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wine to be την αληθή του Χριστού εικόνα; Nice said it was not an εικών, but the body and blood itself, αυτό σώμα και αυτό αίμα.]
* Thus the expressions μεταποιείσθαι and μεταβάλλεσθαι were employed by Theophylact in his comment on Matt. xxvi. 28. Compare also what Euthymius Zigabenus said on this passage; in Münscher, ed. by von Cölln, p. 223. Nicolas of Methone made use of the same expression in his treatise quoted by Ullmann, p. 97 (Biblioth. PP. T. ii. Græco Latinus; Auctuar. Biblioth. Ducæan. Par. 1624, p. 274); he also there speaks of a change of the added water, into the blood of Christ. He entertained, in addition, the scholastic notion, that the bread and wine do not change their external appearance, lest men might be terrified by the sight of the real flesh and blood. The true design of the Lord's Supper he conceived to consist in the letovoia XplotOŨ. “The beginnings of theological speculation may
μετουσία Χριστού be traced in the theory of Nicolas, but he rested satisfied [like the Greek theologians of the present period in general] with mere suggestions, while the scholastics of the Western Church fully exhausted such subjects." Ullmann.
• See Augusti, Archæologie, vol. viii. p. 398. On the question whether it was sufficient to administer only wine at the communion of children, see ibidem.*
THE SACRAMENT OF PENANCE.
The doctrine of penance, which is properly speaking implied in the ordo salutis, presupposes the sacrament of baptism. In the scholastic system it found its place among the sacraments.' Though it is only by a most unnatural interpretation that this sacrament can be proved to possess a visible sign, both Peter Lombard and Thomas Aquinas endeavored to show that it had the matter, as well as the form, of a sacrament, and, as far as possible, to distinguish the one from the other.' The scholastics taught that penance is composed of three parts : contritio cordis (in distinction from attritio), confessio oris, and satisfactio operis.' Pious minds took offence, not so much at the formal error of regarding penance as a sacrament, as at the lax, and merely external theory of penance in general. Thus the Waldenses, while formally adopting the threefold division of penance, rejected the mechanical ecclesiastical practice in the matter. John Wessel found fault, not only with the threefold division of penance, but also with the definitions of its
Concerning the communion of children, which ceased to be practised from the • twelfth century, see Zorn, Historia Eucharistiæ Infantium. Berol. 1736, 8. Gieseler,
Dogmengesch. 542. [The custom was abolished for fear of profanation. It had been administered to children, following Augustine's interpretation of John vi. 54, because communion thought was necessary to salvation. But Fulgentius of Ruspe suggested, that in baptism children were incorporated into Christ, and so partook of bis flesh and blood.]
component parts." Gerson and others opposed the sale of indulgences. Wycliffe attacked auricular confession.' But the discussion of these points belongs more properly to the history of the Church, and of ethics, than to that of doctrines.
* The earlier custom of bringing penance into connection with baptism (by making a distinction between sins committed before and after baptismby the notion of a baptism of tears—by calling it the second plank after shipwreck, etc.) led the scholastics to enumerate penance among the sacraments. Comp. Peter Lombard, Sent. iv. Dist. 14. A. Thomas Aquinas, P. iii. Qu. 86, Art. 4. Klee, Dogmengesch. ii. p. 326, ss.
: Peter Lombard observed (Dist. 22, C.) that some theologians regarded the external performance of the works of penance, which is perceptible by our bodily senses, as the signum. The external works of penance are the signs of inward penance, as the bread and wine used in the Lord's Supper are the signs of the body and blood of Christ which are contained in the accidents. Thomas Aquinas, also conceived (Qu. 84, Art. 1,) the res sacramenti to consist in internal penance, of which the external is only the sign. (Every outward act might in that sense be called a sacrament !) In the second article, he further distinguished between materia and forma. The materia of penance are the sins which are to be removed, the form consists in the words of the priest : Absolvo te. Compare the passages quoted by Münscher, edit. by von Cölln, pp. 276, 277. [The proximate matter of the sacrament consists in the acts of the penitent-the remote matter consists in the sins, non acceptanda, sed detestenda et destruanda. The form consists in what is done by the priest. Cum autem sacramenta novæ legis efficiunt quod figurant. ... oportet quod forma sacramenti significet id quod in sacramento agitur proportionaliter materiæ sacramenti. ... But as the sacrament is not in the consecration or use of anything, but in the removal of sin, the form consists in the formula of absolution.]
