular. A negress as he had said, the request, exorbitant as it was, encountered no opposition. Great, then, was , the angry soul of their unfortunate relative; his surprise, when, two days afterwards, the that society demanded justice; and that they woman came and told him her husband was still have only sent the murderer before the tribunal in prison. Without allowing her time to finish of the Sovereign Judge. her story, he left the room. Two days afterwards the judge was astonished to see his house
THE FREE NEGRO. visited by the notabilities of the city, dressed in
The freed negro is not much more considered full mourning. They had come, upon letters of invitation, to be present at his funeral! The
than the slave by that blind divinity called master of the house was stupefied with surprise,
justice.* Nevertheless, the law gives him the
right of voting at elections. and the wonder of the funeral guests was no less great. However, after a few words of explana
ELECTIONS. tion, and the establishment of his identity, the judge easily got rid of his visitors, making some Since we are upon the subject, the reader apologies for a mystery of which he was himself may be curious to know how elections are the principal victim. He resolved to find out carried on in Brazil. A single example will the authors of the trick, and bring them to pun- suffice to give an idea of the political education ishment; but his efforts were useless. After all of the great South American empire. sorts of conjectures, he at last recollected the re- By the terms of the Brazilian Constitution, quest of his grandfather, and his own forgetful- every free man who is not absolutely a beggar ness, and thinking he now had a clue to the has the right, at certain periodical times, to cast matter, he set out for his residence. He found into an urn, tastefully decorated with ribbons, a hiin sitting in an easy chair, with a charuto, slip of folded paper. There, as everywhere else or cigar in his mouth, quietly waiting for his are found two parties classed under the denomi. dinner.
nations of Conservative and Opposition-the “Good day, grandfather," said he.
former earnestly defending the past, while the The old man gazed at him without making latter, with equal earnestness, talk of liberty any reply.
and progress till at length they come into power, "I came to ask you, with all possible respect, when they in turn defend the true ways of their if it was not by your direction that letters were | predecessors with more zeal than even their sent a few days since to all my acquaintances, former opponents. As everywhere else, too, the asking them to assist at my funeral ?"
electoral multitude separates into camps, ac“Ah, filho du !" instantly replied the cording as the word constituição or oppositião irascible old man, “ you at last remember me! sounds best to their ears. In one of their Are you not aware that a child who forgets his elections, which I now forget, a ministerial duty no longer exists to his parents ? I will candidate asked one of his friends, a rich planter teach you good manners !” And seizing his of the province, to give him the votes of all the cape, he darted at the unfortunate judge, who, free men upon his, estate. The rendering of anticipating some hostile demonstration, had not | such services is never refused among the culleft the neighbourhood of the door. The same tivated classes in Brazil, where the old traditions day the criminal was set at liberty.
of chivalry seem to have taken refuge, being
gradually driven out of the Old World by the THE LAW OF THE WILDERNESS.
incessant march of revolutions. It was there
fore agreed that all the people of the fazenda In the interior, justice is adıninistered in a should be invited to a banquet a few days before still more expeditious manner. Every one there the elections, and that they should be reminded acts for himself. If he has a personal affair to of the day fixed for voting, their quality of free settle with one of his neighbours, he conceals himself near the road by which his adversary is
# An anecdote taken from the Correio Mercantil to pass, sends a ball through him as soon as he
of the twenty-sixth of October, 1859, is to the gets within easy range, and returns to his cabin
point: as quietly as though he had shot an armadillo.
"Are you excempt from military service ?" inThe urubus soon cause all trace of the crime to quired a fiscal in a menacing tone, of a poor black disappear, by picking the victim to pieces and labourer at the arsenal of Rio Janeiro. The latter scattering his bones. It sometimes happens | forth with presented his papers, which dispelled all that the dead man has relatives or friends who suspicion as to his character. While reading them, determine to avenge him. Divining, with the the official observed that the African, in his perinstinct of a wild animal, the source from whence plexity, had forgotten to take off his hat. “Ah ! the fatal blow proceeded, they in turn ambush
this is a little too much. A negro standing with his their victim, and soon invite the urubus to
hat on! Take him away!” And the poor fellow
was dragged to prison for his forgetfulness. After another feast. The law of the wilderness is
relating his sufferings, the negro added as a comalways eye for eye, tooth for tooth, and blood for
mentary : “Now, I am only a negro, who must blood. Instead of one murder there are two.
