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Reforinatarum circa doctrinam de gratia universali, et connexa, aliaque nonnulla capita. It consists of 26 articles. As to its history, and the controversies to which it gave rise, as well as concerning its final abolition (by the intervention of Prussia and England, A. D. 1723,) see Pfof, C. M., Schediasma de Form. Consens, Helvet. Tub. 1723, 4.-Hottinger, J. J., Succincta ac Genuina Formulæ Consensus Helv. Historia (in the Bibl. Brem. vii. p. 669, ss. It was separately published, Zur. 1723). Mémoires pour servir à l'histoire des troubles arrivées en Suisse à l'occasion du Consensus. Amst. 1726 (by Barnaud, pastor at La Tour, near Vevay). Leonh. Meister, helvet. Scenen der neuern Schwärmeri und Intoleranz. Zurich, 1785, p. 3, ss. Escher, in the Allgemeine Encyclopædie, I. c. p. 243, ss. Alex.

3 Schweizer, Die theologisch-ethischen Zustände (S 223, note 21), s. 35, 89. [Gass, Gesch. d. Protost. Dogmatik, i. (1857), s. 328–374. Syntagma Thesium Theologicarum in Acad. Salmur., ed. 2, Salm., 1664. Aymon., Tous les Synodes Nationales des Eglises Reform. ii. 604, 89. Dallacus, Apologia pro duabus Synodis, Amst., 1685. Riveti Opera, iii. Tom: Synopsis Doctrinæ de Natura et Gratia (Tom. ii. p. 830, 89.) Schweizer, Protest. Centraldogmen, ii, Die Amyraldischen Streitigkeiten, s. 225-439 ; der Hel. Vetische Consensusformel, s. 439-564, and s. 663-748; and in Theol. Jahrb. (Tübing.), 1852, i. 41, ii. 155.]

Among the symbols of the Re med Church are further enumerated: the Confessiones Polonicæ, (1. Consensus Sendomiriensis, 1570. 2. Thoruniensis Synodi generalis, A. D. 1595, d. 21, Aug. celebratæ canones). Confessio Bohemica, 1535 (1558, 4.) Colloquium Lipsiacum, 1631. Declaratio Thoruniensis, 1645. (They are all reprinted in the works of Augusti (and Niemeyer), who also give all desirable historical information.)-On the symbols of the Puritans see, Niemeyer, G. A., Collectionis Confessionum in Ecclesiis Ree formatis publicatarum. Appendix., Lips., 1840. Conf. Westmonasteriensis (1659, 60, 64), and the two Catechisms (1647). Hallische Literatur Zeitung, Jan., 1841.

[The Westminster Assembly, convened by order of Parliament, 1643, consisting of 151 members. The Confession was presented to the Commons, Dec. 11, 1646: Shorter Catechism, Nov. 5, 1647: Larger Catechism, April 5, 1648. The General Assembly of Scotland ratified the Confession, Aug. 27, 1647, and the Catechism, July, 1648. The Synod of Cambridge, New England, adopted the Confession in 1648. The Savoy Confession, drawn up by the Independents, 1658, is, in its doctrinal parts, nearly identical with the Westminster; a Boston Synod, 1680, adopted this Confession ; in 1708 it was adopted at Baybrook, for the Comecticut churches. The West. Confess. was adopted by the Presb. church in America, 1729 (Adopting Act); it is also received by the various branches of Presbyterians in Scotland, Ireland, and the United States. The Baptists of England adopted a Confession of Faith, Lond., 1643. Conf, of the Seven Churches, published, 1646, in 52 articles; and the Confession of the Assembly in 1688 (London), in 35 chapters (called in the United States the Philadelphia Confession). Comp. S. S. Cutting, Histl. Vindication, Bost., 1859. Some English Baptists in Amsterdam, published a Con. fession in 1611; another London Confession, 1640; Somerset's Confession, 1656. Soo Ed. Dean Underhill, Conf. of Faith of Baptists, for Hansard Knollys Society, Londo 1854]

§ 223.


On the literature, compare & 216. Al Schweizer, Reformirte Glaubenslehre (Introduction),

and his Protestant. Centraldogmen, Zürich, 1854–6. Ebrard, Dogmatik i. 62, sq., [transl in Mercersburg Qu. Rev., 1857. Gass, ubi supra. Heppe, Dogmatik des Deutschen Protest. Bd. i. s. 139–204, Entstehung und Ausbildung der deutsch-reformirt. Dog. matik. Twesten, Dogmatik. i. (1834), s. 226–273. Hagenbach's Leben und aus. gewählte Schriften der Väter und Begründer der reformirt. Kirche, IX. Bände.]




