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τους αξίοις της μετανοίας καρπούς ικανοποιήσαι περί των ημαρτημένων όμου και ήμελημενων (in the Latin copy-de commissis et omissis), τας τούτων ψυχάς καθαρτικαίς τιμωρίαις καθαίρεσθαι (penis purgatoriis purgari) metà Oávatov, etc. The suffrages of the faithful, masses, etc., may avail for their benefit.] Therefore Leo Allatius asserted, that the Eastern and Western Churches agreed in this point, in his De Ecclesiæ Occidentalis et Orientalis perpetua in Dogmate de Purgatorio Concessione. Rom. 1655. 4°.

" De Purgatorio, quis et qualis sit ignis purgatorius in the edition of Gröningen, p. 826, ss., quoted by Ullmann, Joh. Wessel, p. 363, ss.

On the locality of Purgatory, see 8 208.

§ 207.

THE SLEEP OF THE SOUL.

The doctrine of purgatory had its origin in the necessity which men felt of supposing the existence of a place, where the soul, separated from the body, might dwell, until its reunion with it. The assumption of the possibility of the soul's deliverance from this intermediate state, prior to the general resurrection, gave rise to new difficulties, inasmuch as it became necessary to fill up the interval between those two moments of time. This led to a revival of the earlier notion of a death of the soul (which had been propounded by the false teachers of Arabia whom Origen combated), though under the milder form of a sleep of the soul (Psychopannychy.)' It is, however, uncertain, whether Pope John XXII., as is asserted, really adopted this opinion. At all events, his views were opposed by the professors of the university of Paris,' and disapproved of by Pope Benedict XII.“

'On the Thnetopsychites, see Vol. i. $ 76, note 8. Respecting the notion of a sleep of the soul (which was rejected by Tertullian), see ibid. p. 217.

• The idea of a sleep of the soul was by no means distinctly expressed in those words of his which were thought objectionable (they occur in a sermon preached on the first Sunday in Advent 1331); on the contrary, all that is there said is, quod animæ decedentium in gratia non videant Deum per essentiam, nec sint perfecte beatæ, nisi post resumptionem corporis.This opinion perfectly agreed with the views of earlier theologians. Comp. Vol. i. $ 77. But from the fifth century on, it was abandoned and condemned, A. D. 1240, by the University of Paris. D'Argentré, Collectio

, Judiciorum de novis Erroribus, i. 186. Gieseler, iii. p. 54, ss.

• Sce d'Argentrée Collectio Judic. T. i. p. 316, ss. Bulæus T. iv. p. 235. Gieseler, loc. cit. Münscher, ed. by von Cölln, p. 312. A. D. 1366, Jan. 29th. See Raynald, ad hunc annum, No. 3.–Gieseler

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and Münscher, ed. by von Cölln, 1. c. On the pretended recantation of Pope John XXII. see Gieseler, 1. c. On a picture, representing the state of the departed, see Quandt, Reise ins mittägliche Frankreich, 149.

§ 208.

THE LOCALITIES OF THE FUTURE WORLD.

(Heaven, Hell, and Intermediate State.) The scholastics endeavoured to draw into the sphere of their researches, not only the bright regions of heaven, but also the dark abodes of hell. Thus, heaven was divided into three parts-viz. the visible heavens (the firmament), the spiritual heaven, where saints and angels dwell, and the intellectual heaven, where the blessed enjoy the immediate vision of the Triune God.' Different departments (receptacula) were also ascribed to hell.' These were, 1. Hell, properly so called, where the devils and the damned are confined ;' 2. Those subterranean regions which may be regarded as the intermediate states between heaven and hell, and which are again subdivided into (a), Purgatory, which lies nearest to hell ;* (6), The Limbus Infantum (puerorum), where those children remain who die unbaptized ;' (c), The Limbus Patrum, the abode of the Old Testament saints, the place to which Christ went to preach redemption to the souls in prison. The Limbus last mentioned was also called Abraham's bosom; different opinions obtained concerning its relation of proximity to heaven and hell. These positions were rejected by the mystics, who were inclined to more spiritual views, and assigned to subjective states what the scholastics fixed in external localities."

* Elucidarium c. 3.-Paradise was also supposed to be there. Comp. c. 50, and note 7.

Peter Lombard, Lib. iv. Dist. xlv, A. Thomas Aquinas, Qu. 69, Art. 1, ss. Cramer, vii. p. 771-73.

* Elucidar. c. 62, D.: Quid est infernus ? vel ubi? M. Duo sunt inferni, superior et inferior. Superior infima pars hujus mundi, quæ plena est penis, nam hic exundat nimius æstus, magnum frigus, etc. Inferior vero est locus spiritualis, ubi ignis inextinguibilis......qui sub terra dicitur esse, ut, sicut corpora peccantium terra cooperiuntur, ita animæ peccantium sub terra in inferno sepeliantur.*

The term “ Hölle," (hell) had primarily the more comprehensive signification of the netherworld (whence the phrase in the Apostles' Creed, " he descended into hell"). It was not till later (from the thirteenth century) that the word was used to denote the prace of torment. Comp. Grimm's deutsche Mythologie, p. 462.-" The Christians substituted, in place of the heathenish notion of a pale and gloomy hell, that of a pool filled with flames and

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• See above $ 206.

