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II. THE REFORMED CHURCH.
ZWINGLE AND CALVIN.
Hundeshagen, Die Conflicte des Zuinglianismus, Lutheranismus und Calvinismus in der
Bernischen Landeskirche, Bern., 1842. Al. Schweizer, Die Glaubenslehre der Reform. Kirche dargestellt, 2, 8vo., Zürich, 1844–7; Ibid., Nachwort zur Glaubenslehre, in Zeller's Jahrb., 1848; (Ibid., Protestant. Centraldogmen, 2 Bde., Zürich, 1854.] Baur, Princip und Charakter des Lehrbegriffs der Ref. Kirche, in Zeller's Jahrb., 1847. Schneckenburger, Reform. Dogmatik mit Rücksicht auf Schweizer's Glaubensl., in the Stud. und Kritiken, 1848, 1st and 3d, Heft.; Toid., Die neueren Verbandlungen betreffend das Princip des Ref. Lehrbegriffs, in Zeller's Jahrb., 1848; [Ibid. Zur Kirchlichen Christologie, Neue Bearbeitung, Pforzheim, 1848.) Ebrard, Vindiciæ Theol. Reform. Erlangen, 1848. Al. Schweizer, Die Synthese des Determinismus und der Freiheit in der Reform. Dogmatik (against Ebrard, in Zeller's Jahrb., 1849). · Ebrard, Das Verhältniss der Ref. Dogmatik zum Determinismus, Zürich, 1849. Zelo ler, Das Theologische System Zwingli's (Tübing. Jahrb., 1853). Ch. Sigwart, Ulrich Zwingli, Stuttg., 1835. J. G. Scholten, Die Lehre der ref. Kirche nach ihren Grundsätzen aus den Quellen dargestellt, 3 Aufl. Lpz., 1855. Comp. $ 223. [Zeller, Charakter des Zwingl. Lehrbegriffs, in Theol. Jahrb., 1857. Jäger, in Studien und Kritiken, 1856. J. W. Röder, Der Schweizer. Reform. Zwingli. St. Gallen, 1855. Stahl, in Luther. Kirche und Union, Berl., 1859, reviewed by Stier and Baxmann in the Deutsche Zeitschrift, Berlin, 1859. Gieseler, Church History, iv. & 35. Heinrich Heppe, Die Dogmatik der evangel. Reform. Kirche, aus den Quellen Elberfeld, 1861.)
In the Swiss cities of Glarus, Einsiedeln, and Zurich, Ulric Zwingle preached the pure evangelical doctrine, and combated the abuses of the Papacy, independently of Luther.' In consequence of a difference of opinion concerning the doctrine of the Lord's Supper," which manifested itself as soon as Luther's views became known in Switzerland, Zwingle and the other Swiss reformers were compelled to adopt their own course, and a new Church was formed, along side of the Lutheran, based on peculiarities of its own, in respect to doctrinal matters, as well as in its constitution and mode of worship, called, by way of distinction, the Reformed Church, though it did not receive this appellation until a later period.' Zwingle himself propounded the principles of pure evangelical faith in several writings, which may be regarded as the beginning of a systematic theology of the Reformed Church. But it was reserved for the French reformer, John Calvin,' after the death of Zwingle, to compose the work entitled : Institutio Religionis Christiance, in which those principles were arranged in a system more comprehensive, well-arranged, and connected, than the Loci of Melancthon.'
