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of Athanasian Creed. Importance of Doctrine of Trinity. Regeneration. Eucharist, etc.-Abp. King, b. 1650, bp. Derry, 1691, abp. Dublin, 1702, d. 1729. De Origine Mali, 1702 ; Origin of Evil, ed. by Edm. Law, 4th ed., 1758. Divine Predest., 1710, 1815, by Whately, 1821. Key to Divinity, Part 1, 1715.--Peter Heylin, b. 1600, Prebend. Westminst., 1631, d. 1662. Theologia Veterum, on Apostles' Creed, fol., Lond., 1673. Hist. of Ref. of Chh. of Eng., 1674; 2 vols., 1849; by Robertson, for Eccl. Hist. Soc., etc. - George Hickes, b. 1642, non-juring bp. of Thetford, 1694, d. 1715. On Christ. Priesthood, 4th ed., 2 vols., Lib. Angl. Cath. Theol., Oxf., 1847. Order of Lord's Supper. Controversial Discourses, 1705, 3d ed., 1727, etc.

- Chs. Leslie (non-juror), d. 1722. Theol. Works, 2 fol., 1721, 7 vols., Oxf., 1832. John Kettlewell (non-joror), b. 1653, d. 1695. Works, 2 fol., 1719. - Matthew Scrivener, Course of Divinity, fol., 1674.-John Johnson, Vicar of Cranbrook, b. 1662, d. 1725 (a non-juror). The Unbloody Sacrifice, 2 vols., in Oxf. Lib., 1847. Collect. of Eccl. Laws, 2, 1720, Oxf. 1850–1; Discourses, etc.— William Wake, b. 1657, bp. Lincoln, 1705, abp. Canterb., 1716, d. 1737. Expos. of Doct. of Church of England, and Defence, 1686. Authority of Christian Princes, and Appeal, 1697-8. Comm. on Catechism. On Convocation, 1703 (most important of the works on this topic). Transl. of the Epistles of the Fathers. Sermons and Disc.—Thos. Brett, non-juror, b. 1667, d. 1743. An Account of Church Government, best ed., 1710. On Tradition, 1718; Liturgies, 1720; Episcopacy, 2d ed., 1728.]

* [William Beveridge, b. 1636, bp. St. Asaph, 1704, d. 1708. Works, by T. H. Horne, 9 vols., 1824. Eng. Theol. Works, 10 vols., Oxf., 1844–8 (vol. 7 contains the lost MS. Exposition of Art. 31–39, discovered by Routh). On Thirty-Nine Articles ; Church Catechism; Thesaurus Theologicus (vols. 9, 10); Codex Canonum, 2 vols., Oxf., 1848. Synodicon: Pandectæ Canonum ab Eccles. Græc. recept., 2 fol., Oxf1672–82; Vindication of same, 1679.]

[John Pearson, b. 1612, Margaret Prof. Camb., 1661, bp. Chester, 1673, d. 1686. Exposition of the Creed, 3d ed. (last corrected by the author), fol., 1669 ; 12th ed. 1741 ; Dobson's ed., 1840 (repr. New York); Burton's ed., 1847; Chevallier's, 1849. Minor Theol. Works, ed. Churton, 2 vols., Oxf., 1844. Vind. Epist. S. Ignat, in Cotelerius, and in 2 vols. ed. Churton, Lib. Angl. Cath. Theol., Oxf., 1852. Annals St. Paul, Camb., 1825.]

* [Gilbert Burnet, b. 1643, Prof. in Glasgow, 1669, bp. Salisbury, 1689, d. 1714-15. Expos. of XXXIX. Articles, 1699, fol., revised ed. J. R. Page, 1843, repr. New York. Vind. of Ordinations of England, 1677 (in Gibson's Preservation, 2, 109.) Hist. Ref. Ch. Engl., vol. i. 1679, vol. ii. 1681, vol. iii. 1715 (The only work for which the English Parliament voted public thanks, with a request for its continuation. Bossuet was employed upon a reply); 7 vols., Oxf., 1829; 2 royal 8vo., By Nares, 4 vols. (restoring suppressed passages). Hist. of his Own Times, posthumous, , 1724-34. For his other works, see Allibone, Lowndes, Darling.)

" (Robert Leighton, b. 1613, principal Univ. Edinburg, Abp. Glasgow, 1670-4, d. 1684. Exposition of Creed. Theolog. Lectures (Prælect. Theol., Lond., 1808.) Comm. on 1st Peter. Works by Pearson, 4 vols., ?830; also in 2 vols.)






[Robert South, b. 1633, Prebend. of Westminster, 1663, d. 1716. Sermons, 7 vols., Oxf., 1823; 5 vols., 1842; Lond. 4 vols. 1843; 2 vols., 1850. Animadversions on Sherlock's Trinity, 1693.]

