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may be rendered more perfect, and fitted for adequate functions and enjoyments. Hair and nails are one of the ornaments of man, and are therefore quite as necessary as blood and other fluids. The resurrection-bodies will be exceedingly fine, and be delivered from the corpulence and heavy weight which is now so burdensome to them ; nevertheless, they will be tangible, as the body of Christ could be touched after his resurrection. Their size will not increase after the resurrection, nor will they grow either thicker or thinner. To some extent they will still be dependent on space and time; yet the resurrection bodies will move much faster, and more easily, from one place to another, than our present bodies; they will be at liberty to follow the tendencies and impulses of the soul. They are glorified, bright, and shining, and can be perceived with glorified eyes alone. But this is true only in reference to the bodies of the blessed. The bodies of the damned, are to be ugly and deformed, incorruptible, but capable of suffering, which is not the case with the bodies of the saints. Thom. Aquinas, Summ. P. iii, in Supplem. Qu. 75, ss. Cramer, vii. p. 777, ss. Comp. also Elucidar. c. 69. On the opinions of Duns Scotus, see Ritter, Gesch. der Philos, viii, 459, sq.

John Damascenus, iv. 27, p. 303 : 'Αλλ' έρεί τις: Πώς εγείρονται οι νεκροί ; "Ώ της απιστίας και της αφροσύνης: ο χούν εις σωμα βουλήσει μόνη μεταβαλών, ο μικράν ρανίδα του σπέρματος εν τη μήτρα αύξειν προστάξας, και το πολυειδες τούτο και πολύμορφον αποτελεϊν του σώματος όργανον, ούχι μάλλον το γεγονός και διαρρυεν αναστήσει πάλιν, μόνον βουληθείς; Ποίω δε σώματι έρχονται; "Αφρον, εί τοϊς του θεού λόγους πιστεύειν ή πώρωσις ου συγχωρεί, κάν τοις έργοις πιστευε" συ γαρ δ σπείρεις, ου ζωοποιείται, εάν μη αποθάνη κ. τ.λ. (1 Cor. Xv.) Θέασαι τοίνυν, ώς εν τάφους ταϊς αύλαξι τα σπέρματα καταχωννύμενα. Τίς ο τούτοις ρίζας έντιθείς καλάμην και φύλλα, και αστάχυς και τους λεπτοτάτους ανθέρικας ; ουχ ο των όλων δημιουργός; ού του τα πάντα τεκτηνομένου το πρόσταγμα; Ούτω τοίνυν πίστευε, και των νεκρών την ανάστασιν έσεσθαι θεία βουλήσει, και νεύματι σύνδρομον γαρ έχει τη βουλήσει την δύναμιν.

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S 205.

THE GENERAL JUDGMENT.

The second advent of the Lord to judge the world, was interpreted as literally as possible. After it has been preceded by those signs of which Scripture speaks, Christ will appear in the same human form which he had when on earth, but in his glorified body, and as conqueror, accompanied by the heavenly hosts. The wicked, too, will behold his countenance, but with horror.'— The judgment it was supposed would take place in the valley of Jehosaphat, to which some, however, also applied allegorical interpretation. But in propor

, tion as theologians were disposed to give free scope to their imagination, and to represent the proceedings of the general judgment in relation to time and in a sensuous manner, the greater was the diffi

culty to unite those various images in a single scene.' Thomas Aquinàs therefore reminded them that the judgment would take place mentaliter, because the oral trial and defence of each individual would require too much time. According to Matthew xix. 28, and 1 Cor. vi. 2, the saints are to sit with Christ in judgment; and inasmuch as monks were supposed to attain the highest degree of perfection even in this world, the power which was committed into their hands by the institution of the inquisition, would easily familiarize men with the idea of being also judged by them in the world to come. It was natural that the heretics should beg to be excused from such a judgment; in accordance, too, with their entire idealistic tendency, they preferred resolving the idea of the last judgment into the more general notion of a retribution immediately after death."

