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• Elucid. 77: Salomonis deliciæ essent eis miseriæ. O qualis est justorum voluptas, quibus ipse Deus fons omnium bonorum est insatiabilis satians satietas. Duæ sunt beatitudines, una minor Paradisi, altera major cælestis regni. (We have no idea of it, and can infer the notion of happiness only in a negative way from that of unhappiness.). ..... Sicut ferrum alicujus capiti si esset infixum et sic candens per omnia membra transiret, sieut ille dolorem haberet, ita ipsi per contrarium modum in omnibus membris suis interius et exterius voluptatem habent. .....0 qualem voluptatem visus ipsi habebunt, qui ita clausis sicut apertis oculis videbunt......0 qualis voluptas anditus illorum, quibus incessanter sonent harmoniæ cælorum et concentus Angelorum, dulcisona organa omnium Sanctorum. Olfactio qualis, ubi suavissimum odoremde ipso suavitatis fonte haurient, et odorem de Angelis et omnibus Sanctis percipient. Eia qualis voluptas gustus, ubi epulantur et exultant in conspectu Dei, et, cum apparuerit gloria Dei, saturabuntur et ab ubertate domus ejus inebriabuntur (Ps. Ixxvi. Ps. xvi. Ps. xxxv). Voluptas tactus qualis, ubi omnia aspera et dura aberunt, et omnia blanda et suavia arridebunt.-Nor will the recollection of sins formerly committed, but now expiated, disturb the enjoyment of heavenly bliss. Cap. 79. Concerning the blessedness arising froin the fellowship of the saints, see ibidem : Nihil plus cupient, quam habebunt, et nihil plus potest adjici gaudio eorum. Quod enim quisque in se non habuerit, in altero habebit, ut, v. g. Petrus in Joanne, gloriam habebit virginitatis, Joannes in Petro gloriam passionis. Et ita gloria uniuscujusque erit omnium, et gloria omnium uniuscujusque erit.
O Deus, quale gaudium habebunt, qui Patrem in Filio, et Verbum in Patre, et Spiritus Sancti charitatem in utroque, sicuti est, facie ad faciem semper videbunt. Gaudium habebunt de consortio Angelorum, gaudium de contubernio omnium Sanctorum.
. According to Thomas Aquinas, Qu. 95, Art. 2, the following distinction may be made between beatitudo and dos : Dos datur sine meritis, sed beatitudo non datur, sed redditur pro meritis. Præterea: beatitudo est una tantum, dotes vero sunt plures. Præterea : beatitudo inest homini secundum id quod est potissimum in eo, sed dos etiam in corpore ponitur.-According to Art. 5, there are three dotes: visio, quæ fidei, comprehensio, quæ spei, fruitio, quée charitati respondet. On the relation in which the particular aureolæ stand to the corona (aurea), see Q1. 96. Art. 1: Præmium essentiale hominis, quod est ejus beatitudo, consistit in perfecta conjunctione animæ ad Deum, in quantum eo perfecte fruitur, ut viso et amato persecte : hoc autem præmium metaphorice corona dicitur vel aurea; tum ex parte meriti, quod cum quadam pugna agitur, tum etiam ex parte præmii
, per quod homo efficitur quodammodo divinitatis particeps, et per consequens regiæ potestatis. ...... Significat etiam corona perfectionem quandam ratione figuræ circularis, ut ex hoc etiam competat perfectioni beatorum. Sed quia nihil potest superaddi essentiali, quin sit eo minus: ideo superadditum præmium aureola nominatur. Huic autem essentiali præmio, quod aurea dicitur, aliquid superadditar dupliciter: uno modo ex conditione naturæ ejus, qui præmiatur, sicut supra beatitudinem animæ gloria corporis adjungitur, unde et ipsa gloria corporis interdum aureola nominatur. ..... ; alio modo ex ratione operis meritorii, etc. In Art. 2. aureola is further distinguished from fruc
tus: Fructus consistit in gaudio habito de dispositione ipsius operantis, aủ. reola in gaudio perfectionis operum (the one is the subjective reward, tho other is the objective one). Compare the subsequent notes.