· He was born A. D. 1484, Jan, 1st, at Wildhaus, in Toggenburg. Concerning his life, compare the biographies composed by Oswald Myconius, Nüscheler, Hess, Schuler, Hottinger (transl. by F. C. Porter, Harrisb., 1851]; Röder (der Schweizer Ref. Huldr. Zwingl. St. Gallen, 1856); Christoffel, Ulr. Zwing. Leben und ausgewählte Schriften, Elberfeld, 1857 [transl. by John Cochrane, Edinb., 1858. Life, by Prof. Robbins, in Bibl. Sacra, Andov., vols. viii. xi. Hess's Life transl. by Lucy Aiken, Lond., 1812.] His works were edited by Gualther, Tig., 1545, ss., 1581, Tom. iv, fol., and by * Schuler and Schulthess, Zwingli's Werke, vol. i. and ii. in German, vol. iii. v. vi. vii. in Latin.-- Leading historical points in the Swiss Reformation during its first period : 1. Disputation at Zurich (A. D. 1523, Jan. 29tb.), Zwingle's interpretation of the articles, and his reasons.-2. Disputation (Oct. 26th-28th.) Zwingle's treatise entitled : christenliche Ynleitung Decree of the magistracy respecting images, the mass, etc.-Final establishment of the Reformation • at Zurich. Disputations at Baden (1526) and Berne (1528.)—The Reformation of Berne (Bernard Haller, Sebastian Meier, and others.)— The Reformation of Basle (1529, Oecolampadius.) The war of Cappel.—The death of Zwingle, 1531, Oct. 11th.--For further particulars see Bullinger, Reformationsgeschichte herausgeg. von Hottinger and Vögeli. iii. Frauenf., 1838. J.J. Hottinger, evangelische Kirchengeschichte, Zurich, 1708, iv. (A new edition by Wirz-Kirchofer was published, Zurich, 1813–19.) Johannes von Müller, Geschichte der schweizerischen Eidgenossenschaft, fortgesetzt von J. J. Hottinger, Vol. 6 and 7. Comp. Gieseler, iv. pp. 12, 13. The more recent writings on this period, by Göbel, Lange, Goupp, Herzog, Meyer, reviewed by Ullmann, in the Studien und Kritiken, 1843.
See the special history of doctrines (on the doctrine of the Lord's Supper).
Theologians are still divided on the question, as to what constitutes the peculiarity of the Reformed Church (see § 212, note 3, and the works there referred to). According to Schweizer, the principle of the Reformed theology, running through all its doctrinal statements, is to be sought in the attempt to derive all salvation and all that leads it, absolutely from God alone (not from anything created); with which, too, is connected the more urgent emphasis laid on Scripture alone, and the closer relation made between the law and the gospel, in the Calvinistic system (opposition to all paganising, see above $ 213). Baur sought for this peculiarity in the absoluteness of God. Schneckenburger especially urges the Christological element, as the Re. formed theology makes the historical side more prominent, and the Lutheran the speculative aspects of Christology (see his Christology, p. 190, note). However it may be with these statements, it is at any rate certain, that the differences, which it is the office of dogmatic science to search out, are entirely subordinate in comparison with the essential and thorough going opposition between Catholicism and Protestantism; and it would only impede the healthful growth of Protestantism, if the undeniable differences should be so exaggerated as to make out an irreconcileable antagonism among Protestants themselves.—While formerly the exact distinction between the Lutheran and Reformed systems was hardly stated, dogmatic acumen is now in danger of running out into subtle refinements. The times recommend holding to that in which they agree. On the shaping of the Reformed theology in distinction from the Lutheran, see Gass, s. 82, 89.
• Luther and the Lutherans called them Sacramentarians, enthusiasts, etc. (afterwards Calvinists). It was in France that the name “religion prétendue reformée" took its rise. [Heppe, Ursprung und Geschichte der Bezeichnungen, "Reformirte" und " Lutherische" Kirche, 1859.)
• In addition to the polemical writings, sermons, letters, etc., of Zwingle, we may mention as bearing upon systematic theology: Commentarius de Vera et Falsa Religione (it was addressed to Francis I.) Tigur., 1525.—Fidei Ratio, ad Carol. Imp. Tig. 1530, 4. Christianæ Fidei brevis et clara Expositio, ad Regem christ. (ed. Bullinger.) Tig., 1536. On Zwingle's importance as a systematic theologian, see the works of Zeller and Sigwart; also Gass, i. 91.
