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ing towards mysticism, so John Gerhard, Dannhauer, and others, endeavored to combine strict science with practical piety. On the scholasticism of the Lutheran divines in the seventeenth century, see Tholuck, Der Geist d. lutherischen Theologen, etc., p. 246, 89. On the needful limitation of the notion of Protestant Scholasticism," ibid. p. 55, sq. On the grandeur of the Protestant dogmatic system, see Gass, Gesch. d. Prot. Dogmatik, p. 6, 89., who says that it was more profound than the theology of the Fathers of the Church, more true and consistent than that of the scholastics, and more scientifically developed and honestly outspoken than the theories of the Roman Catholic Church.”
LUTHERAN MYSTICISM, THEOSOPHY, AND ASCETICISM.
Baur, Zur Geschichte der Protest. Mystik, in Zeller's Jahrbücher, 1848, 1849. Noacha
Die christliche Mystik seit dem Reformationszeitalter (see 153) Hamberger, Stimmen aus dem Heiligthum d. christlichen Mystik und Theosophies, Stuttg., 1857, [R. A. Vaughan, Hours with the Mystics, 2d ed. 2 vols., 1860. Gieseler, Church History, iv. § 50. Erbkam, Gesch. der Protest. Secten., Hamb., 1848.)
As the scholasticism of the middle ages had been counterbalanced by mysticism, so the new scholastic tendency of the Lutheran Church, during the present period, was accompanied by a mystical tendency, representing the deeper interests of practical religion. And further, as we had there to distinguish between the mysticism of the sects, and orthodox mysticism (though its advocates spiritualized, and sometimes idealized, the doctrines of the Church, by internal interpretation), so here again we must distinctly separate these two tendencies from each other. Even in the lifetime of Luther, Andreas Carlstadt,“ Sebastian Frank,' and John Casper Schwenkfeld,' endeavored in a manner similar to that adopted by the prophets of Zwickau, and the Anabaptists)* to break up the rigid adherence to the letter of Scripture, by a fantastic idealism, and a spiritualizing theology running over into pantheism. In later times, the mysticotheosophic writings of Theophrastus Paracelsus," Valentin Weigel, and Jacob Böhme,' on the one hand, exerted a quickening influence, yet on the other, they perplexed the minds of the people, and threatened to destroy the unity of the Church. On the contrary, the more considerate John Arnd,' and his followers,' sought to introduce “True Christianity" into all the relations of life, and to revive, by means of godly sentiments and spiritual exercises, the spirit of true religion, which had been buried under a load of scholastic definitions. J. G. Arnold was induced, by his preference for mysticism, to undertake the defence of the heretical sects against the sentence which the orthodox passed upon them."
On Carlstadt, see Göbel, Andreas Bodenstein von Carlstadt nach seinem Charakter und Verhältniss zu Luther, in the Studien und Kritiken, 1841,
. 44, sq. Erbkam, Geschichte der Protestantischen Secten im Zeitalter der Reformation, Hamb., 1848, s. 174, 89. *C. F. Jäger, Andreas Bodenstein von Carlstadt, Stutt., 1856. Baur, ubi supra (Zeller's Jahrb., 1848.) Carlstadt belongs here only in part, for he held more strictly than the rest of the mystics to the letter of Scripture.
* Sebastian Frank was born at Donauwörth, in the beginning of the sixteenth century; died in 1545. His chief works are: Weltbuch— Zeitbuch -Encomium Moria-Sprüchwörter-Paradoxa. Compare Wackernagel, Proben deutscher Prosa, i. s. 319, sq. K, Hagen, Geist der Reformation und seiner Gegensätze, ii. 314, 89. Schenkel, Wesen des Protest. i. 13e, sq. Erbkam, loc. cit. 286, 8q. Baur, loc. cit. p. 490, 8q. “It is only in the most recent times that the originality of Sebastian Frank has been particularly recognised, and that a place has been assigned him among those men, in whose varying tendencies are found the elements that determine the character of the period of the Reformation.” [Hase's Church History, New York,
[ ed., p. 436.]