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· Thomas Aquinas, loc. cit. Qu. 73, Art. 1: Christus...in forma gloriosa apparebit propter auctoritatem, quæ judici debetur. Ad dignitatem autem judiciariæ potestatis pertinet habere aliqua indicia, quæ ad reverentiam et subjectionem inducant, et ideo adventum Christi ad judicium venientis multa signa præcedent, ut corda hominum in subjectionem venturi judicis adducantur et ad judicium præparentur, hujusmodi signis præmoniti. Comp. Elucid. c. 70. Disc. Qualiter veniet Dominus ad judicium? Mag. Sicut Imperator ingressurus civitatem, corona ejus et alia insignia præferuntur, per quæ adventus ejus cognoscitur: ita Christus in ea forma, qua ascendit, cum Ordinibus omnibus Angelorum ad judicium veniens. Angeli crucem ejus ferentes præibunt: mortuos tuba et voce in occursum ejus excitabunt. Omnia elementa turbabuntur, tempestate ignis et frigoris mixtim undique furente. (Ps. xcvi. Wisd. v.) Respecting the damned it is said, c. 75: Videbunt (Christum), sed ad sui perniciem. Comp. Thomas Aquinas, Qu. 90, Art. 3.

· Elucid. loc. cit. D: Erit judicium in valle Josaphat? M. Vallis Josaphat dicitur vallis judicii. Vallis est semper juxta montem. Vallis est hic mundus, mons est cælum. In valle ergo fit judicium, i. e. in isto mundo, scilicet in isto aëre, ubi justi ad dexteram Christi at oves statuentur, impii autem ut hædi ad sinistram ponentur. Comp. Thomas Aquinas, Qu. 88, Art. 4.

"Thas Thomas Aquinas was at a loss to account for wbat is said concerning the sun and the moon being darkened (Matt. xxiv. 29), inasmuch as the coming of Christ will be accompanied by the fullest effusion of light, loc. cit.Qu. 73, Art. 2: Dicendum, quod, si loquamur de sole et luna, quantum ad ipsum momentum adventus Christi, sic non est credibile quod obscurabuntur sui luminis privatione, quia totus mundus innovabitur Christo veniente..... Si autem loquamur de eis secundum tempus propinquum ante judicium, sic esse poterit, quod sol et luna et alia cæli luminaria, sui luminis privatione obscurabuntur, vel diversis temporibus, vel simul, divina virtute faciente ad hominum terrorem.

Ibid: Qu. 88, Art. 2, conclusio.

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In the work entitled Elucidarium, four classes are distinguished (instead of two as was usual—viz. the blessed and the damned), c. 71: Unus ordo est perfectorum, cum Deo judicantium ; alter justorum, qui per judicium salvantur; tertius impiorum sine judicio pereuntium; quartos malorum, qui per judicium damnantur. ...Disc. Qui sunt qui judicant! Mag. Apostoli

, Martyres, Confessores, Monachi, Virgines. D. Quomodo judicabunt justos ? M. Monstrabunt eos suam doctrinam et sua exempla fuisse imitatos, et ideo regno dignos. Peter Lombard, Lib. iv. Dist. xlvii. B. : Non autem solus Christus judicabit, sed et sancti cum eo judicabunt nationes. ... Judicabunt vero non modo cooperatione, sed etiam auctoritate et potestate. Compare Thomas Aquinas, Qu. 89, where he examines the question, whether the righteous will take part in the judgment of the world merely as having places of honor (assessorie), or in reality. As the former would be too little, we may assume that they will judge in reality, provided they do so in accordance with the divine will, but not propria auctoritate. On the question, whether the angels will also take part in the judgment, see Peter Lombard, 1. c. Litt. C. Thomas Aquinas, Art. 8.

• See Mosheim, p. 157: Dicunt se credere, quod judicium extremum non sit futurum, sed quod tunc est judicium hominis solum, cum moritur,

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$ 206.

PURGATORY.