• He was born at Noyon, in Picardy, A. D. 1519, July 10th, and died at Geneva, 1564, May 27th. Concerning his life, see * Henry, Leben Calvins, Hamb., 1835–45, 4 vol. Bretschneider, Bildung und Geist Calvins und der Genferkirche (Reformations-Almanack, 1821). [Biographies of Calvin: Henry's Life, transl. by Stebbing, 2 vols., Lond. and N. Y., 1854; Beza's Life of C. transl. by Gibson, Phil., 1836; Dyer; T. Smyth, 1835; Audin, (Rom. Cath.) from the French (3d ed. 1845), Louisville; M. Haag, in La France Protestante ; Robbins, in Bib. Sacra, ii, iii.; Kitto's Journal, vols. iii., vii.; Deutscher Kirchenfreund, Phil., 1857; Christian Examiner, 1860; New American Encyclopedia. Correspondence, ed. by Bonner, transl., 3 vols., Edinb. and Phil. ; Life and Selections from his writings by Stähelin, 1861, in Hagenbach's Leben und Schriften der Väter der Reformirten Kirche. British and Foreign Quarterly Review, Edinburgh, 1860.]
Christianæ Religionis Institutio, totam fere pietatis summam, et quicquid est in doctrina salutis cognitu necessarium, complectens: omnibus pietatis studiosis lectu dignissimum opus (the preface was addressed to Francis I). It was composed at Basle, A. D. 1535. Only the edition of 1536 (published in Basle by Thomas Plater) is extant at present as the first : but it was undoubtedly preceded by an anonymous edition written in French (see Henry, i. p. 102, ss.) — The edition of Basle was followed by those of Strasburg (published by Ribelius), 1539 (some copies under the name Alcuinus), 1543, 45, and Geneva, 1550, 53, 54.-An entirely new edition appeared, 1559, at Geneva (published by Robert Stephanus), from which the later editions were reprinted. Comp. Henry, l. c. p. 286, ss., and the opinions of Bretschneider and Krummacher, which he cites. The German translation of Bretschneider appeared 1823, at Elberfeld. In addition to his Institutio, Calvin composed many other doctrinal and exegetical works, which will be mentioned in the special history of doctrines.—The complete works of Calvin were published, Geneva, 1617, xii. fol. Amst., 1671, (1677), ix. fol. Comp. also the Anecdota edited by Bretschneider, Lips., 1835 (from the library of Gotla). See Gass, i. 99. [His whole works, transl., Edbg., 51 vols., completed, 1855. His Institutes, frequent English editions (Allen); Phil. Presb. Board, in 2 vols. New Test. Comm., and Institutes, ed. Tholuck, Halle. A French transl. of the Institutes, reprinted in Paris, 1859; new edition of his Comm, on New Test., in French.)
THE SYMBOLICAL BOOKS OF THE REFORMED CHURCH.
Compare the collections mentioned vol. i. § 13. [The collections of Augusti, 1828; Mess,
1830; Niemeyer, 1840; Sylloge Confess., Oxon., 1827. Harmony of Confess., 1586, 1846. E. G. A. Böckell, Bekenntnisschriften, Leipz., 1847. Heppe, Die Bekenn. twisschriften d. reform. Kirche Deutschlands, 1860. Helvetic Confess., by Trechsel, in Herzog's Realencyclopädie.]
The different mode of development of the Reformed Church on the one side, and of the Lutheran Reformation in Germany on the other,' accounts for the difference in the character of their symbolical writings. In the case of the Reformed Church they were less complete in themselves, being at first restricted to confessions of faith drawn up by individuals, or in separate localities, and only by degrees coming into general use as representations of the doctrines held by the Church. Nor should we overlook the evident difference between the characters of Zwingle and Calvin.' Hence in forming a more precise estimate about the doctrines, it is important to make a distinction between those symbolical writings which were composed before, and those after, the influence of Calvin was felt.' From what has already been said, it follows that we are not to expect a definitely limited number of Calvinistic symbolical writings, inasmuch as only some of them acquired general authority in the Reformed Church, though not all in the same degree; while the importance of others was limited to certain localities,' or to individuals,' or to certain periods at the expiration of which they lost their authority
Compare Hagenbach, Vorlesungen über Wesen und Geschichte der Reformation ii. p. 98, p. 103, ss. Schweizer, ubi supra, s. 7, sq. [Heppe, Dogmatik d. ref. Kirche.