Schwenkfeld was born A, D. 1490, at Ossing, in Silesia, and died 1561. ( (Luther called him Stenkfeld.) Concerning Schwenkfeld and his friend Valentin Krautwalk, see Planck, v. i. p. 89, ss., and compare special history of doctrines. See also, *G. L. Hahn, Schwenckfeldii Sententia de Christi Persona et Opere Exposita. Vratislav., 1847. Erbkam, 357, sq. Baur, 502, sq.
" With Schwenkfeld we come first into the real sphere of Protestant mysticism ; he, if any one of the olden time, is the representative of the Protestant, and especially of the Protestant Lutheran, Mysticism.” [Comp. especially Gieseler, Church Hist. iv. § 33. Baur's Dreieinigkeit, iii. 219, 244, Dorner, Person Christi, ii. 573, 624. Niedner's Gesch, d. Kirche, 673-677.) • See below 8 231. Erbkam, loc. cit. 479, 89.
His proper name was Philippus Aureolus Theophrastus Bombastus Paracelsus ab Hohenheim ; he was a native of Switzerland, and died A. D. 1541. His works were published at Basle, 1585, 8s., xi. 4. Compare H. A. Preu, die Theologie des Theophrast. Paracelsus, Berlin, 1837, 8. M. Carrière, Philosophische Weltanschanung der Reformationszeit., Stuttg., 1847. [Gieseler, Church Hist. iv. 566. Tennemann's, Gesch, d. Phil. ix. 205. Ritter's Gesch. d. Phil. v. 517; Christl. Phil. ii. 155, sq. Hagenbach, Vorlesungen über die Reformation, iii. 337, sq.]
• Weigel was born a. D. 1533, at Hayn, in Misnia, and died 1588, at Tschoppau, where he was a pastor. His writings were not published till after his death-viz., guldener Griff, d. i. alle Dinge ohne Irrthum zu erken. nan, 1616. Erkenne dich selbst, 1618. Kirchen und Hauspostill, 1618... Comp. Arnolds Kirchen und Ketzerhist. ii. vol. xvii. c. 17. Walch, Einleitung in Die Religions Streitigkeiten, iv. p. 1024-1065. Planck, Geschichte der protestantischen Theologie, p. 72, s. Hagenbach, Vorlesungen über
ss die Reformation, iii. p. 337, ss. [See also Gieseler, Church Hist. iv. 567. Dorner's Person Christi, ii. 224. Baur, Versöhnungslehre, 463 ; Dreieinig keit, iii. 257. Ritter, Gesch. d. Philos. vi. 77. Niedner, Gesch. d. Kirche
737, 89. L. Pertz, Der Weigelianismus, in the Zeitschrift f. d. hist. Theol., 1857.]
Böhme was born a. d. 1575, at Altseidenburg, in Upper Lausatia, and lived at Görlitz, where he was a shoemaker; died 1620. His writings were edited by Gichtel, Amstel., 1682, 1730, 6 vol. 8. Schiebler, Leips., 1831 ; 6 Bde. and Stuttg., 1835, 89., '5 Bde., with an account of his life by Albert Von Franckenberg. Comp. Wullen. J. Böhme's Leben und Lehre, Stuttgard, 1836, 8. By the same : Blüthen aus J. Böhmes Mystik. Stuttg., 1838. A. E, Umbreit, Jacob Böhme, Hiedelberg, 1835. Baur, Gnosis, p. 558, ss. Hagenbach, Vorlesung. Über die Reform. I. c. p. 345, ss. Baur, Zeller's Jahrb., 1850. Hamberger, Die Lehre des deutschen Philosophen J. Böhme, München, 1844. Carrière, ubi supra, 609. Tholuck, in Zeitschrift f. Christl., Wissenschaft, 1852, No. 25, 8q. Auberlen, in Herzog's Realencyclop. ii, 265, sq. [H. A. Fechner, Böhme's Leben und Schriften (a prize essay), 1857. Hegel, Gesch. d. Phil. ij. 296. Ritter, Christl. Philos. ii.
