Page images
[ocr errors]

“ Bekannthnuss vnsres heyligen Christenlichen Gloubens wie es die kylch zu Basel haldt” (with the motto: Corde creditur ad justitiam, ore autem fit confessio ad salutem. Rom. x.), in 12 articles ; it was founded upon a sketch drawn up by Oecolampadius (see Hagenbach, Geschichte der Basler Confession. Basle, 1827. Appendix A.); the German copy of it is given,

, ibid. p. 37, ss., the Latin in Corpus et Synt. i. (93), 72, 88. . Augusti, p. 103, ss.

• It was composed at a synod in Basle, 1536, by theologians deputed by the cities Zurich, Berne, Basle, Schafhausen, St. Gallen, Mülhausen, and Biel (drawn up by H. Bullinger, Oswald Myconius, Simon Gryneaus, Leo Judæ, and Casper Grosmann), with the assistance of Bucer and Capito, the delegates from Strasburg-On the cause and origin of the said confession, see * Kirchofer, Oswald Myconius, Zurich, 1813, p. 271-316. Hess, Lebensgeschichte Heinrich Bullingers, vol. i. p. 199, ss., 217, 88. Escher, 1. c. On the relation in which it stood to the first confession of Basle, see Hagenbach, Geschichte der Basler Confession, p. 67. [Niemeyer, pp. 78–122.]

$ 222.


The Church of Geneva having been at first founded upon the basis of the Calvinistic doctrine, independently of the Church of Zurich, was brought into closer connection with it (A. D. 1549) by means of the Consensus Tigurinus (which had reference to the doctrine of the Lord's Supper);" while the doctrine of predestination, more fully developed by Calvin, was established in the Consensus Genevensis (A. D. 1552).' But it was not until Frederick III., Prince Elector of the Palatinate, had joined the Reformed Church, that symbols were adopted which bound the Churches more closely together. These were, on the one hand, the Catechism of Heidelberg (A. D. 1562), drawn up by Caspar Olevianus and Zacharias Ursinus ;on the other, the Second Confessio Helvetica, composed by Bullinger, and published at the request of the Prince Elector, A. D. 1564. The principles contained in them are also set forth more or less distinctly in the other Reformed creeds, e. g. in the Confessio Gallicana, Anglicana, Scoticana,' Hungarica (Czengerina), Belgica,' the Confessio Sigismundi (Brandenburgica, Marchica)," the Catechismus Genevensis," the Declaratio Thorunensis," etc. And lastly, the controversies carried on between the different sections of the Reformed Church (especially concerning the doctrine of predestination)," showed the necessity of symbolical definitions similar to those contained in the Formula Concordiæ of the Lutheran Church. Such were the Decrees of the Synod of Dort (A. D. 1618)," and the Formula Consensus drawn up in Switzerland,

[ocr errors]




Consensio Mutua in Re Sacramentaria Ministror. Tigur. et J. Calvini, consisting of 36 articles, in Calvini Opp. viii. p. 648, ss., and in his Tract. Theolog. (Geneva, 1611, Amst., 1667, fol.) It was separately printed, 1554, by Robert Stephan. Winer, p. 19. Comp. Hess, Lebensgeschichte Heinrich Bullingers, ii. p. 15–20. Henry, Leben Calvins, ii, 473, note and appendix 181. Calvin's spirit showed itself in such a way in relation to the Swiss type of theology, and to the German-Lutheran form, that he was able to develop the former, freeing it from what was rude and immature, without merging it in the latter :" Gass, Gesch. d. Prot. Dogmatik, i. 126. (Niemeyer, loc. cit. 190-217.]

* De æterna Dei Prædestinatione, qua in salutem alios ex hominibus elegit, alios suo exitio reliquit, it. de providentia, qua res humanas gubernat, Consensus pastorum Genevensis ecclesiæ, a J. Calvino expositus. Genev., 1552, 8. (in Opp. vii. 688, ss., and in vol. viii, of the Dutch edition, p. 593, ss.; Tract. Theol., p. 688.) On the (erroneous) statement of Planck and Marheineke, that this Consensus had also been adopted by the citizens of Zurich, see Escher, I. c. Hagenbach, Geschichte der Basler Confess. p. 83, and Winer, p. 19. Henry, ii. 42. [Niemeyer, 218–310.]

