History of Civilization in England, Volume 1

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D. Appleton and Company, 1858 - England
 

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Contents

MENTAL LAWS ARE EITIER MORAL OR INTELLECTUAL COMPARISON OF MORAL
45
From Hindustan 5059
50
121125
55
From Egypt 5966
59
And from Mexico and Peru 68
67
Operation of physical laws in Brazil
85
Also by an unhealthy climate making life precarious 9193
91
But was averted for a time by the most eminent Frenchmen direct
93
Further illustration from Central America
105
The historical method of studying mental laws is superior to
113
Examination of the two metaphysical methods of generalizing men
118
Comparison of the moral with the intellectual element
126
Ignorant men are mischievous in proportion to their sincerity
133
Illustrations from Russia and Turkey 140141
140
The invention of gunpowder 146150
146
The application of steam to purposes of travelling 158160
158
CHAPTER V
164
Comparison of the history of England with that of France 169171
169
Necessity of ascertaining the fundamental laws of intellectual pro
176
Influence of religion on the progress of society 184191
184
And from Sweden and Scotland 191193
191
Influence of government on the progress of society
197
They have also increased hypocrisy and perjury 204205
204
The earliest histories are ballads 212215
212
A change of religion in any country also tends to corrupt its early
218
Illustration of this from the history of Charlemagne by Turpin 231232
231
And in the predictions of Stoffler respecting the Deluge
239
The spirit of doubt was a necessary precursor of improvement
242
Hooker contrasted with Jewel 218249
250
Cnder James I and Charles I this opposition to authority assumes
259
It causes the establishment of the Royal Society
269
These improvements were due to the sceptical and inquiring spirit 279280
279
This alliance was dissolved by the Declaration of Indulgence 286287
286
Hostility between them and William III
293
The clergy lost all offices out of the church and their numbers
300
Knowledge begins to be diffused and takes a popular form 309310
309
Hence great reforms became inevitable 315316
315
Incompetence of other statesmen and the kings hatred of great
321
He opposed the views of George III and was neglected by him 330333
330
They are deserted by their temporal leaders and the management
393
Evidence of the illiberality of the French Protestants 399405
399
They raise a civil war which was a struggle of classes rather than
406
Richelieu put down the rebellion but still abstained from persecut
415
Analogy between Descartes and Richelieu 428429
428
But notwithstanding all this there was a great difference between
438
In England the nobles were less powerful than in France
444
This state contrasted with that of England
450
Illustration from the history of chivalry
456
Analogy between the Reformation and the revolutions of the seven
462
and Charles I vainly attempted to restore their power
468
But in France the energy of the protective spirit and the power
477
CHAPTER XI
490
Servility in the reign of Louis XIV 491498
491
Men of letters grateful to Louis XIV
499
Also in zoology and in chemistry
505
Illustrations from the history of French art 511512
511
CHAPTER XII
517
Admiration of England expressed by Frenchmen
529
In France literature was the last resource of liberty 511
542
But until the middle of the reign of Louis XV the political institu
550
Improvement in the method of writing history late in the sixteenth
556
Still further progress early in the seventeenth century 557560
557
Illustration of this from the work of Audigier 566568
566
Immense improvements introduced by Voltaire
575
Hénault
582
He weakened the authority of mere scholars and theologians
588
The discourses of Turgot and their influence
596
The intellect of France began to attack the state about 1750 602603
602
Abolition of the Jesuits
608
Jansenism being allied to Calvinism its revival in France aided
614
Connexion between this movement and the rise of atheism
619
And in Condillac
627
But in France immense impetus was given to zoology by Cuvier
638
Relation between inventions discoveries and method and immense
645
Great and successful efforts made by the French in botany 652654
652
Analogy between this and Pinels work on insanity
658
And in the establishment of clubs 664666
664
General reflections
675

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Page 95 - To do good to others ; to sacrifice for their benefit your own wishes ; to love your neighbour as yourself; to forgive your enemies; to restrain your passions; to honour your parents; to respect those who are set over you : these, and a few others, are the sole essentials of morals; but they have been known for thousands of years, and not one jot or tittle has been added to them by all the sermons, homilies, and text-books which moralists and theologians have been able to produce.
Page 20 - In a given state of society, a certain number of persons must put an end to their own life. This is the general law; and the special question as to who shall commit the crime depends of course upon special laws; which, however, in their total action, must obey the large social law to which they are subordinate.
Page 301 - The storm has gone over me; and I lie like one of those old oaks which the late hurricane has scattered about me. I am stripped of all my honours, I am torn up by the roots, and lie prostrate on the earth!
Page 299 - ... necessary to consider distinctly the true nature and the peculiar circumstances of the object which we have before us: because, after all our struggle, whether we will or not, we must govern America according to that nature and to those circumstances, and not according to our own imaginations...
Page 223 - ... the chief, perhaps the only, English writer who has any claim to be considered an ecclesiastical historian, is the infidel Gibbon.
Page 140 - Commentaries in America as in England. General Gage marks out this disposition very particularly in a letter on your table. He states, that all the people in his government are lawyers, or smatterers in law ; and that in Boston they have been enabled, by successful chicane, wholly to evade many parts of one of your capital penal constitutions.
Page 230 - For my part, I have ever believed (and do now know) that there are witches." They that doubt of these do not only deny them but spirits, and are obliquely and upon consequence a sort, not of infidels, but atheists.
Page 299 - America, if she has taxable matter in her, to tax herself. I am not here going into the distinctions of rights, nor attempting to mark their boundaries. I do not enter into these metaphysical distinctions. I hate the very sound of them.
Page 93 - ... and other personal peculiarities, that we must consider this alleged progress as a very doubtful point; and in the present state of our knowledge we cannot safely assume that there has been any permanent improvement in the moral or intellectual faculties of man; nor have we any decisive ground for saying that these faculties are likely to be greater in an infant born in the most civilized part of Europe than in one born in the wildest region of a barbarous country.
Page 122 - Well may it be said of Adam Smith, and said, too, without fear of contradiction, that this solitary Scotchman has, by the publication of one single work, contributed more towards the happiness of man, than has been effected by the united abilities .of all the statesmen. and legislators of whom history has preserved an authentic account.

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