Systematic theology was on the whole less cultivated in the Reformed Church than exegesis, though it was not kept in the background. In addition to the labors of Zwingle and Calvin ($ 219), many of their followers, such as Heinr. Bullinger,' Andr. Gerh. Hyperius,' Wolfgang Musculus [Dusanus],' Ben. Aretius, Wilh. Bucanus, Theodore Beza, Petrus Ramus,' Daniel Chamier,' and others, wrote compendiums of dogmatic theology. The scholastic method, too, soon found its way into the Reformed Church, as the representatives of which we may mention Bartholomew Keckermann, Amandus Polanus a Polansdorf," J. H. Alsted," John Sharp," John Wollebius," Henry Alting," John Maccovius," Gisbert Võetius, Mark Frederick Wendelin," John Hornbeck," Samuel Maresius,' Andrew Rivetus,” and, preëminently, John Henry Heidegger." A peculiar theological system, in the so-called federal method, was inaugurated by J. Cocceius," and more fully developed by his followers, the most eminent of whom were Francis Burrmann," Abraham Heidanus," Hermann Witsius." Melchior Leydecker, on the other hand, treated the whole system of theology in the order of the three persons of the Trinity." Others, again, adopted other methods."




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· Bullinger was born A. D. 1504, and died 1575. See Hess, Lebensgeschichte Heinrich Bullingers, 2 vol., 1828, 29.--He wrote: Compend. Rel. Christ. e puro Dei Verbo deprointum, Basil., 1556. Concerning the part which he took in the composition of various confessions of faith, see the preceding §. [On Bullinger, see Schenkel in Herzog's Realencyclop, and

* (Peter Martyr Vermilius, Bucer, Capito, Oecolampadius, Pictet, and Myconius also deserve mention as helping to give shape to the Reformed system. Peter Martyr, an Italian, tangbt in Strasburg, Oxford, and Zürich, died 1562. His theological system was first published in England, by Massonius : then more fully under the title Loci Communes (ed. Gualter), Zürich, 1580, 1626, Heidelb., 1622. Comp. C. Schmidt, in Hagenbach's Leben der Väter der Ref. K. McCrie's Reform. in Italy. Bucer (Butzer, Mart.) b., 1491, taught in Strasburg, in England, 1549, died, 1551. No complete edition of his works; one projected in 10 vols. See Schenkel, in Herzog's Encycl. Baum, in Hagenbach's Leben d. Väter.- Capito (Köpfel), b., 1478, also in Strasburg, died 1541. See Hagenbach in Herzog's Encycl., and Baum in the Leben der Väter.—Of Oecolampadius and Myconius, Hagen. bach has written the lives in his Leben d. Väter d. reform. Kirche.]

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Schweizer, loc. cit. His Judgment in certeyne matters on Religion, transl., 1566; 50 Sermons in vol. 5 of Parker Soc. Publications; A hyndred Sermons, 1561; his Decades, by Parker Soc., 4 vols., 1849-52; for a list of his other works transl., see Lowndes' Bibliog. Manual, Bohn's ed., 1858, i. pp. 309, 10. B's Leben und Schriften, by C. Pestalozzi, in Hagenbach's Leben und Schriften der Väter, etc.]

Hyperius was born, A. D. 1511, at Ypres, and died 1564, as professor of theology in the university of Marburg. His theological works are: Methodi Theologiæ sive præcipuorum Christ. Rel. Locorum Communium Lib. iii. Basil., 1568, 8. Varia Opuscula Theol. ibid., 1570, 71. Comp. Semler's. Einleitung zu Baumgarten's Glaubenslehre, p. 46, ss. Heinrich, p. 293, ss. [On Hyperius, compare Manggold in Deutsche Zeitschrift, 1855, and in Herzog's Realencyclop. Heppe, Dogmatik der deutschen Protest. i. 145, 89. Gass, i. 131.]

*. His proper name was Müslin, or Mösel. He was born A. D. 1497, in Lothringia, and died 1563, as professor of theology in the university of Berne. He is the author of: Loci Communes Theol., Berne., 1573, 8. Opp. Bas. ix, fol. Semler, 1. c. p. 56, note 28. Gass, 131.

Aretius died A. D. 1574, as professor of theology in the university of Berne; was previously professor in Marburg. He wrote: Theologica Problemata sive Loci Communes, Bern., 1604. Semler, l. C. p. 54, note 26. Heinrich, 296. Gass, 131.

Bucanus was professor of theology in the university of Lausanne, towards the commencement of the seventeenth century, and wrote : Institutt. Theol., etc., Brem., 1604. Genev., 1612.