• Its German title is : Christlicher Underricht, wie der in Kirchen und Schulen der churf. Pfalz getrieben wirdt (i. e. Christian instruction, as imparted in the churches and schools of the Palatinate). It was also called Catech. Palatinus, the Palatine Catechism. Joshua Lagus and Lambert Ludolph Pithopæus translated it into Latin. An edition, which contained both the Latin and the German, appeared, Heidelberg, 1563, 8. In later times it was translated into almost all modern languages, and very frequently commented upon : e. 9., by H. Alting ; see the edition of E. A. Lewald, Heidelb., 1841. It consists of three principal parts: 1. Concerning the misery of man in consequence of sin; 2. Concerning the redemption from that state; and, 3. Concerning man's gratitude for that redemption. It is divided into 129 questions. (The 80th' question concerning the mass was omitted in many editions.) Comp. Simon von Alpen, Geschichte und Literatur des Heidelberg Katechismus Frankf. a. M., 1810, 8. Reinäcker (in the Allgemeine Encyclopædie 2d sect., 4th part.) Beckhaus in Illgens historische Zeitschrift, viii, 2, p. 39, and Augusti (see p. 10.) Seisen, Gesch. der Reformation in Heidelb. bis zur Abfassung des Heidelb. Katechismus, Bern., 1848. Sudhoff, der Heidelb. Kat. Creuznach, 1851; ibid., Fester Grund christ. Lehre, ein Hülfsbuch zum Heidelb. Kat. (drawn up from the German writings of Caspar Olevianus, with dissertations by the author), Frankf, a. M., 1854. [Niemeyer gives both the German and the Latin form, Pp. 390-461.

English version in the Constitution of the Reformed Dutch Church of North America, Appendix, pp. 3–40. The literature of the Heidelb. Catechism, Mercersb. Quarterly, Oct. 1860; on English Versions, ibid., Jan., 1861. In England an edition, 1850, with bibliographical no tices by Rev. A. S. Thelwall.J. W. Nevin, History and Genius of the Heidelberg Catechism, Chambersburg, 1847. The Catechism was introduced in various parts of Switzerland (St. Gall., Zurich); in Hungary and Poland ; in most of the German Reformed Churches; in the Netherlands, by the Synod of Wesel, 1688, of Dort, 1574 and 1618; in the Dutch



Reformed, and German Reformed Churches of America-of the latter it is the only symbolical book. On Olevianus and Ursinus, see Sudhoff, in Hagenbach's Leben und Schriften d. Väter der reformirten Kirche, Bd. viii. 1857; he shows that this Catechism was on the basis of those of Calvin and à Lasco. On the different early editions of the Catechism, on Qu. 80, etc., see Niemeyer, Præfatio, lvii., 89.]

Confessio Helvetica Posterior (it was also called : Confessio et Expositio brevis et simplex sinceræ Religionis Christianæ). At the request of Frederick III., Prince Elector of the Palatinate (1564), it was edited by Bullinger, first in Latin (1566), and afterwards in a German translation made by the author himself. It bas been often republished: by Kindler, 1825, 8, and by *0. F. Fritzsche, Tur., 1839 (with Prolegomena.) Compare Escher, 1. c. It has 30 chapters. It was sanctioned not only in Switzerland, * but also in Germany (in the Palatinate), and Scotland, as well as by the Polish, Hungarian, and French Reformed churches. It was translated into French by Theodore Beza, Geneva, 1566, 8, and by Cellérier, ibid., 1819, 8. (Niemeyer, pp. 466-536.]

• It consisted of 40 articles. It was set forth and sanctioned, under the influence of the preacher Chaudieu, by the Synod of Paris, A. D. 1559, presented first to Francis II., A. D. 1560, and afterwards to Charles IX., at Poissy, by Beza, A. D. 1561, and confirmed by Henry IV. and his mother, at the Synod of Rochelle, 1571. A Latin translation of it appeared, 1566. Comp. Corp. et Synt, i. p. (99) 77, ss.; Augusti, p. 110, ss. A shorter Confession in 18 articles was handed in to Henry IV.; see Henry, Leben Calvins, iji. 469, note. It is a different work from that which was published at Heidelberg, 1566, 8, under the title : Confession und Kurze Bekanntnuss des Glaubens der reformirten Kirchen in Frankreich (i. e. a Creed and short Confession of Faith adopted by the French Reformed Churches), which was intended to be given to Maximilian II., and the estates of the German Empire on the day of election. For further particulars, see Winer, p. 19. (See also, De Felice, Histoire des Protestants de la France; transl. by Lobdell, N. Y., 1851; Merle d'Aubigné; Puaux, Hist. de la Ref. Franç., Tom. iv. 1860 ; Soldan, Gesch. des Protest. in Frankreich, 2, Leips., 1855.]