• According to Thomas Aquinas, Qu. 69, Art. 6, the limbus puerorum is distinguished from the limbus patrum, secundum qualitatem præmii vel pænæ, because children who die without baptism have not that hope of eternal salvation which the fathers had prior to the manifestation of Christ. As regards the site (situs), it is probable that the limbus puerorum lies nearer to hell than the limbus patrum. Others, however, identified the one with the other. Thus friar Berthold says (quoted by Kling, p. 443): “If your children die without baptism, or are baptised improperly, they can never enter into the heavenly joys. They go, together with the Jewish and Gentile children, who are still without belief, to the limbus to which those of old went. There they do not suffer any pain, except this, that they do not go to heaven." Comp. p. 210. Those children who are baptised, ride in the little carriage (the constellation of the Little Bear) straight to heaven (paradise). But if the child happened to be baptised improperly, one of the wheels breaks, and the child is lost. See ibid. pp. 169, 170.

• Thomas Aquinas treated of this point very fully, 1. c. Art. 4. He made a distinction between the state prior to the coming of Christ, and that posterior to that event. Quia ante Christi adventum Sanctorum requies habebat defectum requiei adjunctum, dicebatur idem infernus et sinus Abrahæ, unde ibi non videbatur Deus. Sed quia post Christi adventum Sanctorum requies est completa, cum Deum videant, talis requies dicitur sinus Abrahæ, et nullo modo infernus. Et ad hunc sinum Abrahæ ecclesia orat fideles perduci. Comp. Elucidar. 64, D.: In quo inferno erant justi ante adventum Christi ? M. In superiori, in quodam loco juncto inferiori, in quo poterant alteratrum conspicere. Qui erant,ibi, quamvis carerent supplicio, videbatur eis esse in inferno, cum essent separati a regno. Illis autem, qui erant in inferiori inferno, videbatur, quod illi, qui erant in illo inferno juncto inferiori, erant in refrigerio paradisi, unde et dives rogabat a Lazaro, guttam super se stillari. D. Quam pænam habebant illi, qui erant in illo inferno juncto inferiori ? M. Quasdam tenebras tantum, unde dicitur: Habitantibus in regione umbre mortis, lux orta est eis." Quidam ex eis erant in quibusdam pænis. Venit ergo

Dominus ad infernum superiorem nascendo, ut redimeret captivos a tyranno, ut dicitur : “ Dices his, qui vincti sunt : Exite, et his qui in tenebris sunt : Relevamini." Vinctos vocat, qui erant in pænis, alios vero in tenebris, quos omnes absolvit et in gloriam duxit res gloriæ. Comp. Dante, Divina Commedia, Hell, 4, comp. 31, ss.

· The author of the work entitled Elucidarium expressed himself as follows, c. 59 : Paradisus non est locus corporalis, quia spiritus non habitant in locis; sed est spiritualis mansio beatorum, quam æterna sapientia perfecit in initio, et est intellectuali cælo (comp. note 1], ubi ipsa divinitas, qualis est, ab eis facie ad faciem contuetur. The language of Tauler (Predigten, i. pp. 291, 292,) was still more spiritualising :......Christ granted to the thief on the cross “to behold himself, his divine countenance and nature, which is

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brimstone, pitchdark, and yet at the same time bright like fire, in which the souls of the damned are always burning." Grimm. I. c. p. 464. On the mixture of Christian with Gentile notions, ibid. p. 465.

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the true and living paradise of all pleasures. To behold the glory of God is what constitutes paradise."*

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$ 209.

THE STATE OF THE BLESSED AND THE DAMNED.

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Both the spirit of the age, and its degree of culture, were reflected in the representations and descriptions of heaven and hell. According to John Scotus Erigena, the personal spirit of man is resolved into God, a notion which he thought reconcilable with the idea of self-conscious continuance.' The pantheistic sects of the middle ages went so far as to destroy all individuality, and to deny the future life. The scholastics, whose principal happiness even in this world consisted in making the most subtile distinctions, supposed that the greater acuteness of the intellectual powers would constitute the especial blessedness of heaven ; Duns Scotus started such questions as, whether the blessed would perceive the quidditates of things, etc. The paradisaical enjoyments of refined senses were not quite excluded, though it was admitted, that the highest and real pleasures would consist principally in communion with God, and the mutual fellowship of the saints. Thomas Aquinas supposed different gifts (dotes) of blessedness. In addition to the corona aurea, which is given to all the blessed, there are particular aureolæ for martyrs and saints, for monks and nuns. The mystics also represented the world to come in bright colors. But the age was especially inventive in devising all sorts of ingenious punishments which the wicked would have to suffer in hell, after the refined cruelty of the criminal processes of the inquisition.' According to Thomas Aquinas, the torments of the damned consist in useless repentance. They can neither change for the better nor for the worse. They hate God and curse the state of the blessed." But the latter are not disturbed in the enjoyment of their happiness by any feeling of compassion." The views of John Scotus Erigena differed from the popular notion in making the consciousness of sin itself, and of its impotence, to constitute the principal misery of the damned.“ Master Eckart declared it to be a spiritual nonentity," an expression from which the Beghards drew the hasty inference that hell had no existence."

