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the Word of God, delivering it from the bondage of a traditional scholasticism, and of a mode of handling the topics which subserved the interests of the culture of the schools.[Compare particularly Ebrard, Dogmatick, i. 74–78, and in Herzog's Encyclop. Schweizer, ii. 665, 802.

* Burmann, was born at Leyden, 1628, professor of theology at Utrecht from 1662, died 1679. He wrote: Synopsis Theologiæ et Oeconomiæ Fæderum Dei, Amst., 1671, 1691, 2 Tom. [Gass, ii. 310.]

* Heidanus, born at Frankenthal, in the Palatinate, 1648, professor of theology at Leyden, deposed on account of the controversies about the Cartesian Philosophy, died 1678; wrote Corpus Theol. Christ., 2 Tom., 1687. [Gass, ii. 300—307. Schweizer, ii. 677.]

35 Witsius was born in West Friesland, 1626, professor of theology at Franecker, Utrecht and Leyden; died, 1708. Works : Miscellanea Sacra, 2 Tom., Amst., 1692. Oeconomia Feederum, Traj., 1694. Meletemat, Leidensia, Lugd., 1703. Collected works, vi. Tom., Herborn, 1712–1717. Basle, 1739, 4to. [Economy of the Covenants, transl. by Crooksbank, 2 vols., Edinb., 1803. Ibid., a new transl., 3 vols., New York, 1798. Account of his life, from the Latin Oration of Marckius, in Toplady's Works, vol. iv. Schweizer, ii. 804. Gass, ii. 316. Ebrard, i. 79.)-On other disciples of Cocceius, Wilh. Momma, [died, 1677; wrote De Varia Conditione et Statu Ecclesiæ Dei sub triplici Oeconomia Fæderum Dei, etc. Utrecht, 1671.] Joh. Braun (died, 1709: Doctrina Fæderum, sive Syst. Theol. Amst., 1688; Van der Waeijen, professor in Franecker, Summa Theol., 1689), and Nic. Gürtler, see Walch, 222, 8q. Heinrich, 362. [Gass and Ebrard.]

" Leydecker was born A. D. 1642, at Middleburg, in the Dutch province of Zeeland, and died 1721, as professor of theology in the university of Utrecht. (His views were opposed to those of Cocceius.) He wrote: De Economia trium Personarum in Negotio Salutis Humanæ libri vi. Traj., 1682, 12.

" E. g., Heinr. Hulsius, Le Blanc, Markius, and Turretin. Comp. Walch, p. 225, ss. Heinrich, p. 373, ss.

[Stephen Szegeden (Seegedin) a Hungarian, published in Basle, 1585, Theologiæ sinceræ Loci Communes, rep. 1593; see Ebrard, Dogmatik, i. 65. His friend Grynæus, the teacher of Arminius, in his Opusc. Theol., opposed the doctrine of predestination.— William Ames, b. 1576, studied theology at Cambridge, chaplain at the Hague, where he opposed Arminius. Professor at Franeker, 1622, died 1633. He wrote: De Arminii Sentent., 1616 : Medulla Theologiæ, 1628; De Conscientia et ejus Jare; strictly Puritanic; collected works, 5 vols., Amst., 1628. See Schweizer, in Herzog-Antoine la Faye, professor in Geneva, died 1616; Enchiridion Theologicum Doctorum et Professorum in Acad. Leydens. 1605. Joh. Polyandri, Andr. Riveti, Ant. Walaei et Anton. Thysii Synopsis purioris Theologiæ, Lugd. Batav., 1652.- Joh. Heinr. Hottinger, Cursus Theolog. in Methodo Altingiana, Heidelb., 1660.]

§ 223. a.

[THE GERMAN REFORMED THEOLOGY.]