* This distinction was made by Hildebert of Tours (who referred it to Chrysostom and Augustine), see his Sermo iv. in Quadrag. (Opp. col. 324); Sermo xv. col. 733 ; quoted by Münscher, edit. by von Cölln, p. 274; and Peter Lombard, Sent. Lib. iv. Dist. 16, Litt. A.: In perfectione autem prenitentiæ tria observanda sunt, scilicet compunctio cordis, confessio oris, satisfactio operis. .....Hæc est fructifera pænitentia, ut, sicut tribus modis deum offendimus, scilicet corde, ore et opere, ita tribus modis satisfaciamus...... Huic ergo triplici morti triplici remedio occurritur, contritione, confessione, satisfactione. Conc. Florent. 1439 (under Pope Eugen IV.) in Mansi xxxi. Col. 1057; Münscher, edit. by von Cölln, p. 284: Quartum Sacramentum est pænitentiæ, cujus quasi materia sunt actus pænitentis, qui in tres distinguunter partes. Quarum prima est cordis contritio, ad quam pertinet ut doleat de peccato commisso cum proposito non peccandi de cætero. Secunda est oris confessio, ad quam pertinet ut peccator omnia peccata, quorum memoriam habet, suo sacerdoti confiteatur integraliter. Tertia est satisfactio pro peccatis secundum arbitrium sacerdotis, quæ quidem præcique fit per orationem, jejunium et eleemosynam. Forma hujus Sacramenti sunt verba absolutionis, quæ sacerdos profert cum dicit: Ego te absolvo, etc. Minister
hujus sacramenti est sacerdos, habens auctoritatem absolvendi vel ordinariam, vel ex commissione superioris. Effectus hujus sacramenti est absolutio a peccatis.—On the difference between contritio and attritio, see Alexander of Hales, P. 4, Qu. 74, membr. 1: Timor servilis principium est attritionis, timor initialis (i. e. that with which the life of sanctification begins)* principium est contritionis...... Item, contritio est a gratia gratum faciente, attritio a gratia gratis data. Comp. Thom. Aquinas, Qu. 1, Art. 2 ; Bonaventura in Lib. iv. Dist. 17, P. 1, Art. 2, Qu. 3.-[Attritio proceeds from fear, and not from love to God : contritio is the real sorrow for sin, proceeding from love; attritio is the terminus a quo, contritio is the terminus ad quem. Contritio is necessary to forgiveness. But a special satisfaction to justice is required for past sins; hence penance involves opera penalia. The church prescribes these, and they deliver from the severer punishments of the purgatorial fire.] The necessity of confessio oris (i. e. that it was necessary to confess our sins not only to God, but also to the priest) was asserted by Thomas Aquinas, in Supplem. tertiæ Part. Quæst. 8, Art. 1; Peter Lombard, expressed himself more indefinitely on this point, Sent. iv. Dist. 17, Litt. B.-The ecclesiastical institution of auricular confession was established by the fourth Council of the Lateran (under Pope Innocent III.) Can. xxi. in Decretis Greg. L. v. Tit. 38, C. 12: Omnis utriusque sexus fidelis, postquam ad annos discretionis pervenerit, omnia sua solus peccata confiteatur fideliter, saltem semel in anno, proprio sacerdoti,t et injunctam sibi pænitentiam studeat pro viribus adimplere, etc. Gieseler, ii. $ 81, note 5; Münscher, ed. by von Cölln, p. 282. The satisfactio operis consisted in fastings, prayers, alms, pilgrimages, mortifications, etc. Thomas Aquinas, l. c. Qu.
, 15, Art. 3 (quoted by Münscher, ed. by von Cölln, p. 279.) The practice of imposing fines instead of bodily punishments, gave rise to the sale of indulgences.
• The Waldenses even attempted to vindicate this threefold division by allegorizing. The spices with which the women went to anoint the body of the Lord on Easter morning, were myrrh, aloes and balsam. From these three costly spices is prepared that spiritual ointment, which is called penance. See Herzog, Die Romanischen Waldenser. But the Waldenses still differed from the Catholic Church in this, that confession was not necessarily to be made to a priest of that church, and that they went beyond the external works of penance to the internal penitence of the heart.
• De Sacramento Pænitentiæ, p. 782: Est enim actus mentis pænitentia sicut peccatum : utrumque enim voluntatis. Et sicut peccatum voluntatis tantum est, ita pænitentia solius est voluntatis. For further particulars, see Ullmann, p. 340, ss.
* On this account, others (such as Thomas and Bonaventura) also called the contritio, timor filialis, as opposed to the timor servilis.
In the absence of a priest it was permitted to confess to a layman; but this led to the question as to how far the sacrament was complete in such a case? See Thom. Aquinas, in Suppl. Qu. 8, Art. 2: on the other side, Bonaventura P. iii. ad Expos. text. dub. I. p. 229. Duns Scotus, in lib. iv. Dist. 17, Qu. 1.—The sects of the middle ages, even the Flagellantes, preferred confession to a layman. Comp. Münscher, ed. by von Cölln, pp. 283, 284. Gieseler, ii. 197. Klee, Dogmengesch. ii. p. 252, ss.
Epistola de Indulgentiis (Opp. T. ii.) c. 3-5, and c. 9.
THE SACRAMENT OF EXTREME UNCTION.
(Sacramentum Unctionis Extremæ, Unctionis Infirmorum.)
The apostolic injunction respecting the sick, James v. 14 (comp. Mark vi. 13), which probably had a symbolical and religious significance, as well as a medicinal and therapeutic,' gave rise to
a the institution of a new sacrament, which came into general use from the ninth century, and could be administered only in the dying hour. But various opinions obtained on the question, whether it was proper to repeat the administration of the sacrament in the case of a dying person who had received it on a former occasion, but who had recovered, and been restored to life; or, whether it was sufficient to have administered it once? The Church did not ascribe a character indelebilis to this sacrament." Its sign is the consecrated oil, its essence consists in the forgiveness of sin, and partly also in the alleviation of bodily sufferings.