• Suso, Von der unmässigen Freude des Himmelreichs (quoted by Diepenbrock, p. 293, ss. Wackernagels Lesebuch, i. Sp. 881, ss.) : “ Now arise with me, I will lead thee to contemplation, and cause thee to cast a look at a parable. Behold! above the ninth heaven, which is far more than a hundred thousand times larger than our whole globe, there is yet another heaven, which is called cælum empyreum, and has its name, not from its being a fiery substance, but from the intense shining brightness which it possesses by nature. It is immovable and unchangeable, and is the glorious court where the heavenly hosts dwell, and where the evening star, and all the children of God, sing unceasing praise and adoration. There are the eternal thrones, surrounded by the incomprehensible light, from which the evil spirits were cast out, and which are now occupied by the elect. Behold the wonderful city shining with pure gold, glittering with precious pearls, inlaid with precious jewels, transparent like a crystal, resplendent with red roses, white lilies, and all sorts of living flowers. Now cast thine own eyes upon the beautiful heavenly fields. Aye! behold the full delight of summer, the meadows of the bright May, the true valley of delight; behold happy moments spent in mutual love, barps, viols, singing, springing, dancing, and pleasures without end; behold the fulfilment of every desire, and love without sorrow, in everlasting security. And behold, round about thee, the innumerable multitude of the redeemed, drinking of the fountain of living water after their hearts' desire, and looking in the pure and clear mirror of the unveiled Deity, in which all things are made manifest to them. Proceed further, and behold the sweet queen of the heavenly country, whom thou lovest with such intensity, occupying her throne with dignity and joy, elevated above all the heavenly hosts, surrounded by rose-flowers and lilies of the valley. Behold her wonderful beauty imparting joy, and delight, and glory, to all the heavenly hosts, etc......behold the bright cherubim and their company, receiving a bright emanation of the eternal, incomprehensible light, and the heavenly principalities and powers enjoying sweet repose in me, and I in them...... behold my elect disciples, and my very best friends, occupying the venerable thrones of judgment in great peace and honor; behold the martyrs shining in their robes red like roses, the confessors shining in their splendid beauty, the tender virgins shining in angelic purity, and all the heavenly host enjoying divine sweetness ! Aye, what a company, and what a happy country!" But Suso regards all this as a mere image. In his opinion, true happiness, " the essential recompense," as distinct from that which is “accidental,” consists in union with God.-P. 296 : “ Essential reward consists in the union of the soul with the pure Deity in the beatific vision. For never more can the soul be in repose until it is elevated abcme. all its powers and possibilities, and brought into the very essence of the person, into the natural simplicity of its essence. And in this union and neaca tion it finds its satisfaction and eternal blessedness; the more entire and simple the outgoing, the freer is the upgoing, the surer is the entrance into, the wild waste and the deep abyss of essential deity, with which it is abr
sorbed, whelmed and united ; so that it wills nothing but what God wills and becomes the same that God is; it becomes blessed through grace, as He is blessed by nature.” Much, however, as Suso exalts this “swallow, ing up” of the human spirit in the divine, he yet insists upon the perpetuity of the individual consciousness. “ In this absorption of the soul in the deity it vanishes, but not wholly; it gains some property of divinity, but it does not become essential God; all that happens to it comes through grace, for the soul is an existence, created from nothing, eternally loved and favored." Schmidt, ubi supra, 50 (Diepenbrock, 227). Compare the dialogues, there cited, of Suso “ with the wild ones,” which show that Eckart's disciples were divided into two classes, the one of which adopted the pantheistic consequences of his system, and the other not; Suso belonged to the latter class.
Elucidarium c. 80 : Ecce, sicut isti amici Dei decore maximo illustrantur, ita illi maximo horrore deturpantur. Sicut isti summa agilitate sunt alleviati, ita illi summa pigrititia prægravati. Sicut isti præcipuo robore solidati, ita illi sunt præcipua invaletudine debilitati.