. 165, sq. A. Peip, Jac. Böhme, der Vorläufer christlicher Wissenschaft, 1860. Life by Bialloblotzky, in the Penny Cyclopedia. Schaff's Kirchenfreund, 1853. Christian Review, July, 1854. Works trapsl., 4 vols., fol., Lond., 1764–81. Ellistone was the chief translator, and Law proposed another edition ; see Law's Animadversions on Dr. Trapp.]
Arndt was born A. D. 1555, at Ballenstädt, in the duchy of Anhalt, suffered much from persecution, filled the office of Superintendent in Celle, and died 1621. He wrote: Vier Bücher vom wahren Christenhum, 1605, often reprinted (which were combated by Luc. Osiander); Paradiesgärtlein voll christlicher Tugenden ; Evangelien postille, and other works. Comp. Freheri Theatr. Viror, Eruditione Claror. p. 409. Tzschirners Memorabilien u. 1, Lpzg., 1812. Hagenbach, Vorlesungen, etc., l. c. p. 371, ss. M. Goebel, Gesch, des christl. Lebens in der rheinisch-westphäl. evang. Kirche, Coblenz, 1852, ii. 464, sq. H. L. Pertz, De Johanne Arndio. Hanov., 1852, 4to. (Gieseler, Church Hist. iv. 573. O. Wehrhan's Lebensgesch. Johann. Arndt's Ham.
0. burg, 1848. Arndt's True Christ. transl. by Hoffmann, Chambersb., 1834.]
Joach. Lütkemann, Heinr. Müller, Christian Scriver, and others. The better class of preachers, and especially the authors of spiritual songs, exerted also a beneficial influence upon the religious belief of the people. Comp. Hagenbach, Vorlesungen, p. 163, ss.
10 Arnold was born a. D. 1665, at Annaberg, and died 1714 at Perleburg, where he was a pastor.—He wrote: Unparteiische Kirchen und Ketzerhistorie, Frankf., 1699, fol. Schafh., 1740, ss., 3 vol. fol.-Wahre Ausbildung des inwendigen Christenthums—erste Liebe-geistliche Frfahrungslehre, and several other treatises. See Goebel, as above.
Lutheran mysticism degenerated especially in the case of Quirinus Kuhlmann (1651-89), John George Gichtel (1638–1710), and his co-laborers Breckling, Teberfeldt, etc. Compare Hagenbach Vorlesungen, iv. p. 328, ss. These enthusiasts are of no importance in the history of doctrines. [Hase, Church History, 508.]
REFORMING TENDENCIES. JOHN VALENTIN ANDREÆ, CALIXT,
Not the mystics alone, but also theologians of common sense and sound judgment, having thrown off the yoke of the theology of the schools, united with those of a more pious tendency, for the purpose of reforming the Church. John Valentin Andrece combated with the weapons of satire, and yet with due earnestness, both the corruptions of the schools and the mysticism of his age. George Calixt, guided by a spirit of Christian moderation, endeavored to reduce the doctrines necessary to salvation to the Apostles' Creed, and thus, by degrees, to effect a union of the different denominations, but exposed himself, in consequence, to the charge of Syncretism. The influence which he exerted upon his age was less positive than that of Philip Jacob Spener, whose sermons, writings, and life, were in this respect, of great importance.' Proceeding from the central point of Christian experience, and resting on the basis of Scriptural truth which he had practically studied, he equally avoided scholastic subtilty and theosophic fancies, and was animated by the pure and glowing mysticism of the heart alone. · He, as well as his followers (the Pietists), were at first attacked with rage and scorn, but nevertheless imparted a most beneficial impulse to their age. He was upheld by the jurist Christian Thomasius, who took part in preparing the more enlightened culture of a new century, rather, however, by his scientific and political attainments, than by profound and original views in theology.'
