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· Renatus Cartesius (René Descartes), was born A. D. 1596, and died 1650, at Stockholm. His maxim : "Cogito, ergo sum,” is well known. His philosophy gave rise to commotions in Holland. Gisbert Voëtius, the principal opponent of Cartesius, charged him A. D. 1639, with atheism. The philosophy of Cartesius was condemned a. d. 1647 (and again 1676), by the senate of the university of Leyden, as well as 1657 by the Synod of Delft. Several of the mystics just mentioned belonged originally to the school of Cartesius. But some orthodox divines also espoused the system. See Tholuck, Das akademische Leben des 17 Jahrb., 2te. Abtheilung, 1854, and in Herzog's Realencycl. ii. 391. Gass, i. 454. [Ebrard, Dogmatik, i. 81–86. . On Descartes, see Bouillier, De la Revolution Cartésienne, Paris, 1842, 2d ed., 2 vol., Paris, 1854; Cousin, Leçons; Dugald Stewart's Dissertations; Morell's Hist. of Philos.; Ritter's Gesch. d. Phil.; Edinb. Review, 1852; Simon, (Euvres de Descartes, Introduction, 1844.—Francis Burmann, the son-in-law of Heidanus, adopted the Cartesian system ; see § 223, note 29. Clauburg, in Duisburg, 1653-65, and Heinr. Hulsius, 1684-1729, taught it; the latter went so far as to represent theology as the ancilla of philoso phy. The Lutheran Job. Wagner, Tübing., wrote against it: Examen elenchticum Atheismi speculativi, 1677. Comp. Tholuck, in Herzog, u. s. on the Cartesian philosophy.]
[On the influence of Cartesianism, see Ebrard, Dogmatik, i. § 42. The opposition between the scholastics and federalists was on the relation of the Bible to the doctrine of the church; the contrast between the scholastic divines and the Cartesians, was on the relation of revelation to reason.] • On Heidan. see § 223, note 24.
[Peter van Mastricht, professor in Utrecht, died 1806. He opposed Cartesianism in his Theologia theoretico-practica, Amst., 1682, and especially in his Novitiatum Cartes. Gangræna, 1675.]
• [Van Til, professor in Dort and Leyden, died 1713. He showed himself to be one of the ablest of the Reformed divines, in his Theologiæ utriusque Compendium tum Naturalis tum Revelatæ, Leyd., 1704, mediating between the scholastic divines and the Cartesians, and distinguishing between the articuli puri and mixti of theology—the latter being those which have a basis in the soul, though the clearest light is thrown on them by revelation. See Ebrard, i. 84.]
[Vitringa was professor in Franeker, died 1722; wrote Doctrina Christ. Rel. per Aphorismos summatim descripta, Franeker, 1690.)
' [Marck, professor in Leyden, died 1731; comp. Theol. Christ. didacticoelenchticum, Gron. 1686.)
• Bekker was born a. D. 1634, in West Friesland, adopted the principles of Cartesius, was dismissed from office on account of his opinions, and died 1698. (Compare the chapter on demonology in the special history of doctrines.) His principal work, Die bezauberte Welt, Franeker, 1692, 4to. contains the germs of the rationalism of latter times,
Representatives of the more liberal tendency were, among others, Moses Amyraldus (Amyraud) Joshua de la Place (Placæus), Lewis Capellus, etc It was especially in opposition to their views that the Formula Consensus was drawn up. On Amyraut, see Schweizer in Zeller's Jahrb., 1852, and
Edmond Sagey, Strasb., 1840. Herzog's Realencycl. sub Amyraut. On the doctrine of Pajou, see Schweizer in Theol. Jahrb., 1853. [See the next 8 225 a.]
10 Among them were William Chillingworth (1602–1644), Ralph Cud. worth (he died 1688), Tillotson, Stilling fleet, and others. [See 8 225 6.]
Alphonse Turretin was the son of the strictly orthodox Francis Turretin, born 1671, and died at Geneva A. D. 1737. He wrote :: Opuscula Brunsv., 1726, ii. 8.-Dilucidationes phil. theol. et dogmatico-morales, quibus præcipua Capita Theologiæ et naturalis et revelatæ demonstrantur. Lugd. Bal., 1748, ij. 4, and several other works.
" Pictet was born A. D. 1655, and died A. D. 1724, at Geneva. He composed a Theologia christiana, Gen., 1696, ii. 8.—Medulla Theologiæ, ibid., 1711, 12, and several other works. [Theology, transl. by Reyroux, Lond., 1847.]
" Werenfels was born 1657, and died 1740. (Athenæ rauricæ, p. 57, Hanhart, R. in the Wissenschaftliche Zeitschrift. Basle, 1824, part 1, p. 22, part 2, p. 53, ss.) He wrote : Opuscula Theologica. Basil., 1782, iï. 8.
§ 225 a.
[THE FRENCH SCHOOL OF SAUMUR.]
(A. Schweizer, Centraldogmen, ii. 225-430, 564-663; and article Amyraut in Herzog's
Encycl. Ebrard, Dogmatik, i. $ 43.)