Sicut isti augusta libertate potiuntur, ita illi anxia servitute deprimuntur. Sicut isti immensa voluptate deliciantur, ita illi immensa miseria amaricantur. Sicut isti egregia sanitate vigent, ita illi infinita infirmitate deficient. Sicut isti de beata immortalitate triumphantes lætantur, ita illi de dolenda sua diuturnitate lamentantur. Sicut isti politi sunt splendore sapientiæ, ita illi obscurati sunt horrore insipientiæ. Si quid eniin sciunt, ad augmentum doloris sciunt. Sicut istos dulcis amicita copulat, ita illos amara inimicitia excruciat. Sicut isti concordem concordiam cum omni creatura habentes, ab omni creatura glorificantur, ita illi, cum omni creatura discordiam habentes, ab omni creatura execrantur. Sicut isti summa potentia sublimantur, ita illi summa impotentia augustiantur. ..... Sicut isti ineffabili gaudio jubilantes, ita illi merore sine fine ejulantes, etc.... According to Thomas Aquinas, Qu. 97, Art. 4, outer darkness reigns in hell, and only so much light is admitted as is sufficient to see that wbich is to torment the souls. The fire is (according to Art. 5 and 6) a real, material fire, differing only in a few points (but not specifically) from terrestrial fire. It is under the surface of the earth, etc.Gilbert of Nogent, however, denied that the fire was material (he died A. D. 1124). See Gieseler, Dogmengesch.564. [Gilbert, in his De Pignoribus Sanctorum, lib. iv. ca 4, says, the punishments of bell consist in the pangs of an evil conscience.] A full description of the torments of hell is given by Dante. [Dante's descriptions are perhaps derived from the Elucidarium, which is printed among Anselm's works, but which is not his; it has also been ascribed to Gilbert of Nogent. The Elucidarium was freely used by Aquinas.]
• Thomas Aquinas, Qu. 98, Art. 2: Pænitere de peccato, contingit dupliciter. Uno modo per se, alio modo per accidens. Per se quidem de peccato pænitet, qui peccatum, in quantum est peccatum, abominatur. Per accidens vero, qui illud odit, ratione alicujus adjuncti, utpote pænæ vel alicujus hujusmodi. Mali igitur non penitebunt, per se loquendo, de peccatis, quia voluntas malitiæ peccati in eis remanet: pænitebunt autem per accidens, in quantum affligentur de pæna, quam pro peccato sustinent. (He seems to imply of an attritio, sine contritione.)
Loco citato, Art. 6: Post diem judicii erit ultima consummatio bonorum et malorum, ita quod nihil erit addendum ulterius de bono vel de malo. Comp. Peter Lombard, Lib. iv. Dist. 50, A.
Elucidarium, 80 : Odium enim Dei habent...... odium habent Angelorum......odium habent omnium Sanctorum......odium a novo cælo et a nova terra et ab omni creatura habent. Comp. Thomas Aquinas, l. c. Art. 4: Tanta erit invidia in damnatis, quod etiam propinquorum gloriæ invidebunt, cum ipsi sint in summa miseria......Sed tamen minus invident propinquis quam aliis, et major esset eorum poena, si omnes propinqui damnarentur et alii salvarentur, quam si aliqui de suis propinquis salvarentur, (He then quotes the instance of Lazarus.)-As regards the hatred which the lost feel towards God, comp. Art. 5. God as such cannot be hated, but ratione effectuum.
" Peter Lombard, Lib. iv. Dist. 50, G. Thomas Aquinas, Qu. 94, Art. 2, 3. They witness the sufferings of the damned, without being seen by the latter. Peter Lombard, l. c. Litt. E. Thomas Aquinas, Qu. 98, Art. 9.
1 De Div. Nat. v. 29, p. 265: diversas suppliciorum formas non localiter in quadam parte, veluti toto hujus vísibilis creaturæ, et ut simpliciter dicam, neque intra diversitatem totius naturæ a Deo conditæ futuras esse credimus, et neque nunc esse, et nusquam et nunquam, sed in malarum voluntatum corruptarumque conscientiarum perversis motibus, tardaque pænitentia et infructuosa, inque perversæ potestatis omnimoda subversione, sive humana sive angelica creatura. Comp. c. 36, p. 288, c. 37, p. 294, and some other passages.
Frommüller (Tübinger Zeitschrift, 1830, part 1, p. 84, ss.*) Guibert of Nogent entertained similar views, De Pignoribus Sanctorum in Opp. ed. d'Achery. Par. 1651, fol.), Lib. c. 14, p. 363. Münscher, edit. by von Cölln, p. 96-98.