• As regards his personal character, Zwingle probably had far more of Luther in him than Calvin, while the latter is rather to be compared with Melancthon (at least as regards his scientific attainments and writings). Yet we must not exaggerate the doctrinal differences between Calvin and Zwingle (see the special history of doctrines.) [See the works of Zeller, Stahl, and Sigwart, ubi supra.]
Compare Winer, pp. 18 and 19 of his Comp. Darstellung.
E.g. the First Confession of Basle. Nor were the Confessions of different countries (such as the Gallicana, Anglicana, Scotica, Belgica, Marchica, etc.), in the first instance, adopted by any but the Protestants of the respective countries, though the principles contained in them were tacitly recognised in other Protestant countries, and sometimes signed by their representatives,
• This was the case with the said Fidei Ratio of Zwingle, as well as with bis Clara et Brevis Expositio; comp. Winer, p. 18. On the other hand, the
private confession of Bullinger obtained such authority, as to become the second Confessio Helvetica; the private confession of Guido de Bres stood in the same relation to the Confessio Belgica. See § 222, notes 4 and 9. [Comp. Niemeyer, Collectio Confess.
• Thus the Confessio Tetrapolitana, which fell into oblivion, the second Confessio of Basle (the first Confessio Helvetica 1536), the Formula Consensus, and several others; see the subsequent sections.
A. SYMBOLICAL WRITINGS PRIOR TO THE TIME OF CALVIN.'
Escher, in the Encyclopædia published by Ersch and Gruber, 2d Section, Vol. v. p. 223,
ss. (Niemeyer, ubi supra. Heppe, ubi supra. Hall's Harmony of Confessions; Introduction.]
As early as the Diet of Augsburg, the four cities of Strasburg, Constance, Memmingen, and Lindau, in Upper Germany, which were favorably disposed to the doctrines of Zwingle, presented a separate confession of faith, which is on that account called Confessio Tetrapolitana (or sometimes Conf. Argentinensis, Suevica) ;' and Zwingle also presented a statement of his faith to the Emperor Charles V.' The Church of Basle gave (A. D. 1534) the first public testimony of its evangelical faith by the publication of a creed, which was also adopted in Mülhausen (Confessio Basiliensis I., Mülhausana).' The continuance of the controversy respecting the Lord's Supper, and the efforts made by Bucer and others to restore peace, gave rise to the Second Confession of Basle, or the First Confessio Helvetica, which was drawn up A. D. 1536, signed by various Swiss cities, and transmitted to the Lutheran theologians then assembled at Smalcald."
· It was drawn up by M. Bucer, and published A. D., 1531, 4to, both in German and Latin. German editions of it also appeared, Neustadt, on the Hardt, 1580, and Zweibrücken (Deux Ponts), 1604, 4to. It consists of 23 articles. The 18th article, concerning the Lord's Supper, differs but little from the Confessio Augustana (see the special history of doctrines). Planck, iii. 1, p. 83, ss.—The Latin text is given in the Corpus et Synt., i. p. (215, ss.), 173, ss., and by Augusti, p. 327. Comp. Winer, 1. c., and Wernsdorf, His toria Confess. Tetrapol. Vite., 1721, 4. (Also in Hall's Harmony, and
[ Niemeyer, pp. 740–770.] The four cities afterwards, at the Schweinfurt Convention, subscribed the Augsburg Confession. See Heppe, Confessionelle Entwicklung, 72.
* Comp. 8 219, note 4. Winer, l. c. [Niemeyer, in his collection, gives Articuli sive Conclusiones LXVII. H. Zwingli, with the Theses Bernenses appended, pp. 3–15; Z's Fidei Ratio, pp. 17–35; and his Expositio, pp. 36–77.]