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scribed channel. In addition to many other valuable theological works, he composed the first compendium of the doctrines of the Protestant Church (Loci Communes sive Theologici), which formed the basis of other treatises.
He was born at Eisleben A. D. 1483, Nov. 10th.-In the year 1507 he enters the monastery of the Augustinian monks at Erfurt, removes in the following year to Wittenberg, where he teaches first philosophy, and afterwards theology, makes a journey to Rome, 1510, and takes his degree of doctor of theology, 1512.—Publication of the theses 1517, Oct. 31st.Luther is summoned before the Pope-has an interview with Cajetan in Augsburg, 1518, Oct.-Interview with Miltitz-Controversy with Eck, Wimpina, and others.--Dispute of Leipsic, 1519, June-Excommunication of Luther, 1520.—He burns the bull and the papal decrees 1520, Dec.—Diet of Worms under the Emperor Charles V.-Luther's defence on that occasion (1521, April.)-He is outlawed, and constrained to take up his abode in the Wartburg (from May 1521 to March 1522.)—He leaves his place of concealment to oppose the prophets of Zwickau.—Further spread of the Reformation in Germany, commencing at Wittenberg.—The war of the peasantry, controversy concerning the sacraments, Luther's marriage (15241525.)- Visitation of the churches, 1527.-Diet of Augsburg, 1530.-Luther's residence in Coburg-A period of manifold sufferings and vexations.-His death 1546, Febr. 18th.— Complete editions of his works are : that of Wittenberg, twelve volumes in German (1539-59), and seven volumes in Latin (1545–58); that of Jena, eight volumes in German (1555–58), and four in Latin (1556-58), in addition to which two supplementary volumes were published by Aurifaber. Eisleben 1564, 65; that of Altenburg, in ten volumes in German (1661–64); that of Leipsic, in twenty-two volumes (1729-40); and lastly, that of Halle, edited by Walch, in twenty-four volumes (1740–50). See Gieseler, iv. p. 9, and Rotermund, H, V., Verzeichniss der verschiedenen Ausgaben der sämmtlichen Schriften Luthers. Bremen, 1813. 8. [Luther's Sämmtliche (Deutsche) Werke, herausg. J. K. Irmischer, 67 Bde., Frankf. a. m., completed, 1856; L.'s Exegetica Opera Latina, curavit H. Schmidt, 22 vols. to 1860, Francof.]—Luther did not compose a system of doctrinal theology, but others compiled it from his writings. This was done e. g. by Heinrich Majus, Professor in Giessen, who wrote: Lutheri Theologia pura et sincera, ex Viri divini Scriptis universis, maxime tamen Latinis, per omnes fidei Articulos digesta et concinnata. (Francof. ad. M. 1709, with a supplement.) Similar works were composed by Timoth. Kirchner, Andr. Musculus, Theodos. Fabricius, Michael Neander (Theologia Megalandri Lutheri. Eisl. 1587. 12), Elias Veiel. See Semler, Einleitung zu Baumgarten's Glaubenslehre ii. p. 146. Heinrich, Geschichte der Lehrarten, etc., p. 248.
They are given in Löscher's Reformationsacten, i. p. 438, ss., and Herm. von der Hardt, Historia Reformat. Litt. P. iv. p. 16. Compare also Gieseler, Church Hist. iv. p. 19, note, where the most important theses may be found. “ The whole life of believers on earth is to be one of unceasing repentance ; this is the sum and kernel of these theses, and of evangelical Protestantism ;" Schenkel, Die Reformatoren, s. 24.
• For an account of the different collections of sermons, homilies, etc. (Kirchen- und Hauspostill, etc.) see Lentz, Geschichte der christlichen Homiletik, ii. pp. 22, 23.-His exegetical works (e. g. his commentary on the Epistle to the Galatians, 1535-38), are of use in the history of doctrines.
• The several controversial writings which he composed in opposition, both to the advocates of the old system, and to the real or supposed corrupters of the new doctrines, as well as the reports of public disputations, will be specified in their proper connexions in the special history of doctrines.