Beza was born A. D. 1519, at Vécelay, and died 1605. (Compare his biography by Schlosser, Heidelb., 1809.) Quæstionum et Responsionum Christ. Libellus in his Tractt. Theol. vol. i. p. 654. Baum's Beza, 2 Bde., 1843–52, and Beilagen. [Beza's Brief Declaration of the Table of Predestination, transl., London (no date); Sermons, 1687; other works translated, see in Lowndes, ubi supra, p. 169. Herzog in his Encyclopedia. Heppe's Life of Beza is to form vol. vi. of Hagenbach's Leben der Väter der reform. Kirche.]

Peter Ramus (de la Ramée) was born at Cuth, in Picardy, and died a martyr, St. Bartholomew's night, Aug. 25, 1572. He wrote: Commentariorum de Religione Christ. lib. iv., Francof., 1576. De Fide, de Lege, de Precatione, de Sacramentis.) [Chs. Waddington, Ramus, sa Vie, ses Ecrits, Paris, 1855. Ritter, Gesch, der Christl., Phil. v. 471. Tennemann, ix. 420. Eclectic (Lond.), Sept. 1856. Hallam's Lit. Europe, i. 205.]

Chamier was born in Dauphiny; died Oct. 16, 1621, professor at Mon. tauban, during the siege of that city. He wrote: Panstratia Catholica, 8. Corpus Controversiarum adversus Pontificios, Genev., 1606, v. vol. fol. Corpus Theologicum, s. Loci Communes Theologici, ib., 1653, fol. (opus posthumum.) (Memoir of Chamier, with Notices of his Descendants, Lond., 1852. Haag, in La France Protestante, iii. 316. C. Schmidt, in Herzog's Encyclop.]*


Other Reformed divines of the 16th century are Francis Junius, died 1602, professor


Keckermann, born at Dantzic, was professor in the university of Heidelberg, and died 1609, Aug. 25th (Adami Vitæ Philos. p. 232, ss. Bayle, Dict. : his works abound in plagiarisms, and have themselves been plagiarised by many others.") He wrote : Systema Theol. tribus libris adornat. Hanoviæ, 1607. Opp. Genev., 1614, 4. Gass, 408.

10 Polanus was born at Troppau, in Silesia, A. D. 1561, delivered lectures in the university of Basle, and died 1610 (comp. Athenæ Raur. p. 37.) He composed a Syntagma Theol. Christ. Han., 1610. See Gass, i. 396. [Gass says Polanus gave the first example of an elaboration of the doctrinal system, expounding and making distinctions, in the causal method.

"Alsted was born a. D. 1588, at Herborn, and died at Weissenbourg, A. D. 1638, where he was professor of theology. His works are very numerous : Theologia Naturalis Francof., 1615, 22, 4.-Theologia Catechetica, ib., 1622, 4, Han., 1722, 4.-Theologia Scholastica, ib., 1618, 4.-Theol. Didactica, 1627, 4.-Theologia Polemica, ibid., eod.-Theologia Prophetica. ib., 1622, 4.-Theol. Casuum., Hanov., 1630, 4. Gass, 411.

" Sharp (J. Scoto-Brittanus), was professor at Die on the Drome, in Dauphiny. He wrote: Cursus Theologicus, in quo Controversiæ omnes de Fidei Dogmatibus inter nos et Pontificios pertractuntur, et ad Bellarmini Argumenta respondetur, ed. 2, Genev., 1620. See Schweizer, s. xxi. [He also wrote Symphonia Prophetarum et Apostolorum, Genev., 1670.]

is John Wollebs was born 1586, died 1629, professor of theology at Basle. He wrote: Compendium Christ. Theolog., Basle, 1626; also translateu into English, Christian Divinity [Abridgment of Christ. Divinitie, by Rose, with the Anatomy of the whole Body of Divinitie, 12mo., 1650.] He is distinguished for simplicity. Ebrard (Dogmatik), calls him one of the greatest theologians that ever lived." Comp. Gass, i. 397 [and Schweizer, ii. 26, who contest this judgment.]

" John H. Alting, born at Emden, was professor at Heidelberg from 1613, died 1644, professor in Gröningen. Works : Problemata tum theoretica,

im practica, Amst., 1662, 4to.—Theologia Elenchtica, Bas., 1670, Amst., 1664.—Method. Theol. Didact., Amst., 1650. Tiguri, 1673. Jacob Alting, was also distinguished in theology and polemics; Methodus Theol. in his Opera, Amst., 1687. See Gass, i. 434. [H. Alting also wrote: Theologia Historica, Amst., 1664. Exegesis Augustan, Confess., 1652. See Schweizer, in Herzog's Realencyclop.]