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From the time of Gregory the Great, the doctrine of a purifying fire, through which the souls have to pass after death, was more generally adopted. The belief in it was strengthened by facts furnished by legends.' Missionaries carried this notion, already developed and complete, to the nations which were newly converted ;' and the writers of the present age, the scholastics as well as poets and orators, gave the fullest description of it. Many believed in the real existence of purgatory as a material fire,' which, however, in the absence of a body susceptible of physical sufferings, torments the lost souls in an ideal manner (by means of the conception of suffering). Even some wbo leaned to mysticism, such as Bonaventura and Gerson, maintained the reality of that fire. But the practical consequences of the doctrine in question were highly pernicious, since it gave rise to the notion, that souls might be relieved from their pains, or even released from their state of suffering, sooner than would otherwise have been the case, by means of the intercessory prayers and good works of the living, and especially by means of the masses for the dead (missæ pro requie defunctorum).' Inasmuch as these masses and ecclesiastical indulgences were paid for, the question was started, whether the rich were not, in this respect, more privileged than the poor ; to which Peter Lombard

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replied in the affirmative.' Therefore, it is not surprising that the increasing avarice and injustice of the clergy® should have induced the Cathari and Waldenses, as well as Wycliffe, to combat the doctrine in question as a most dangerous one. It never met with the full approbation of the Greek Church." On the other hand, John Wessel endeavored to divest it of its pernicious consequences, by regarding the fire as a spiritual fire of love, which purifies the soul from its remaining dross, and consists in the longing after union with God. Accordingly, it is not so much a punishment, as the commencement of that blessedness, which God alone has the power of bringing to perfection.

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Bede, Hist. Eccles. Gent. Anglor. L. iii. c. 19, v. c. 13. Schröckh, xx.

p. 185.

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· Bonifacius, Ep. xxi. c. 29. ad Serrar, quoted by Schröckh, loc. cit. On the doctrine of purgatory as propounded by St. Patrick, the apostle of Ireland (according to the account of Matthew Paris), see Schröckh, xvi.

p. 229.

• The author of the work entitled Elucidarium, expresses himself still more indefinitely : c. 61: Post mortem vero purgatio erit aut nimius calor ignis, aut magnus rigor frigoris, aut aliud quodlibet genus pænarum, de quibus tamen minimum majus est, quam maximum quod in hac vita excogitari potest.—Hugo of St. Victor, De Sacram. L. ii. P. xvi. C. 4: Est autem alia pæna post mortem, quae purgatoria dicitur. In qua qui ab hac vita cum quibusdam culpis, justi tamen et ad vitam prædestinati exierunt, ad tempus cruciantur, ut purgentur. The language of Thomas Aquinas, is more decided, Qu. 70, Art. 3, Concl.: Respondeo: Dicendum, quod ignis inferni* non sit metaphorice dictus, nec ignis imaginarius, sed verus ignis corporeus, etc. He thought, however, that all men do not go to purgatory, but only those who require it. The truly pious go at once to heaven, the decidedly wicked go at once to hell; see Qu. 69, Art. 2.

Compare Thomas Aquinas, I. c.: Alii dixerunt, quod quamvis ignis corporeus non possit animam exurere, tamen anima apprehendit ipsum ut nocivum sibi, et ad talem apprehensionem afficitur timore et dolore. But this notion did not satisfy him fully. Comp. Cramer, vii. p. 773–75. .

Bonav. Comp. Theol. Verit. vii. 2. (quoted by Klee, ii. p. 333.) comp. Schröckh, xxix. p. 219.–Concerning the views of Gerson (according to Sermo ii. De Defunctis, T. iii. p. 1558), see Schröckh, xxxiv. p. 293. .