Briefe, Sendschreiben und Bedenken, edited by de Wette, five volumes, Berlin, 1825–28; Vol. vi., ed. Seidemann, 1856. (Comp. the chronolog. ical table of de Wette, prefixed to these Epistles, with that in note 1, above.)
Gebauer, Luther als Kirchenliederdichter. Leipzig, 1828. The latest edition appeared under the care of Winterfield, 1840. Luther's maxims are for the most part collected in the “Tischreden” (i. e. Table-talk), published by Anrifaber. An edition of the Tischreden, by Förstemann and Bind seil, 1844–48. (A translation, with Life, by A. Chalmers, in Vol. 127 of Bohn's Standard Library, London.]
The translation of the Bible was commenced during his residence in the Wartburg, and that of the New Testament was completed, 1522. The first German translation of the whole Bible was published by Hans Lufft in Wittenberg, A. D. 1534 (compare the editions of 1541. 45.) Further particulars will be found in Panzer, G. W., Entwurf einer vollständ. Geschichte der Bibelübersetzung Dr. M. Luthers. Nürnb. 1783. 8, and the other works on this subject written by Marheineke, Weidemann, Lücke, Schott, Grotefend, and Mann (Stuttgart, 1835.) Compare Gieseler, iv. 65, note. Höpf, on this translation, 1847.
• His original name was Schwarzerd; he was born at Bretten, in the Palatinate, 1497, Febr. 16th ; and delivered lectures in the university of Wittenberg. He was surnamed Præceptor Germania. His lectures on Paul's Epistle to the Romans gave rise to his celebrated work: Loci Com. munes Rerum Theologicarum seu Hypotyposes Theologicæ.* 1521 in 4to. In the same year it was also published in 8vo; it has passed through upwards of a hundred editions, more than sixty of which appeared during his lifetime. The Loci were several times improved, and from the year 1550 published under the title : Loci Præcipui Theologici. Comp. Herm. von der Hardt, Hist. Reform. Litter. P. iv. p. 30, ss. One of the best of the late editions is that of * Augusti, Lips. 1821. H. Balthasar, Historia Locorum Phil. Melanc. Gryphisw. 1761.-Luther (De Servo Arbitrio) called the work: invictum libellum, non solum immortalitate, sed canone etiam ecclesiastico dignum. Compare the passage quoted from his “ Tischreden” by Galle,
o On the signification of the word Locus, see Heppe, Dogmatik des deutschen Protes. tant. n. 6. By the Loci are meant the proper dóyuara, the sedes doctrinæ. [The classical sense of Tómoç, locus, is, a principle: Cicero speaks of loci, quasi sedes, e quibus argumenta promuntur.” The Loci Communes are the fundamental ideas or truths of theol. ogy. Melancthon says, that his Hypoty poses are wholly different from the Sententiæ of Peter Lombard: they are not a system, but rather an introduction to the study of the Scriptures. Heppe, u. s.]
p. 20. Strobel, Litterargeschichte von Phil. Melancthon's Locis Theologicis Altdorf und Nürnberg 1776. 8. Concerning other doctrinal and polemical writings of Melancthon, see Heinrich, 1. c. p. 268, ss. Galle, 1. c. Bret
l schneider, Corpus Reformatorum T. i.-xxviii. Schwarz, Melancthon's Loci nach ihrer weiteren Entwicklung (Stud. u. Kritik., 1857, s. 297: cf. ibid., 1855. Gass, Gesch, d. Prot. Dogmatik, 23. Heppe, Dogmatik des deutschen Protest. s. 9, sq. Bretschneider, Corpus Reformat. xxi. and xxii. (a critical collection of the different editions by Bindseil.) [The edition of Melancthon's works, projected by Bretschneider in his Corpus Reformat. was brought to its completion in 1860, by the publication of the 28th vol., edited by H. E. Bindseil. An edition of the Loci, after that of 1559, Berlin, 1856 ; a reprint of the edition of 1521, edited by M. I. E. Volbeding, Leipz., 1860.1
THE SYMBOLICAL BOOKS OF THE LUTHERAN CHURCH.