[Under the influence of John Cameron,' who succeeded Gomarus at Saumur, in 1618, a modification of the Calvinistic system was introduced into the French Reformed theology, represented by the names of Amyraut,' Placæus,' and Pajon. Cameron himself taught, after Piscator, the imputation of Christ's passive obedience alone ; and advocated the theory of the hypothetic universalism of Divine grace, which was more fully developed by Amyraut. “The peculiarity of Amyraldism," says Schweizer, “is in the combination of a real particularism with a merely ideal universalism.”s Placous (De la Place), advocated the mediate, instead of the immediate imputation of Adam's sin to his posterity.' Louis Cappel represented this school in its exegetical services.' Though Dallous,' and David Blondel,' defended Amyraldism, and though Andrew Rivetus, and even Du Moulin," at last acknowledged that such a hypothetical universalism of grace (qua actu nemo salvatur) was at least harmless, yet Heidegger was deputed in Switzerland to draw up against it the Formula Consensus, 1675, which, however, never obtained any general authority."]
(John Cameron was born in Glasgow, ahout 1580; Prof. at Sedan, pas. tor at Bordeaux, 1608-1618; Prof. at Saumur, 1618–24; died at Montauban, 1625. His Amica Collatio cum Tileno, 1621, is against Arminianism ;
also his Defensio de Gratia et libero Atbitrio. His principal works (Prælect. Theol. and Myrotheticum Evangel.) were published by the National Synod of France after his death. See Schweizer, in Herzog's Encycl. Gass, 331.] · [Moses Amyraldus (Amyraut), was born at Bourgeuil, in Tourraine,
succeeded Daillé at Saumur, 1626; became Prof. there, in 1632. His views were first published in a treatise on Predestination, 1634, and opposed by Du Moulin and Andr. Rivetus. He was acquitted by the French Synod of 1637, and at Charenton, 1644; the charge renewed at Loudun, 1659, but not carried through. He died 1664. Besides numerous exegetical works, he wrote Theses Salmurienses, La Morale Chrétienne, 1652–60, etc. See Schweizer, ubi supra. Walch, Relig. Streitigkeiten, 1733, i. 454, iii. 736. Gass, ii. 328.]
[Joshua de la Place (Placæus), born 1596, Prof. at Saumur, 1632, died 1655. The theory of original sin, as consisting only in native corruption, was condemned by the French Synod of 1645, though Placæus himself was not named. He accepted the statement of the Synod, by distinguishing between immediate and mediate imputation. He was opposed by Anton Garissol, Prof. in Montauban, and defended by Chs. Drélincourt, pastor at Charenton. His defence, De Imputatione primi Peccati, including an examination of the decree of Charenton, was published, 1655, the year of his death. Opera, Franeker, 1699; Aubencit, 1702, 2, 4to. Comp. A. Schweizer, in Herzog's Encycl., and in Centraldogmen, ii. 319. Aymar, Synodes Nat. ü, 778. Gass, ii. 347.]
[Claude Pajon, b. 1626, studied in Saumur; Prof. of theology there, after Amyraut's death, 1666; died 1685. He denied the immediate concursus in providence, and the immediate influence of the Holy Spirit in conversion. See Schweizer, ubi supra, ii. 564–663. Gass, ii. 359, 89.]
. [Schweizer, in Herzog (Am. transl. i. 132), says, the difference between Arminianism and Amyraldism is an essential one.
The Arminian has a gratia universalis sub conditione fidei, in opposition to the Reformed doctrine of a gratia particularis absoluta ; the Amyraldian, on the contrary, assumes a gratia universalis hypothetica (i. e., sub conditione fidei), in the better to defend the rigid particularism of election according to the Re formed view."]
• [Blondel, as cited by Haag, La France Protestante, iv. p. 308 (Schweizer, ii. 319), says, that Placæus, in opposition to the view of Pighius and Catharini (Rom. Cath.), that sin comes to us only by the imputation of Adam's sin, defended the theses, that corruption could not originate from imputation, and that original sin passed over from Adam to all his descendants.]
[Cappel was born 1585, Prof. at Saumur, 1632, died 1658. The Formula Consensus maintained, against him, the inspiration of the Hebrew vowel points. See Bertheau in Herzog.]
. (John Daillé (Dallæus), born 1594, from 1626 to 1670, preached in Paris. De Usu Patrum, 1656, and often; Eng. version by Thos. Smith, 1651 (from the French of that year) : revised ed. Phila., 1842. On his part in the Amyraldian controversy, see Schweizer, ii. 387-439. Gass ii. 345.]
• [David Blondel, born 1591, died 1655. His Primacy of the Church
appeared 1641. On his relation to the school of Saumur, see Schweizer, ii. 304, 305.]
"* [Du Moulin (Peter Molinæus), born 1568, Prof. at Sedan, 1626, died 1658. See C. Schmidt, in Herzog, and Schweizer, ubi supra.]
[On the Formula Consensus, and its fate, see Schweizer, ii. 439–542, 663, sq. Gass, ii. 353-6.]
$ 225 6.
[THEOLOGY IN ENGLAND AND SCOTLAND.]