take off my hat to everybody, and whom everybody But people are not so particular in a country has a right to abuse. When the elections come, I where slavery exists. Besides, murderers have shall be a free citizen and a voter, and all the cancharming euphuisms to justify their conduct: | didates will take off their hats to me, and ask me they tell you that it was necessary to appease for my vote."
men, which gave them a right to approach the the pitchers ; but the more intelligent profited ribboned urn, and the name of the candidate by the opportunity to surround the planter, and whom they were to support.
make inquiries about the elections, instructing
themselves about the proceedings, the canTHE POLITICAL BANQUET.
didates, voting, the constitution, the opposition,
&c. The fazendeiro had plenty to do to answer On the day appointed there was seen, at all their questions. sunset, the strangest gathering of human
A SHARP MULATTO. figures that the wildest imagination of a fancy painter ever conceived-old negroes, who, having
One of these dwellers of the forest, obtained their liberty upon the death of their with a patriarchal beard, made himself former master, had rapidly degenerated into their especially conspicuous by the warmth and native indolence; cabocles with glossy hair and originality of bis dialogue. Placing himself in of a coppery complexion, calling themselves front of the senhor, he seized one of the buttons civilized because they wore pantaloons and drank of his coat upon each new question, twisted it cachaça ; and lastly the hybrids, resulting from with his fingers till he was answered, and ended the mingling of all the races that have set their by detaching it. Several buttons had already feet upon the soil of the New World, since the disappeared, when a mulatto, whose name I time of Pizarro and Cabral, to ravage it with think was Mascarenhas, out of patience at the bloody fury or fertilize it with their sweat. man's questions and at the injury he was doing These bestial figures, these calloused hands, to his master's coat, resolutely approached him, these feet, whose horny skin defied the bite of pushed him aside with his elbow, and took his serpents, these beards, as untrimmed as the place. All kept silent to let him speak. forests from which they came, these strange “Senhor," said he, "you know my opinions; accoutrements, the aspect of the place, the you know that I am a liberal, and that my object of the, meeting-all contributed to form political sympathies are with the opposition an indescribable scene. Nobody was absent candidate. (This liberal condidate nevertheless from the rendezvous. A banquet to the owned five or six hundred slaves.) But you mountain guests was so rare a thing, and are my master, and I can refuse you nothing. especially a banquet given by the master ! | Therefore, however opposite to my sentiments, I Long tables had been prepared in the immense will keep my promise ; for Mascarenhas is a rooms where the coffee was stored. Hogs man of honour. If your excellency will allow served up whole, as at feasts in the time of me, I will take upon me to refresh the memory Suetonius, and feijão or beans, in immense | of my comrades, who, for the most part, nerer earthen pots, and large calabashes of manioc, having left the forest, may forget the day of formed a splendid entertainment to these un. election and the name of your candidate.” cultivated natures. Large pitchers of cachaça! “How will you manage to remind them of were circulated from time to time. Hogs, it?" inquired the fazendeiro, charmed with the beans, manioc, brandy, were all soon disposed offer. of. The fazendeiro watched the hearty dis- “In a very simple manner," answered the position of his guests, and when he thought mulatto. “Let your excellency furnish me a the proper moment had come, he stationed hog, a sack of feijão, the same quantity of . himself in the midst of them, and in a few manioc, a keg of cachaça, and a little salt, I words explained the object of the meeting will collect all these men around me on the
“My boys," said he, “I am here to ask a evening before the election, and while I am filling little favour of you. In a week you will go to their stomachs, I will refresh their memories by vote. As you do not trouble yourselves much reminding them of their promise to-night. I with politics, the name of the candidate is will take care that they do not leave me during probably of little consequence to you. There- the night, and the next day at dawn we will go fore, if you would do ine a service, you will to town together, where they will vote as one vote for Senhor X , who is my intimate man." friend, and to whom I have pledged my word in The delighted fazendeiro called the superyour name.”
intendent of the plantation, ordered him to deHe had not yet finished speaking when most liver to Mascarenhas the finest hog in the herd, of his auditors cried out they would vote that and to place at his disposal everything he very instant; that the senhor was their father, needed-manioc, beans, salt, and cachaça. Our and that they would refuse nothing to a master mulatto waited till his companions had gone like him. It was nine o'clock in the evening, away. At daybreak he selected in person the and the town was distant several leagues; yet it animal that best suited him, loaded two mules was difficult to make these people comprehend with provisions, and leisurely made his way back that the election was not to take place till the to his dwelling. On the day of the election he next week, and that a vote before that time presented himself early before the ministerial would be illegal. They could not conceive why candidate. everything should not give way to their master, “Senhor, I suppose my master has given you whose power had in their eyes no rival but that notice of my coming, together with the rest of of the Emperor. The greater part of them at my comrades, whom I promised to bring with length reseated themselves to finish emptying 'me?”