On the literature compare vol. i. $ 13, p. 30, and 16, p. 42. (H. Heppe, Die Bekenn
tuisschriften der altprotestantischen Kirche Deutschlands, Cassel, 1856.]
Melancthon was chosen by the newly formed Protestant church to draw up a confession of faith in a concise, clear, and pacific form, on the basis of those doctrines which he, with Luther and other divines, agreed in receiving. From its solemn presentation at the diet of Augsburg (A. D. 1530), it received the name of the Confession of Augsburg (Confessio Augustana.)" The Confutatio, published by the Roman Catholics, in opposition to the Confession of Augsburg,' gave rise, soon after, to a new symbolical book of the Lutheran Church, the Apology of the Confession, of which Melancthon was the sole author.' The Articles of Smalcald (A. D. 1536–37), composed by Luther, in much bolder terms, followed somewhat later. These completed the series of official documents and apologies, which bore upon the external relations of the new church. But in order to establish the internal relations of the Protestant Church on a firm doctrinal basis, the two Catechisms of Luther were added to the collection of symbolical books as normal compendiums.' And lastly, in consequence of many and violent controversies respecting the fundamental principles of Protestantism, which arose within the Lutheran Church itself,' it was found necessary, after various but unsuccessful attempts to restore peace, to draw up the Formula Concordiæ, (Germ. Concordienformel A. D. 1577), in which the disputed points were considered, and, as far as possible, determined. All these books were now collected into a symbolical canon (A. D. 1580), the Liber Concordiæ (Germ. Concordienbuch). In the course of time this canon acquired such high
authority, that the clergy had to subscribe it as solemnly as Scripture itself.
"Confessio Augustana, on the basis of the seventeen articles of Torgau (Schwabach), composed by order of the Prince Elector of Saxony by Luther, Jonas, Bugenhagen, and Melancthon. The original edition was published in German and Latin, A. D. 1530 by G. Rhaw (in modern times it has been edited by Winer, 1825, Tittmann, 1830, Twesten, 1840, 1850, Francke, 1846), new edition by Heppe, Kassel, 1855. [Müller, 1848.] It consists of twentyeight articles; in the first twenty-one the principal doctrines (Articuli fidei præcipui) are discussed with reference to the Roman Catholic doctrines, but in moderate terms; the last seven treat of the abusus mutatos. Further particulars (of its literary history) are given by Winer, Comparative Darstellung, p. 13. Gieseler, Church History, iv. p. 139, 243, ss. Many details respecting its origin, and the elevation of mind of its confessors, will be found in the work of Rotermund, Geschichte des Reichstages in Augsburg. Hanover, 1829. Concerning the critical part see Weber, Geschichte der Augsburgischen Confession. Frankf., 1783, 84, ii. Förstemann, Urkundenbuch, Halle, 1833. 35. Rudelbach, A. G., historisch-kritische Einleitung in die Augsburgische Confession. Dresden, 1841. On the relation of the Variata edition of 1540 (considered as the more complete and enriched (locupletirte) edition) to the invariata, see Heppe, Die confessionelle Entwicklung der altprotestantischen Kirche Deutschlands, Marb., 1854, s. 110, 89. [English translation of the Augsb. Confession, Rev. W. H. Teale, Lond., 1842. Its articles are also translated in P. Hall, Harmony of Confessions, Lond., 1842. On the Variata, see Gieseler, Church Hist., iv. $ 36, note 33. The Augsburg Confess. in its original and revised forms in Heppe, Die Bekenntuisschriften, s. 7-107, 337-407.]
• It was composed by a number of Roman Catholic theologians (among whom were Eck and Faber), and read aloud (in German) in the Diet, 1530, Aug. 3d, but no copy of it was communicated to the Protestant estates. It was only afterwards that Melancthon obtained a copy. It is reprinted in Hase, Libri Symbolici, p. 55, ss. (ed. 5th.)