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. • Elucidar. c. 61: Dum ibi sunt positi, apparent eis Angeli vel alii Sancti, in quorum honore aliquid egerunt in hac vita, et aut auram aut suavem odorem aut aliquod solamen eis impendunt, usque dum liberati introibunt in illam aulam, quæ non recipit ullam maculam. Peter Lombard, Lib. iv. Dist. xlv. B. Thomas Aquinas, 71, Art. 1. In his opinion, intercessory prayers (opera suffragii) do not avail per viam meriti, but per viam orationis.--He expressed himself very cautiously Art. 2, Concl. : Respondeo : Dicendum, quod charitas, quæ est vinculum ecclesiæ membra uniens, non

* By which we are to understand the fire of purgatory, as the context shows.

solum ad vivos se extendit, sed etiam ad mortuos, qui in charitate decedunt. .... Similiter etiam mortui in memoriis hominum viventium vivunt, et ideo intentio viventium ad eos dirigi potest, et sic suffragia vivorum mortuis dupliciter prosunt, sicut et vivis, et propter charitatis unionem, et propter intentionem in eos directam : non tamen sic eis valere credenda sunt vivorum suffragia, ut status eorum mutetur de miseria ad felicitatem vel e converso : sed valent ad diminutionem poenæ vel aliquid hujusmodi, quod statum mortui non transmutat. Comp. Art. 6: Respondeo: Dicendum, quod pena purgatorii est in supplementum satisfactionis, quæ non fuerat plene in corpore consummata, et ideo, quia opera unius possunt valere alteri ad satisfactionem, sive vivus sive mortuus fuerit, non est dubium, quin suffragia per vivos facta, existentibus in purgatorio prosint. Compare Art. 10 concerning Indulgences. They are useful to the souls in purgatory indirecte, but not directe. Respecting the festival founded on this doctrine, which was first instituted in Clugny, A. D. 993, and was afterwards adopted by the whole Western Church (All-Souls, Nov. 2d.) see Sigebert Gemblacens. ad annum 998. Gieseler, ii. & 33, note 15.

' Lib. iv. Dist. xlv. D.: Solet moveri quæstio de duobus, uno divite, altero paupere, pariter sed mediocriter bonis, qui prædictis suffragiis indigent, et meruerunt pariter post mortem juvari : pro altero vero, i. e.

pro divite, speciales et communes fiunt orationes, multæque eleemosynarum largitiones; pro paupere vero non fiunt nisi communes largitiones et orationes. Quæri. tur ergo, an tantum juvetur pauper paucioribus subsidiis, quantum dives amplioribus ? Si non pariter juvatur, non ei redditur secundum merita. Meruit enim pariter juvari, quia pariter boni extiterunt. Si vero tantum suffragii consequitur pauper, quantum dives; quid contulerunt diviti illa specialiter pro eo facta! Sane dici potest, non ei magis valuisse generalia et specialia, quam pauperi sola generalia suffragia. Et tamen profuerunt diviti specialia, non quidem ad aliud vel majus aliquid, sed ad idem, ad quod generalia, ut ex pluribus et diversis causis unuin perciperetur emolumentum. Potest tamen dici aliter, illa plura subsidia contulisse diviti celeriorem absolutionem, non pleniorem. [Comp. Neander, Hist. Dogm. 594.]

See the works on ecclesiastical history. This superstition was also combated by the friar Berthold. See Kling, p. 396.

Moneta, 1. iv. c. 9, § 2: Dicit ecclesia purgatorium esse post hanc vitam animabus, quæ de hoc mundo migraverunt inchoata condigna penitentia, sed nondum perfecta. Omnes autem hæretici, tam Cathari, quam Pauperes Lugdunenses, a quodam qui dicebatur Valdisius derivati, hoc negant. The Beguines also denied, quod non est infernus, nec purgatorium; see Mosheim, p. 257. On the rejection of purgatory by the Waldenses, see Dieckhoff's Waldenser, 205. Stephen de Borbone says that they said: Non esse pænam purgatorii nisi in præsenti.

10 Schröckh Kirchengesch. xxxiv. p. 444. The Husites (Bohemian Brethren) also questioned the reality of purgatory; ibid. pp. 753, 754.

" Nevertheless the Greek Church was compelled, by the Council of Florence (A. D. 1439), to make some concessions. See Mansi, T. xxxi. Col. 1029. Münscher, ed. by von Cölln, pp. 313, 314. [The Synod declared : Εάν οι αληθώς μετανοήσαντες αποθάνουσιν εν τη του θεού αγάτη, τρίν

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