“Certainly," answered the candidate," and I me a hundred milreis on condition that I should am glad to see you are a man of your word; | give the votes to him. If I had voted for one, but where are you companions ?"
I should have betrayed the other, and you “They are waiting for me at the gate. I came know Mascarenhas is a man of honour. There ahead of them, because I had something to say | only remained one thing for me to do, and that to you. The opposition candidate, who had was to remain neutral. Would your excellency heard of iny promise, and who also knew of my have done differently if you had been in my liberal sentiments, has secretly offered me a place?” hundred milreis (fifty dollars) if I would vote The fazendeiro in question was a man very for him; hut Mascarenhas is a man of honour, fond of wit, and could not help laughing at this and if your excellency will pay me those hundred s strange logic. The matter ended here; but the milreis, which a poor man with a family like me senhor made up his mind that in future he cannot conscientiously refuse, I will bring you would take his men to the poll himself. As my men right away.”
for the illustrious convives who, on the day of • Here are your hundred milreis. Now make the banquet, wanted to go and vote in the haste, lest those tricky liberals entice away your middle of the night, it is needless to say that companions while you are absent.”
their electoral enthusiasm vanished with the last “ Your excellency may be easy on that point," fumes of cachaça, and that not one of them went answered the mulatto, carefully counting his to the village. Mascarenhas, who knew whom milreis. “My comrades know only me and the he had to deal with, thought it best to keep the senhor.” Then, putting the bills in his pocket, hog and other provisions of the fazendeiro for he proceeded forthwith to the bouse where the his own use. opposition candidate was. ** Senhor,” said he, addressing him, “you
CONCLUDING OBSERVATIONS. know my sympathy for you, and you also know the influence I possess over my neighbours. I If we now cast a final glance upon the country have brought them here with the intention of taken as a whole ; if we observe the results of voting for you. But I must tell you of one the occupation of Brazil by the Portuguese race, thing: my master has promised a hundred mil. what inferences are we to draw? It is painful reis if I made them vote in favour of your rival; for me to be severe upon a brave people, who but Mascarenhas is a man of honour. I re- | have shown themselves for more than a century fused the money, much as I needed it, knowing to be in the van-guard of the Latin races; but that you would not refuse to pay it to me. You it is indeed hardly possible to eulogize the know my position; such a sum is a fortune to southern peninsula of the New World when a poor man with a family on his hands."
compared with North-America. What a dif“I expected as much of you. I had been in- ference, for example, between the railroads that formed how it was, but never felt uneasy about streak the United States, and the picadas of the you. I have long known that you were a true
South-American forests! What a contrast bepatriot, devoted to the triumph of the liberals. tween New York and Rio Janeiro ! On the one Here are a hundred milreis; now hasten and hand, human activity is carried to its utmost bring your comrades. Those ministerial fellows limits; on the other, is seen the most superb are not so scrupulous but that they would lure | indifference, the people contenting themselves your men away while you are here."
with producing a few hogsheads of sugar, and a Mascarenhas took this second bundle of bills,
few arrobes of coffee. Let not the influences of carefully counted them, placed them along with
climate be invoked as an excuse. Louisiana is the others, went out, and-proceeded home.
| as enervating as Para, and the mouths of the
Mississippi are as unhealthy as those of the The next day the fazendeiro was raging, and
Amazon. The causes lie deeper; they are to be would hear of nothing less than flogging Mas
found in the stolid genius of the Portuguesecarenhas like a simple slave. He therefore de
that mixture of Arabic fatalism and Iberic spatched two stout feitors with orders to bring
& asperity suited to the ages of chivalry, but inhim, dead or alive, and made everything ready
compatible with industry and science. As soon for his punishment. The mulatto came without as the first fever of ocor
as the first fever of occupation was over, the conany hesitation, and with all the serenity of a
quistadores no longer thought of anything but to quiet conscience and a well-filled stomach.
enjoy their promised land in peace. Their de“ You miserable rascal,” cried the master scendants went further. Abandoning the helmet upon perceiving him, “ you have cheated every- of their stern ancestors for the sombrero of the body, and kept your word with nobody! A planter. a
planter, and their sword for the feitor's whip, good whipping shall teach you to play your they wrapped themselves in their hidalgo's man. tricks on me and my friends !"