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[The German Reformed Theology' assumed a peculiar type, intermediate between the Swiss Calvinism, and the German Lutheranism ; between the strict predestination of the one, and the sacramental theories of the other. It perpetuated the spirit of Melancthon, and fostered union with the Calvinists. It took its origin in the Palatinate, and received its expression in the Heidelberg Catechism,' drawn up by Olevianus,' and Ursinus ;“ though its general spirit is manifest in the works of Andreas Hyperius,' professor in Marburg. Among its other representatives are Peter Boquin,' Hemming,' Christopher Pezel,' George Sohnius. In the writings of the latter, of Hieron. Zanchius,'' of Raph. Eglin," of Matthias Martinius," of Bartholomew Keckermann," of Marcus Fried. Wendelin," of Ludwig Crocius,' and John Piscator, it became more scholastic in its character, and was merged in the stricter Calvinistic tendency. It was also fostered in the theological gymnasium of Bremen" as well as at Heidelberg; and from this school proceeded John Cocceius, who gave a new shape to the theology of Holland, by insisting on the Covenants as the central idea.]

[See Ebrard, Dogmatik i., 8 35; and especially Heppe, in his Gesch. des deutschen Protest., and his Dogmatik des deutschen Protestantismus, i. 139-204. Dr. Heppe makes the peculiarities of this theology to consist in three points : 1. Making the central idea to be that of the covenant (fædus Dei), particularly as seen in the kingdom of Christ: 2. The idea of an essential union with Christ (insitio in Christum): 3. Deduced from these two, the doctrine of the perseverance of the saints. Comp. Heppe on German Ref. Church, transl. in the Mercersb. Rev., from Stud. u. Kritiken, 1853.]

[On the Heidelberg Catechism, see § 222, note 3, and the work of Nevin, Hist, and Genius of Heidelberg Catechism, 1847. Princeton Review, 1852. Nevin, in Mercersb. Rev., in reply, 1852.]

* (Caspar Olevianus was born at Treves, 1536, studied law at Paris, and then theology at Geneva, preached and taught at Heidelberg, 1560-1576; died in Herborn, 1587. He wrote: Expositio Symboli Apostol., 1576; De Substantia Federis gratuiti inter Deum et electos, Genev., 1585 (his chief work). Comp. Sudhoff, in Leben de Väter d. Ref. K; Heppe, ubi supra, i. 149–158; J. Marx, Caspar Olevian. oder der Calvinismus in Trier. Mainz., 1846.]

• [Zachary Ursinus (Beer) was born in Breslau, 1584, studied under Melancthon, in Wittenberg, taught in Heidelberg, 1561–78, died in Neustadt on the Hardt, 1583. Loci Theologici, 1562. His lectures on the Heidelb. Catechism were published in an imperfect form at Geneva (Doctrinæ Christ. Compendium), 1584 : edited by his successor at Heidelberg, David Pareus

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(1622), 'n 1591, under the title Explicationum Catechet. Partes IV.; still more improved 1598, under the title, Corpus Doctrinæ Christ. Opera, 3 fol. Heidelb., 1613. See Heppe, u. s. i. 158-160. An English version by Henrie Parrie, Summe of Christ. Religion, 1587, 1589 (abridged), 1617, 1645 (“conferred with the last Latine of Pareus,” and including his theological Medulla). An American edition by G. W. Willard, Columbus, Ohio, 1851. Comp. Sudhoff, in Leben d. Väter der Ref. Kirche, Bd. viii.]

Hyperius, see § 223, note 2. • [Boquin was professor at Heidelb., died 1582. He wrote: Exegesis divinæ atque humanæ kolvwvías, Heidelb., 1561. See Heppe, i. 148.]

[Nicolas Hemming, of Denmark, professor in Copenhagen. He wrote: Enchiridion Theolog., 1557; Syntagma Institutionum Christ. 1574, also reprinted in Geneva. See Heppe, i. 85, 161.]

• [Pezel, born 1539, exiled from Wittenberg for his Philippism, 1574, died at Bremen, 1604. See Heppe, i. 161. His chief aim was to introduce Melancthon to the Reformed church, for which he collected, 1580–89, in 8 vols., the Argumenta et Objectiones of Melancthon on the articles of the faith ; edited the Loci Theologici of Victorin Strigel (Melancthon's friend, born 1524, professor at Jena, 1548, and after 1562 in Heidelberg, where he died, 1569. Heppe, U. B.); and in 1587, the Examen Theologicum Phil. Mel.]