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De Div. Nat. v. 8, p. 232: Prima igitur humanæ naturæ reversio est, quando corpus solvitur, et in quatuor elementa sensibilis mundi, ex quibus compositum est, revocatur. Secunda in resurrectione implebitur, quando unusquisque suum proprium corpus ex communione quatuor elementorum recipiet. Tertia, quando corpus in spiritum mutabitur. Quarta, quando spiritus et, ut apertius dicam, tota hominis natura in primordiales causas revertetur, quæ sunt semper et incommutabiliter in Deo. Quinta, quando ipsa natura cum suis causis movebitur in Deum, sicut aër movetur in lucem. Erit enim Deus omnia in omnibus : quando nihil erit nisi solus Deus...... Mutatio itaque humanæ naturæ in Deum, non in substantiæ interitu æstimanda est, sed in pristinum statum, quem prævaricando perdiderat, mirabilis atque ineffabilis reversio. Pag. 234 :. . . . . . Inferiora vero a superioribus naturaliter attrahuntur et absorbentur, non ut non sint, sed ut in eis plus salventur et subsistant et unum sint. Nam neque aër suam perdit substantiam, cum totus in solare lumen convertitur: in tantum, ut nihil in eo appareat nisi lux, cum aliud sit lux, aliud aër: lux tamen prævalet in aëre, ut sola videatur esse. Ferrum aut aliud aliquod metallum in igne liquefactum, in ignem converti videtur, ut ignis purus videatur esse, salva metalli substantia permanente. Eadem ratione existimo corporalem substantiam in animam esse transiturum : non ut pereat quod sit, sed ut in meliori essentia salva sit. Similiter de ipsa anima intelligendum, quod ita in intellectum movebitur, ut in eo pulchrior Deoque similior conservetur. Nie aliter dixerim de transitu, ut non adhuc dicam omnium, sed rationabilium substantiarum in Deum, in quo cuncta finem positura sunt, et unum erunt.-As the many separate lights (e.g. in a church) form together one sea of light, though every single light may be removed, as a part may be taken from the whole; and as many voices form together one chorus, without losing their individuality in one confused mass of sounds, so are souls related to God. Comp. cap. 12 and 13, p. 236.

* On the relation between the Christian notions of paradise commonly entertained, and the earlier ideas of heathen nations (the Walhalla), seo Grimm, deutsche Mythologie,

P. 475.

• Thus Amalrich of Bena taught: He who possesses the knowledge of God, has paradise within himself ; but he who commits a mortal sin, bas hell in his own heart, as a man has a bad tooth in his mouth. Compare Engelhardt, p. 255. Concerning his followers it is said: Item semetipsos jam resuscitatos asserebant, fidem et spem ab eorum cordibus excludebant, se soli scientiæ mentientes subjacere; ibid. p. 259. Comp. p. 260: Dixit etiam (Amalricus), quod Deus ideo dicitur finis omnium, quia omnia reversura sunt in ipsum, ut in Deo immutabiliter quiescant, et unum individuum atque incommutabile in eo permanebunt; et sicut alterius naturæ non est Abraham, alterius Isaak, sed unius atque ejusdem, sic dixit omnia esse unum et omnia esse Deum. The Beguines made the same assertions. Comp. $ 204, note 2.

John Scotus Erigena, v. c. 31, ss. :-Peter Lombard, Lib. iv. Dist. 49, A.: Habere ergo vitam, est videre vitam, cognoscere Deum in specie (according to John xvii.).—Elucid. 79: His (beatis) Salomonis sapientia esset magna insipientia. Porro ipsi omni sapientia affluunt, omnem scientiam de ipso fonte sapientiæ Dei hauriunt. Omnia quippe præterita, præsentia, et si qua futura sunt, perfecte sciunt. Omnium omnino hominum, sive in cælo, sive in inferno, nomina, genera, opera bona vel mala unquam ab eis gesta norunt, et nihil est quod eos lateat, cum in sole justitiæ pariter videant omnia.—Thom. Aquin., Qu. 92, Art. 1, 2, 3.Duns Scotus, quoted by Cramer, vii. pp. 786, 787.

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