See the commentators on this passage; the Venerable Bede, Opp. T. v. Col. 693 ; and on Mark vi. 13, ibid. Col. 132 (quoted by Münscher, edit. by Von Cölln, p. 297. [Bede on Mark vi. 13 : Unde patet ab ipsis Apostolis hunc sanctum Ecclesiæ morem esse traditum, ut energumeni, vel alii quilibet ægroti, unguantur oleo pontificali benedictione consecrato.] Innocent I. Ep. 21, ad Decentium Ep. Eugubinum (written about the year 416) Cap. 8; ibid. p. 298. [Innocent III. : Quod non est dubium de fidelibus ægrotantibus
. accipi vel intelligi debere, qui sancto oleo chrismatis perungi possunt: quod ab Episcopo confectum, non solum sacerdotibus, sed omnibus uti Christianis licet in sua, aut in suorum necessitate ungendum.]
• Concil. Regiaticinum (A. D. 850) Canon 8: in Münscher, ed. by von Cölln, p. 298. [This Council says of it: Magnum sane ac valde appetendum mysterium, per quod, si fideliter poscitur, et remittuntur (peccata), et consequenter corporalis salus restituitur.]-Among the scholastics Hugo of St. Victor was the first who spoke of extreme unction as a sacrament; de Sacram. ii. P. xv.; comp. Summa Sent. Tract. vi. c. 15 (Liebner, p. 481). The doctrine of extreme unction formed, in his system, the transition to eschatology.-Peter Lombard, Sent. iv. Dist. 23, mentioned three different kinds of consecrated oil (xplouata): 1. That with which priests and kings are anointed on the head), or those who are confirmed (upon the forehead). 2. That with which catechumens and newly baptized persons are anointed (upon the chest, and between the shoulders). 3. The unctio infirmorum
(which may be performed on various parts of the body. Compare note 4.)* He also distinguished between the sacramentum, and the res sacramenti. B: Sacramentum est ipsa unctio exterior, res sacramenti unctio interior, quæ peccatorum remissione et virtutum ampliatione perficitur. Et si ex contemtu vel negligentia hoc prætermittitur, periculosum est et damnabile.
· Ivo of Chartres (Ep. 225) ad Radulfum, and Geoffrey of Vendome (who lived about the year 1110), Opusculum de Iteratione Sacramenti (in Sermondi Opp. T. iii.), opposed the repetition of extreme unction (Comp. Münscher, ed. by von Cölln, p. 299): Peter Lombard pronounced in favor of it, l. c. Lit. C. [Lombard here follows Hugo St. Victor almost verbally: Sacramentum unctionis spiritualis est quædam medicina, corporis et animæ languores mitigans 'et sanans : nam oleum membra dolentia sanat. Itaque oleum ad utrumque curandum prodest. Si morbus non revertitur, medicina non iteretur; si autem morbus non potest cohiberi, quare deberet medicina prohiberi!.... Quare ergo negatur quod unctionis sacramentum super infirmum iterari possit ad reparandam sæpius sanitatem, et ad impetrandam sæpius peccatorum remissionem. On the controversy concerning this point, which arose on the occasion of the death of Pope Pius II., see above $ 190, note 6.—The opinion also obtained during the middle ages, that extreme unction does away with all the relations in which man stands to the present world; the person who had received extreme unction immediately renounced all kinds of meat, and the continuance of matrimony. Bishops, however, as well as councils, e. g. the Concil. of Worcester (4. D. 1240), combated this notion. See Klee, ii. p. 272.
Comp. the opinion of Peter Lombard, note 2, and Hugo of St. Victor, De Sacram. Fid. Lib. ii. P. xv. C. 2:. Duplici ex causa sacramentum hoc institutum, et ad peccatorum scilicet remissionem, et ad corporalis infirmitatis allevationem. Comp. Thomas Aquinas, P. iii. in Supplem. Qu. 30, Art. 1. -Decret. Eugenii IV. in Conc. Florent. a. 1439 (Mansi, T. xxxi. Col. 1058) : Quintum Sacramentum est extrema unctio. Cujus materia est oleum olivæ per episcopum benedictum. Hoc sacramentum nisi infirmo, de cujus morte timetur, dari non debet. Qui in his locis ungendus est: in oculis propter visum, in auribus propter auditum, in naribus propter oderatum, in ore propter gustum vel locutionem, in manibus propter tactum, in pedibus propter gressum, in renibus propter delectationem ibidem vigentem. Forma hujus sacramenti est hæc: per istam unctionem et suam piissimam misericordiam, quicquid peccasti per visum, etc...... et similiter in aliis membris. Minister hujus sacramenti est sacerdos. Effectus vero est mentis sanatio, et, in quantum autem expedit, ipsius etiam corporis (he appeals to Jam. v. 14).
* On the further significance of consecrated oil, see Thom. Aquinas, Supplem. Quæst. iv. Art. iv.-Klee, ü. pp. 268, 269.