. Commonly called the XXXIX. (at first XLII.) Articles, drawn up by Cranmer and Ridley in the reign of King Edward VI. (A. D. 1551), revised in the reign of Queen Elizabeth, and confirmed 1562, by a Synod at London. They were originally published under the title : Articuli, de quibus convenit inter Archiepiscopos et Episcopos utriusque Provinciæ, et Clerum universum in Synodo, Londini anno 1562, secundum computationem Ecclesiæ Anglicanæ, ad tollendam opinionum dissensionem, et consensum in vera rel. firmandum; editi auctoritate serenissimæ Reginæ, 1571. The English edition is given in the Book of Common Prayer, the Latin in Corp. et Synt. i. p. (125) 99, ss. Augusti, p. 126, ss. A Church Catechism was composed by John Poinet (1553) in four sections, by order of King Edward VI. Comp. Winer, p. 22. Marsh, Bp. [Comparative View of the Churches

* Only in Basle it was not received until a later period; this delay was occasioned by the Crypto-Calvinistic movements of Sulzer: seo Hagenbach, Gesch. d. Confess.

[ocr errors]

of England and Rome, 1814, 1841.) Germ. transl. by F. Eichel, Grimma, 1848. [Chs. Hardwick, Hist. of Articles of Religion (documents from 1536 to 1615); new ed., 1859. Burnet, Welchman, 1692, and Browne on the XXXIX, Articles. Strype's Annals. E. Cardwell, Hist. of Conferences on Book of Prayer (1558–1690), 3d ed., 1849 ; ibid., Documentary Annals of Church of England, 1546–1716, 2 vols., 1843; Formularies of Faith, put forth in the Reign of Henry VIII., and Three Primers, put forth in the same reign ; Collection of Articles, etc. Dean Nowell's Catechism, 1572, new ed. by W. Jacobson. Sparrow's Hist. of Articles, Injunction, etc., 4to., 1684, 1846 ; ibid., Rationale upon the Book of Common Prayer, 1724: F. Bulley, Tabular View of Variations in the Communion and Baptismal Offices of the Church of England, 1540 to 1662, Oxf., 1842. The Book of Common Prayer is to be taken with the XXXIX. Articles, in estimating the doctrinal position of the Church of England. Besides the above works, see Wheatley, Rational Illustration of Book of Common Prayer, 1720, 1846 ; Shepherd, 2 vols., 1801; Thos. Lathbury, Hist. of Book of Common Prayer, 2d ed., 1859; Procter, 1857.—The Homilies of the Church of England, 1st Book, 1547; 2d Book, 1563; edited by Prof. Corrie, Camb., 1850.Gibson, Codex Juris. Ecclesiastici Anglicani, 2 fol., 1761.- First Prayer Book, 1549; revised 1552; XLII. Articles, 1552-3, by Cranmer, not adopted by Convocation-several of the articles from Augsb. Confession; XXXIX. Articles, 1552, by Alp. Parker, making use of Wurtemberg Confession; altered to XXXVIII. in 1563; in 1571 restored to XXXIX. and made binding. The XXXIX. Articles were ratified by the Protest. Episcopal Church in the United States; the Book of Common Prayer, revised under direction of the First General Convocation, Phila., 1786 (omitting Nicene and Athanasian crceds, absolution, baptismal regeneration, etc.), but nearly all restored (excepting the Athanasian creed and absolution in visitation of the sick), in consequence of the objections of the English bishops.]

'It was published, A. D. 1560, and consisted of 25 articles. Its principal author was the Scotch Reformer John Knox (his views on the doctrine of predestination were less Calvinistic than those on the Lord & Supper). Corpus et Syntagma i. (137) p. 109, ss. Augusti, p. 143, ss. Another confession from the year 1581 is appended. Different is the Westminster Confession of Faith, 1643. (Cantabr., 1659, 8; Edinb., 1871, 12). Comp. Gemberg, schottische National Kirche, p. 11. Winer, 1. c. See note below. [Niemeyer, 340–359, gives the two Scotch Confessions.]