13 The question has been started, what that is which burns in hell. The masters generally say, it is self-will. But I say, in truth, it is not having [Nicht] which constitutes the burning of hell. Learn this from a parable. If you were to take a burning coal, and put it on my hand, and I were to assert that the coal is burning my hand, I should be wrong. But if I be asked what it is that burns me, I say, it is the not having, i, e., the coal has something which my hand has not. You perceive, then, that it is the not having which burns me. But if my hand had all that which the coal has, it would possess the nature of fire. In that case you might take all the fire that burns, and put it on my hand, without tormenting me.
In the same manner I say, if God, and those who stand before his face, enjoy that perfect happiness, which those who are separated from him possess not, it is the not having" which torments the souls in hell more than self-will or fire. Predigt. auf den ersten Sonntag nach Trinitatis, quoted by Schmidt (Studien und Kritiken, 1839, p. 722.)
" Schmidt, however, thinks it probable (1. c.) that the assertion of the Bishop of Strasburg (quoted by Mosheim, p. 257), that the Beghards taught,
. quod non est infernus, nec purgatorium (S 206, note 9), was founded upon a
* In other passages, however, Erigena speaks of material fire, and illustrates the pos. sibility of its perpetuity by the asbestos and the salamander; De Præd. 17, 7. 19, 1. 4. Ritter, Gesch. der Philosophie, vii. 282.
mistake. They are further said to have maintained : quod nullus Jam. nabitur nec Judæus, nec Sarazenus, quia mortuo corpore spiritus redibit ad Dominum.
ETERNITY OF THE PITNISHMENT OF HELL. RESTITUTION OF ALL THINGS.
John Scotus Erigena, on the basis of the universality of redemption, ventured to intimate a revival of the notion of Origen, concerning the restitution of all things, without denying the eternity of the punishments of hell." This idea met with approbation among the mystical sects.' The Catholic Church, however, simply retained the doctrine of the eternity of the punishments of hell ;' as is exemplified in the concise superscription to the hell of Dante.' The imagination of the orthodox mystics, inflamed by the vision of infinite woe, dwelt with painful elaboration upon this forever and ever.'
Erigena maintained, with Augustine, the eternity of the punishments of hell, De Div. Nat. v. 31, p. 270. Nevertheless he said, p. 72: Aliud est omnem malitiam generaliter in omni humana natura penitus aboleri, aliud phantasias ejus, malitiæ dico, in propria conscientia eorum, quos in hac vita vitiaverat, semper servari, eoque modo semper puniri. Comp. v. 26, p. 255, 56, v. 27, p. 260: Divina siquidem bonitas consumet malitiam, æterna vita absorbet mortem, beatitudo miseriam...... nisi forte adhuc ambigis dominum Jesum humanæ naturæ acceptorem et salvatorem non totam ipsam, sed quantulamcunque partem ejus accepisse et salvasse. Frommüller, l. c. pp. 86, 87.
Comp. $ 209, note 14, and § 202. • Thomas Aquinas, Qu. 99.
Canto ii. v. Ye who enter here, leave all hope behind." • Suso (Büchlein von der Weisheit, cap. xi. Von immerwährendem Weh der Hölle, quoted by Diepenbrock, pp. 289, 290, by Wackernagel, Sp. 879), expressed himself as follows Alas! misery and pain, they must last for
0! eternity, what art thou? O! end without end ! 0! death which is above every death, to die every hour and yet not to be able ever to die! O! father and mother and all whom we love! May God be mer. ciful to you for evermore; for we shall see you no more to love you; we must be separated for ever! O! separation, everlasting separation, how painful art thou! O! the wringing of hands! O! sobbing, sighing, and weeping, unceasing howling and lamenting, and yet never to be heard ..... Give us a millstone, say the damned, as large as the whole earth, and so wide in circumference as to touch the sky all around, and let a little bird come once in a hundred thousand years, and pick off a small particle of the stone, not larger than the tenth part of a grain of millet, and after another hundred thousand years let him come again, so that in ten hundred thousand years he would pick off as much as a grain of millet, we wretched sinners would ask nothing but that when this stone has an end, our pains might also ccase; yet even that cannot be !