· Valentin Andreæ was the nephew of Jacob Andreæ (who was one of the authors of the Formula Concordiæ), and died A. D. 1654. On his life, as well as on the sect of the Rosicrucians, who stand in close connection with the history of mysticism, see Hossbach, Val. Andreæ und sein Zeitalter, Berlin, 1819 ; Also, Vita ab ipso conscripta, Berol., 1849 [ed. F. H. Rheinwald. Niedner's Gesch. d. Kirche, 740, sq. Pabst, Andrea's entlarvter Apap., 1827. Gieseler's Church History, iv. 569, sq., where is a full account of the “ Chymical Marriage of Christian Rosenkreutz," and of the “Fama Fraternitatis.” See also, Guhrauer in Niedner's Zeitschrift, f. d. hist. Theol. ogie, 1852, Ueber den Verfasser, Sinn und Zweck der Fama Fraternitatis. The Fama and Confessio were republished at Frankfort, 1827. On the Rosicrucians, see Figuier, L'Alchimie, Paris, 1854, chap. v. pp. 247–266 ; Notes and Queries, Vol. vii. viii.
• Calixt was born a. D. 1586, in the duchy of Holstein, and was professor of theology in the University of Helmstädt. His works are mentioned $ 214, note 7. Compare * Henke, Calixts Briefe. Halle, 1833.
same: die Univ. Helmstädt im 16, Jahrh., Halle, 1833. Planck, Geschichte der protestantischen Theologie, p. 90, ss. G. W. Gass, Georg Calixt und der Synkretismus, Bresl., 1846. Schmid Heinr., Geschichte der synkretistischen Streitigkeiten in der Zeit des Georg Calixt., Erlang, 1846. Gass says, “ Calixt, to a certain extent, wished to maintain a Lutheran Protestantism, but not a Protestant Lutheranism ; he sought Protestanism in Lutheranism, but not the converse;" Gesch. d. Prot. Dogmatik, s. 308. [Comp. Gieseler, Church Hist. iv. 8.52, pp. 584–593. Baur, d. Calixtin. Synkretismus, in the Theol. Jahrb. (Tübing.) Bd. vii. Henke, Calixtus und seine Zeit. i. ii. 1, 2, Halle, 1853-60: comp. the Christ. Remembrancer, Lond., 1855. Schweizer, Protest. Central-Dogmen. i. 171, ii. 532. Niedner, Geschichte d. Christlichen Kirche, 743–7.]
• Spener was born a. D. 1635, at Rappoldsweiler, in Alsatia. Strassburg, Frankfort, Dresden, and Berlin, were successively the scenes of his labors. He was a prebendary at Cologne on the Spree, and died 1705. He wrote: Das geistliche Priesterthum., Frankfurt, 1677, 12, and other editions.Pia Desideria., Francof., 1678, 12.-Theol. Bedenken., Halle, 1700, ss., 4 voll Consilia et Judicia Theol. Frankof., 1709, iii, 4.-Letzte Theol. Bedenken., Halle, 1721, iii. 4. Hossbach, Spener und seine Zeit. Berlin, 1827, i. 8.At the same time Aug. Herm. Francke exerted a considerable influence rather on the life of Christians than on systematic theology. Nevertheless the pietistic tendency is of importance in the history of doctrines, on the one hand, because it was indifferent to all scholastic definitions ; on the other, because it laid great stress upon the doctrines concerning sin, repentance, etc.; and lastly, on account of the peculiar coloring which it gave to the theology of the evangelical Church. The diligent study of the Bible, which he insisted on, could not but produce good fruit. See Ilgen, C. F., Historia Collegii philobiblici., Lips., 1836–40, 3 Progr. [See Rose and Pusey, on German Rationalism, 1835. L. Woods, in Preface to his Translation of Knapp's Christian Theology. Tholuck, in Princeton Essays, vol.
. i. p. 530, 89.]
• He died A. D. 1728. Comp. Luden, Thomasius nach seinen Schicksalen und Schriften, Berlin, 1805.