• It was drawn up at a Synod of the Hungarian Reformed churches, A. D. 1557 or 1558, and consisted of 11 articles. Schröckh, Kirchengenchichte nach der Reformation, ii. p. 737. Corp. et Synt. i. (186) p. 148, 88., after the Debreczin edition, 1570. Winer, p. 20. Augusti, p. 241, ss.

• It was originally a private confession of Guido de Bres, and was first published A. D. 1562, in the Walloon language (it consisted of 37 articles). It was soon after translated into Dutch, approved by the Dutch churches, and even signed by several princes. It was solemnly confirmed by the Synod of Dort. It was edited by Festus Hommius, Lugd. Bat., 1618, 4, and several times subsequently. See Augusti, p. 170, ss. [See Brandt's History of Ref., Lond., 1720, vol. i., p. 143, 84. Niemeyer, loc. cit. p. 360–



389; also Præfatio, p. lii-lvii. Venema, Inst. Hist. Eccl. vii. p. 252, 89. It was at first a private document of de Bres; revised by Saravia, Modetus, and Wingen; published 1563; abbreviated by the synod of Antwerp, 1566. The longer form was adopted by the synod of Wesel, 1568, and of Embden, 1571. The Middleburg synod, 1581, ordered the shorter form to be abridged and translated into Belgic. The edition of Hommius, 1618, was published for the use of the synod of Dort; but the formula as adopted at Dort differs considerably from that given by Hommius. Niemeyer, reprints the edition of Hominius. English version in the Appendix to Constitution of Dutch Reformed Church, pp. 40-60.]

* Its original title was : Des hochgebornen Fürsten Johann Siegmund, etc., Bekänndniss von jetzigen unter den Evangelischen schwebenden und in Streit gezogenen Punkten, etc. (i. e. the Confession of the illustrious Prince John Sigismund, etc., concerning those points respecting which Protestants are now at issue). It consisted of 16 articles. It is not to be confounded with the confession of faith adopted by the Reformed evangelical churches of Germany, which was published at Frankfort on the Oder, 1614, by order of the same prince. For further particulars, see Winer, p. 21. It is reprinted by Augusti, p. 369, ss.

" It was composed by Calvin, and appeared 1541, in a French edition, and 1545, in a Latin one. It consists of 4 principal parts (Faith, Law, Prayer, and Sacraments). Calvini Opera T. viii. p. 11, ss. Winer, p. 22. Augusti, p. 460. [Calvin drew up a Catechism in 1536, published in Latin, 1538. See Henry's Life of Calvin, ii. 150. In 1541, he revised it, and it was probably published first in French, and then in Latin. See Niemeyer, xxxvii.--xli. 123–190.]

Adopted by a General Synod in Poland, convened for pacification, under Vladislas IV., in Thorn, 1645, it came to be very generally received in a large part of the Reformed Church of Eastern Europe. (See also the Consensus Poloniæ in Niemeyer, 560-591.]

» See the special history of doctrines (the chapters on predestination).

" It lasted from A. D. 1618, Nov. 13th, to A. D. 1619, May 9th, and held 145 sessions. Its decrees, eto., were published in the Acta Synodi Nationalis, etc. Dort, 1620, 4. [In Niemeyer, pp. 690–728. In English, in Appendix to Constitution of the Reformed Dutch Church, 60–75. Acts of the Synod of Dort, Lond., 1620, fol. See too, Vinke, Libri Symbolici Eccles. Reform. Nederlandicæ, Traj. ad Rhenum, 1846, which also contains the First Confess. addressed to Philip II., the Confession Ancienne of 1566, etc. The Articles of the Synod of Dort, and its Rejection of Errors, transl. by Thomas Scott, 12mo., Utica, 1831, Comp. Schweizer, Protest. Central Dogmen, ii. 31–201. Hales (John) Golden Remains; and, Hist. Concil. Dordrech. ed. Moshemius, Hamb., 1728. Graf, Beiträge zur Gesch. d. Synode von Dordrecht, Basel, 1825.)

" It was directed, in the first instance, against the theory of the universality of grace, advocated in the academy of Saumur (comp. 8 225, note 3), and was instigated chiefly by Heinrich Heidegger, of Zurich, Francis Tur. retin, of Geneva, and Lucas Gernler, of Basle. The draft was drawn up by Heidegger under the title: Formula Consensus Ecclesiarum Helveticarum

[ocr errors]


« PreviousContinue »