tle, and left the conquered tribes to accumulate “Your Excellency is wrong in being angry wealth for them. Disdaining the tardy prowith me," answered the culprit, with imper- ductions of the soil, so fertile under the tropics, turbable sang froid. “I have done my duty. they looked only for gold. To obtain a few Your friend gave me a hundred milreis in the ingots of this, they burnt forests, overturned the hope that I would vote in his favour. The op- soil, exterminated Indian tribes, and condemned position candidate, who was my own, also gave millions of negroes to slavery. They have as yet opened neither highways nor canals.* Two of procured for his companions the glory of the largest rivers of the world, the Maranhão or navigating the sea and the earth in their entire Amazon, and the Paraná, which take their rise circumference, through parts hitherto closed to near each other, and which form in their immense science and human investigation. Such men triangle the great arteries of southern commerce, could not understand the new spirit. Listen to are to day nearly what they were on the arrival | their rich, sonorous idiom, so passionate in of Cabral. Up to within a few years, a few singing the exploits of heroes or the canticles of Indian canoes alone furrowed their waters. If the saints; it becomes mute when you require a you enter a village in the interior, you will find scientific treatise or a work on practical induschurches and monasteries by dozens, but not a try. It is the language of knights and not of single school-house. The inhabitants are obliged artizans. As the language, so is the nation. to bave recourse to London or New York for Inheritors of the Roman world, and the last the simplest engine, and for the smallest stretch personification of the middle ages, these men of of railroad; yet iron is found in many places | the sword saw in labour only the appanage of upon the surface of the soil, and almost in a serfs. Every innovation that infringed upon native state. Finally, a thing almost impossible that basis was a crime. They replied to the to be believed, Norway sometimes furnishes | Reformation by the Inquisition. While the building timber for this country, wbich is the Anglo-Saxon races opened their ears to the richest in the world for woods of every descrip- great voice of Luther, they placed themselves tion.
under the patronage of Dominic and Loyola. The repugnance to labour, the philosophical | The two seeds have borne their fruit. indifference which the conquistadores always The future of Brazil, however, must not be professed in regard to comfort, cannot be despaired of; and however slow the action of attributed to a want of energy; for no people ages upon human revolutions, a presentiment with which I am acquainted ever displayed in may already be formed of the changes that the history of the world a greater amount of time is destined to work in that country. Two boldness and stern activity, than that Celto- | things alone are wanting ; the fecundating Iberian race shut in between the mountains and breath of science, and a new infusion of the the sea. After rolling back the waves of Islam-, ardent blood that flowed in the veins of the ism, finding themselves too constrained in their early colonists. Steam and electricity are daily narrow belt of country, they were the first to supplying this void. The Yankees of the north, brave the fearful mysteries of an unknown and who for years have been gazing with covetous boundless ocean; and they explored the coasts eyes upon the rich lands of the South, and of Africa, passed around the stormy Cape, German immigration, which is daily increasing, opened the great route to the Indies, and form a double current which soon, getting footestablished their merchants in Asia; while, on hold upon the continent, will compel the inhabithe other hand, Cabral, pushing out to the tants, under pain of sinking into insignificance, westward, found the continent that Columbus | to abandon their inertness, and openly accept had sought in vain. It was likewise a Portuguese, the two great conditions of life in modern times -Magellan, who, braving the rigours of the South industry and free labour. We hasten to add Pole, entered the Pacific by a new route, and that this reproach of inertness applies only to
the old routine portion of the people, and to the unenlightened inhabitants of the interior.
Those men who are at the head of the state, • Within a few years railroads have begun to be or who, by their position, have acquired a just built. Rio Janeiro, Bahia, Pernambuco, and Sao influence over the destinies of their country, are Paolo are now at the work. Rio Janeiro, especially, earnestly desirous of progress, and preach by thanks to European influence, and the efforts of a uropean influence, and the efforts of all example. Industrial companies are forming in
all the great centres, and the interior provinces few leading men like the Baron de Maniá, has
are calling for railroads and steamboats. It is, entered heartily upon the way of progress. At the
therefore, to be hoped that the same progress other extremity of the empire a Brazilian engineer, daily imparted to the cidade by the steamers M. Tavares de Mello Albuquerque, has established that traverse the Atlantic, will soon be carried a road through the provinces of Para, Maranhao by railways through the fazendas and villages in and Goyaz, after enduring fatigues that would have the mountains, and that the rancho of the made most European cngineers recoil,
mulatto will gradually disappear to give place to the elegant dwelling of the enlightened colonist.