" His proper name was Makowsky; he was born at Lobzenik, in Poland, A. D. 1508, professor of theology in Franecker, and died A. D. 1644. He adopted the Aristotelian method of investigation, and composed : Loci Commun. Theol, Fran., 1639, 8, ed. auct. Nic. Arnold, 1650, 4. An improved edition of this work appeared 1685. In addition he wrote : Quæstiones Theolog. Frankcof., 1626, 8. Distinctiones et Regulæ Theolog. Amst., 1656, 12. Heinrich, p. 355. Gass, 441.

1 Voetius was born a. D. 1589, at Heusden, in Holland, held a professorship of theology in the university of Utrecht, and died 1876. (He opposed

His son,

at Leyden; Anton Sardel (Chardieu); Hieronymus Zanchius, died 1590; Boquin, died 1582. See Gass, 139. Heppe, 148.

Cartesius.) Works: Theol. Naturalis Reformata., Lond., 1656, 4. Institutiones Theol. Traj., 1642, 4.-Disputationes Selectæ, ibid. 1684, Amst., 1669, 5 vols. 4.-See Buddæus, i. p. 417 (375.) Heinrich, pp. 355, 356. Gass, i. 460. [Schweizer, ii, 802.]

" Wendelin was born A, D. 1584, at Sandhagen, near Heidelberg, and died 1652, at Zerbst, where he was Rector Gymnasii. He wrote: Christ. Theol. Libri. ii. methodice dispositi, Han., 1634, 41, Amst., 46, Christ. Theol. Systema Majus, Cassel., 1656, 4. Buddæus, p. 416. Heinrich, p. 356. Gass, 416. [Schweizer, ii. 522.]

" Hornbeck, was born A. D. 1617, at Haarlem, and died 1666, as a pro fessor in the university of Leyden. He composed : Institutt. Theol. Ultraj, 1653, Lugd. Bat. 58, 8. See Buddæus, p. 417. Heinrich, p. 357. [Gass, ii. 287, 293. Schweizer, i. 379. He also wrote Socinianismi Confutatio, 3 Tom., Amst., 1664.]

10 His proper name was des Marets; he was born A. D. 1598, at Oisemont, in the province of Picardy, and died 1673, at Groningen. Works : Collegium Theologicum sive Systema Universale. Gron., 1658, 4.-Theologiæ Elenchticæ nova Synopsis sive Index Controversiarum, etc., ibid., 1648, ii. 4, and several others. Gass, ii. 442. [He also wrote against Cocceius and

. Descartes : see Schweizer, ii., passim.]

* Rivetus was born A. D. 1573, and died 1651. Most of his works were exegetical. The following is of a Polemico-dogmatic character : Catholicus Orthodoxus sive Summa Controversiarum inter Orthodoxos et Pontificios, Lugd. Bat., 1630, ii. 4. He also composed several controversial writings, and other treatises. Opp. Rotterd., 1651, 60, iii. fol. [Rivetus was especially active against Amyrant and the school of Saumur. His writings against A. are in the 3d vol. of his Opera, pp. 828–878. Comp. Schweizer, ubi supra, s. 342–354. Gass, ii. 339–349. His collection of testimonies as to the doctrine of original sin in Theol. Essays, from the Princeton Rev. (Vol. I., 1846), pp. 196, 89.]

* Heidegger was born in 1633; died, professor of theology, in Zurich, in 1698. He was the author of the Formula Consensus (see Schweizer, ii. 482, 89.] He also wrote: Medulla Theologiæ Christian. Tur., 1696, 1702, 1713; Corpus Theol. Christ. s. Theol. didacticæ, moralis et historicæ Systema, 2 fol. Tur., 1700, 1732. Medulla Medullæ, 1701. Also, many dissertations. See Alex. Schweizer, Die theologisch-ethischen Zustände der 2. Hälfte des 17. Jahrh. in d. Zürich. Kirche Zür., 1857, s. 12, 89. [Gass, ii. 353, 89. Herzog's Encycl. article Helvetic Confessions, by Trechsel.]

* Cocceius' original name was Koch. He was born at Bremen, 1603, and died 1669. His doctrinal system was founded upon the idea of a covenant between God and man. He distinguished between (1.) the covenant before the fall (the covenant of works), and (2.) the covenant after the fall (the covenant of grace.) The latter covenant embraces a threefold economy: 1. The economy prior to the law. 2. The economy under the law. 3. The economy of the Gospel. His principles are developed in his Summa Doctrinæ de Fædere et Testamentis Dei, 1648. See Buddæus, p. 417. Heinrich, p. 358, ss. Heppe, s. 204, sq.: The fruit of his influence on the Reformed systematic theology was to lead theologians back to the freedom of

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