[The Anglican theology, like its polity, was gradually shaped, and occupied an intermediate position between the Roman Catholic and the Reformed systems. Doctrinal controversies were subordinated to ecclesiastical questions. The earlier reformers,' Cranmer, Latimer, Hooper, Ridley, opposed chiefly the practical abuses of the papacy. The exiles under Mary returned (1559) from Frankfort, Zurich, and Geneva, imbued with the principles of the Reformed (Calvinistic) system. But the polity and faith of England, as shaped under Elizabeth, contained conflicting elements, represented respectively by the Book of Common Prayer, and the Thirty-Nine Articles (which latter were Calvinistic). An intermediate position was occupied by Jewel,' Grindal, Pilkington, and Abp. Parker. The Puritan principles were advocated by Hooper, Thos. Cartwright,' Wm. Perkins.' As late as 1578, Calvin's Catechism was ordered to be used in the University of Cambridge. The Lambeth Articles of 1595, taught the strictest scheme of predestination. Ireland was represented by the learning and orthodoxy of archbishop Usher. Scotland, with the Presbyterian system, also received from John Knox the principles of the school of Geneva, advocated by Andrew Melville, Henderson, and others." At the end of the sixteenth century, and beginning of the seventeenth, the Anglican system was represented by Richard Hooker," and others;" the episcopal system was defended by Donne, Field, Andrews, and Jackson." Abp. Laud, pressed the high church and sacramentarian tendencies, in conjunction with Arminian views, (Montagu and Mainwaring,) to their extreme consequences, opposed in vain by the moderate Puritans,'' Davenant, Bp. Reynolds, Bp. Hall, Williams, Carleton, and Barlow. The conflict of the systems resulted in the temporary triumph of Presbyterianism and Calvinism in the Westminster Assembly," followed by the reaction under the Restoration (Charles II.) The Anglican system was subsequently developed and expounded in a prolific and learned theological literature, which had for its ideal the theology of the church of
the first four or five centuries, (Bp. Bull,'' Jeremy Taylor,'' Isaac Barrow,“ Bp. Cosin," Abp. Bramhall," Stillingfleet, Waterland, Sherlock, Abps. King and Wake, and was ably defended in its main doctrinal position by the non-jurors, Hickes, Leslie, Kettlewell, Johnson, Brett, and others)." It reached the term of its development about the close of this period (1720). It was exhibited in its most systematic form in the works of Beveridge,** Pearson, and Burnet." Yet there were not wanting those in the established church, who still advocated the main principles of the Reformed theology (Abp. Leighton," South," Ez. Hopkins, Manton, Barlow, and others.") The more distinctive Puritan theology was advocated chiefly by the non-conformists, in thorough treatises and practical works by Charnock, Thomas Watson," W. Bates," William
" * Twisse," by Flavel and Bunyan," by Thos. Goodwin, and many others ;" and in a stricter and more comprehensive method by Richard Baxter," John Owen," John Howe," Theoph. Gale," Thos. Ridgeley," Matthew Henry and Calamy." The Antinomian tendency was represented by Crisp." The Scotch divines," and the New England“ colonists from Great Britain remained faithful to the strict Calvinistic tradition.]
[There were also other phases of theological opinion, of a less permanent influence. A Platonizing tendency was represented by Cudworth," More and Norris,“ John Smith, of Cambridge, Gale, Culverwell, and others." Under Latitudinarianism was included a somewhat undefined class, as John Milton,** Chillingworth,' archbishop Tillotson,“ Samuel Clark," Patrick, Whitby, Sykes, Whiston, and others." (The most important doctrinal controversy was the Trinitarian, in which Bull, Waterland, Samuel Clarke, Whiston, Sherlock, Watts, South, Stillingfleet, and Alix, bore a part. See § 234, 262.)]
· [The works of the early English Reformers are published most completely by the Parker Society, 1840–1855, in 55 vols. Legh Richmond's Fathers of the English Church, 8 vols., 1807-1812, contains the works of Frith, Barnes, Lancelot, Ridley, and other confessors under Henry VIII, Thomas Cranmer was born 1589, Abp. Canterb, 1532, burnt at the stake, Oxford, Mar. 25, 1556. He had chief part in drawing up the Prayer Books (1549, 1552), the Catechism of 1548, and the XLII. Articles of 1553, In the Homilies, he wrote that on Justification, 1547. Cranmer's Bible, 1539. Works, Miscel. Writings and Letters, ed. J. E. Coxe, for Parker Soc., 2 vols., 1844. Defence of Sacrament, 1550; and Answer to Stephen Gardner, on Eucharist, 1580, 4to. (Lat. transl. of Defence by Sir John Cheke, 1557). Works by Jenkyas, 4, 8vo., 1834. Life by Strype, Le Bas, H. J. Todd, and others. Compare Rev. J.J. Blunt, in Quarterly Review, rep. in his Essays, 1860. On Cranmer and his theological position, see Corres pondence between the Bp. of Exeter and T. B. Macaulay, Lond., 1861, Hugh Latimer, b. 1470; bp. Worcester, 1535; burnt at Oxford, 1585.