• The first sketch of the Apology was composed from memory of what was contained in the Confutatio, as the author had no copy of the writing of his opponents, and presented to the Emperor Charles V., A. D. 1530, Sept. 22d. It was afterwards revised, after Melancthon had seen the Confutatio, and published 1531, both in Latin and German, together with the Confession of Augsburg. The same arrangement is adopted in the Apology as in the Confession, but the number of articles is reduced to 16.
6 With regard to its intrinsic worth, this work, no doubt, occupies the first place among the symbols of the Lutheran Church :” Winer, p. 16. Even Ernesti called it “ a masterpiece in the argument ex dictis Scripturæ, ex natura rerum, and consensu patrum," etc. See Ernesti, neue theologische Bib. liothek, vol. ii. p. 413. It was edited by Lücke, in Latin and German, Berl., 1818. [Heppe, ubi supra, 107–307.)
• These were drawn up in German, in order to be presented at the council summoned by Pope Paul III. (A. D. 1536), and signed by the assembly of
Smalcald (1537, Feb.) The first German edition appeared at Wittenberg. 1538. They were republished from a MS. in the Library of Heidelberg by Dr. Phil. Marheineke, Berl., 1817, 4°,—The work consists of three parts 1. de summis articulis divinæ majestatis; 2. de summis articulis, qui officium et opus Jesu Christi 8. redemtionem nostram concernunt; 3. articuli, de quibus agere potuerimus cum doctis et prudentibus viris vel etiam inter nos ipsos. (An appendix was afterwards added of Melancthon's treatise, De Potestate et Primatu Papæ.)—The relation of the polemic element to the irenic is here different from what it is in the Augsburg Confession. Here the polemical preponderates. On the question, whether those Articles had from the first symbolical authority, see Heppe, Dogmatik des deutschen Protestantimus, s. 106. [Heppe, Bekenntuisschriften, 317–337.]
. On the distinction between those symbolical writings which have regard to external relations, and those which refer to internal relations, see Schleiermacher, über den eigenthümlichen Werth und das Ansehen symbolischer Bücher, in the Reform. Almanach. Vol. ii. 1819, p. 235, ss. (For the Confessio Saxonica, Confessio Würtembergica, the Frankfort Recess, and the Naumburg Repetition of the Augsburg Confession, see Heppe, ubi supra.]
• In the year 1529, Luther wrote both the Catechismus major (for the use of the clergy and schoolmasters) and the Catechismus minor (for the use of the people and children), not in order to force a system of doctrines upon the church, but to supply a practical deficiency. Both were divided into five leading parts. On the different editions, appendices, etc., see Winer, 1. c. p. 16. * Augusti Einleitung in die beiden Hauptkatechismen der evangelischen Kirche. Elberfeld, 1824. Nigen, C. F., Memoria utriusque Catech. Lutheri. Lips., 1828–30. 4 Programmes 4to.
The most important of these controversies are the following :a. The Antinomian Controversy ; it originated with John Agricola of
Eisleben (from the year 1536 he was professor in the university of
J. Agricolæ Islebii. Tur., 1836. b. The Adiaphoristic Controversy, which had its origin in the Interim of
Leipsic (from the year 1548), and gave rise to a lasting difference between the more moderate views of Philip Melancthon, and the more rigid doctrines of the orthodox Lutherans. The former view was represented by the university of Wittenberg, the latter by that of Jena. [Gieseler, iv. 457, sq.] This difference manifested itself
especially in c. The Controversy between George Major and Nicolas Amsdorf, con
cerning the question, whether good works are necessary to salvation, or whether they rather possess a dangerous tendency (about the year 1559, ss.) This controversy was connected with the two fol.
lowing-viz. d. The Synergistic Controversy respecting the relation in which human
liberty stands to divine grace; it was called forth (A. D. 1555) by the treatise of John Pfeffinger : De libero Arbitrio, which was combated by Amsdorf. [Gieseler, iv. 444, 445.)