[Sohnius, born 1551, professor in Marburg and Heidelberg, died 1589. Synopsis Corporis Doctr. Phil. Mel. Heidelb., 1588. His works collected, 4 vols., 1591, 3d ed., 1809. See Heppe, i. 175.]

" [Zanchius, born in Italy, 1516, professor at Strasburg, Heidelberg; died 1591. See Heppe, i. 178. De Relig. Christ. Fide, 1585.]

[Raph. Eglin, Diexodus Theologica de magno illo Insitionis nostræ in Christum Mysterio, and, De Fædere Gratiæ, Marpurgi, 1613. See Heppe, Dogmatik der Ev. Ref. Kirche, 1861.]

* [Martini, professor at Herborn and Bremen ; died 1630. He wrote: Christ. Doctr. Summa Capita, 1603. Summula Theol. Brem., 1610. See Heppe, i. 185, sq.]

" [See $ 223, note 9. Heppe says of him (i. 187), that the height of the religious and philosophical speculation, and of the dialectic skill, of the German Ref. dogmatics is found in his system.] " See 8 223, note 17.

[Crocius was a deputy from Bremen to the synod of Dort: died 1655. He wrote: De Perseverantia Sanctorum, Brem., 1616; Syntagma Sacræ Theologiæ, 1636. See Heppe, i. 199, 89. Tholuck, Vorgesch. des Rationalismus, i. 297.]

(John Piscator (Fisher), born at Strasburg, Mar. 27, 1546, professor at Strasburg, Heidelb., 1574–77, Herborn, 1584–1625, where he was the chief ornament of the Academy. His translation of the Bible, 1602–3, 3d ed., 1624. In philosophy he followed Ramus. Aphorism. Doctr. Christ. 1594, and numerous doctrinal (as well as exegetical) treatises. On his doctrine that the active obedience of Christ is not imputed, see the special History. Comp. Stedbing, in Zeitschrift f. d. hist. Theol. 1841. Schröckh, Kir

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chengesch, seit Ref. v. 358. Tholuck, Akad. Leben, 2, 304. Herzog, in his Encyclop.] » [On the school of Bremen, see Heppe, i. 195.]

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$ 224.

MYSTICISM IN THE REFORMED CHURCH.

M. Goebel, Geschichte des christl. Lebens in der Rheinisch-westphälischen evang. Kirche,

ü. Coblenz, 1852. Hamberger, Stimmen aus dem Heiligthum, Stuttg., 1857. Noack, Mystik. Comp. $ 217. [M. Goebel, Gesch. d. Inspirations-Gemeinden, 1688, 89., in Niedner's Zeitschrift f. d. bist. Theol., 1853–4.]

The mysticism of the Roman Catholic Church was introduced into the Reformed Church, first by John Labadie and his followers, and afterwards by Peter Poiret,' a disciple of Antoinette Bourignon.' In England, Joanna (Jane) Leade,' was followed by John Pordage, Thomas Bromley, and others. But this kind of mysticism, which was partly fantastic, partly indifferent to all systematic forms, has exerted little or no influence upon the development of theology.'

· Labadie was born A. D. 1610, at Bourg, in the province of Guienne, joined the Reformed Church without accepting its fundamental principles, and died 1674, at Altona. In many points he agreed with the Anabaptists. -Among his admirers were Anna Maria von Schürmann, Peter Yvon, Peter du Lignon, Henry and Peter Schluter. Comp. Arnold, Kirchen- und Ketzergeschichte, vol. ii. p. 680. Hagenbach, Vorlesungen über die Geschichte der Reformation, iv. p. 307. [Weismann, Hist. Eccles. p. 927. Mosheim, iii. 479.] Göbel, ubi supra, ii. 181: and on Anna Schürmann, ibid., 273. The judgment of the Reformed orthodoxy about these phenomena were often very severe; comp. J. C. Schweizer, as quoted by Al. Schweizer, ubi supra, s. 19. [Hase, Church Hist., New York ed., p. 508. Barthold in Raumer's Hist. Taschenbuch, 1852-3.

· Poiret was born A. D. 1646, at Mentz, and died 1719, at Rheinsberg. His writings are of greater importance for the history of doctrines than those of the other mystics (though only in a negative aspect). Concerning his life and his works see Arnold, I. c. p. 163; Biographie universelle, sub voce; and Hagenbach, Vorlesungen iv. p. 325. [He wrote: L'Oeconomie Divine, 7 vol., Amst., 1686, afterwards publ. in Latin. The Divine Oeconomy, 6 vol., London, 1713. Le Chretien réel, ou la Vie du Marquis de Rentz, etc., 2 vol., Col., 1701-2. Cogitationes Ration, de Deo, etc., 2d ed., Amst., 1685.]

Antoinette Bourignon was born A. D. 1616, at Lisle, in Flanders, and died 1680, at Franeker. A memoir of her life was published Amst., 1683. See Evangelische Kirchenzeitung, 1837. Hagenbach, Vorlesungen, iv. P. 312, ss.—[Kloze in Niedner's Zeitschrift on Dippel and Bourignon, 1851, 8. 467, sq. Apology for M. Antonia Bourignon, Lond., 1699. Of her works the following have been translated: Light of the World, 1696. Solid Virtue, 1699. Light in Darkness, 1706. Gospel Spirit, 1707. Warning against Quakers, 1708. Academy of Learned Divines, 1708. Comp. Bayle's Dictionnaire.)- Amos Comenius, Swumerdam, and others, adopted her opinions.

Jane Leade was born A. D. 1633, and died 1714 [1704 ?]; she was an enthusiast. Comp. Corrodi, Geschichte des Chiliasmus iii. p. 403, ss. Arnold, Kirchen- und Ketzergesch. p. 199–298, ss. Hagenbach, Vorlesungen, iv. p. 345. [List of her works in Notes and Queries, 1856, p. 93. Among them (see Lowndes' Bibl. Manual) are The Enochian Walks; Fountain of Gardeus, 1678-86, 3 vols.; The Laws of Paradise; Wonders of God's Creation in eight Worlds, 1695. She established the Philadelphia Society in 1697.]

Corrodi, 1. c. [Pordage died 1688. Works : Divine and True Metaphysics, 3 vols., and Theologia Mystica.]

• The mysticism of the Lutheran Church was of greater speculative importance than that of the Reformed. The former also exerted a greater influence upon the life of the German nation (domestic worship, etc.), than the latter, which was more confined to private individuals and schismatics.

§ 225.

INFLUENCE OF THE CARTESIAN PHILOSOPHY. MORE LIBERAL

TENDENCIES.

Mysticism exerted less influence upon the gradual transformation of the doctrinal views of the Reformed Church, than did the philosophical system of Descartes, especially in the Netherlands.' [The Cartesian theologians, in a special manner attempted to reconcile the principles of natural and revealed theology. The influence of the system is seen in the works of Abraham Heidanus,' Peter van Mastricht, Solomon van Til,' Campejus Vitringa,' and J. Marck,'] Balthazzar Bekker, who, in combating the “ Enchanted World,also shook the orthodox doctrines of the Church, belonged to this school. But, apart from the influence of any definite system of philosophy, a more liberal tendency, which endeavored to shake off the yoke of symbolical writings, manifested itself in different quarters. Such was the case in the university of Saumur,' where this tendency was connected with Arminian views, and among the Latitudinarians of England." Among the Swiss theologians John Alph. Turretin," Ben. Pictet," and Samuel Werenfels," were distinguished for moderate views, though they remained orthodox; thus they formed, by their principles, as well as the period in which they lived, the transition to the eighteenth century.

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