"" [Ezekiel Hopkins, b. 1633, bp. of Derry, 1681, d. 1690. Works fol., 1710; 4 8vo., 1809 ; 2 8vo., 1841, with life by Pratt. Doctrines of Two Covenants, 1712.-Thomas Manton, b. 1620, d. 1677 : “The best collector of sense of the age," Charnock. Works, 5 fol. (see in Darling, Cycl. Bibl., not complete; new ed. projected by Nichol, Edinb.)-John Edwards, b. 1637, d. 1716. Theologia Reformata, 2 fol., Lond., 1713; Theol. Ref. (practical part), fol., 1726. Replies to Whitby, Clarke, Abp. King (on Predest.)- Anthony Tuckney, b. 1599, Reg. Propat., Cambr., 1661, d. 1670. Forty Sermons, 1776, etc.—Thomas Barlow, b. 1607, bp. Lincoln, 1675, d. 1691, a learned Calvinistic divine. Popery, 1679. Brutum Fulmen (bull of Pius V. against Elizabeth), 1681. Rights of Bishops, 1680. Miscl. Cases and Genuine Remains (posthumous, agaiust B.'s wish, by Sir Peter Pett, 1690-1, etc.)

" [Stephen Charnock, b. 1628, d. 1680. Works (posthumous) 2 fol., Lond., 1682–3 ; 9 vols., 8vo., 1815, by Ed. Parsons, with Memoir. Disc. on the Attributes, 2 vols., 1834, New York, with life, by Symington, 1856. “ Perspicuity and depth ; metaphysical subtlety and evangelical simplicity;" Toplady. A new ed. of his works to be published by Nichol, Edinb.]

^ [Thos. Watson, educated at Cambridge, minister in Lond., 1646–62, d. 1689. A Body of Divinity, on the Assembly's Catechism, fol., 16921741, New York, 1856.]

” [William Bates, b. 1625, d. 1699. Harmony of Divine Attributes in Redemption of Man, 1697. The Four Last Things, 1691. Works, 4 8vo., by Farmer, Lond., 1815. Vitæ Select. Virorum (anonym.), Lond., 1681.]

" [William Twisse, b. 1575, Prolocutor of Westminster Assembly, in 1643. Opera, 3 fol., Amst., 1652 (De Vindiciis Gratiæ, agst. Arminius; De Scientia Media). Edited (with Savile) Bradwardine's De Causa Dei 1618.]

" (John Flavel, b. 1627, non-conform., d. 1691. Whole works, 2 fol., 1701, 1740; 6 vols., Lond., 1820. Fountain of Life. Method of Grace, 1698. Pneumatologia, 1698. Expos. of Catechism, 1692.-John Bunyan, b. 1628, d. 1688. He wrote as many works as he lived of years (60). Pilgrim's Progress (“the best Summa Theol. Evangelicæ ever produced by a writer not miraculously inspired,” Coleridge), original ed. repr. by Offer, 1849. Works, 2 fol., 1692, and often; 6 vols. by Mason, 1684; best ed. by Offer, 3 vols., 1853. (Doctrines of Law and Grace. Defence of Justif. by Faith. Life by Southey, Offer, Philip, 1839), etc. On edition of Pilg. Prog. see Princeton Rev., 1859. Bunyan not the author of Vision of Heaven and Hell; see Notes and Qu., 1st series, iii, iv. Cheever's Lect. on Pilgrim's Progress.]

[Thos. Goodwin, b. 1600, member of West. Assembly, Prest. of Magdalen Coll., Oxf, 1649, d. 1679. Works, 5 fol., 1681.–Anthony Burgess, (Indp.) also of the Assembly; Vindiciæ Legis, 1646. True Doctrine of Justif., 1655.-Jerem. Burroughes, (Indp.), b. 1599, d. 1646 ; see Darling, U 8.-Thos. Doolittel, 1630-1707, Complete Body of Divinity, 1723, etc.



Geo. Walker, 1581-1651 : Socinianism and Justif., 1641. The works of Sibbs, 1577–1635, Thos. Adams, Brooks, d. 1680, D. Clarkson, (co-pastor with Owen), 1622–86, Puritan Divines, to be republished by Nichol, Edinb., 1861, 89.]

[Richard Baxter, b. 1615, minister at Kidderminster, 1640, d. 1691. He published 168 treatises. Practical Works, 4, fol., 1707 ; 23, 8vo., 1830, and 4, imp. 8vo. Life by Orme. Christian Ethics, Ecclesiastics, and Politics. Gildas Salvianus, the Reformed Pastor. Reformed Liturgy. Saints' Rest. Aphorisms on Justif., 1649, and Conf. of Faith, 1655; of Justif., 1658. Methodus Theol. Christianæ, 1681. Catholick Theologie, 1675. (See list of works in Darling's Cycl. Bibl.) — His theological system has been termed Baxterian, intermediate between Calvinism and Arminianism.]

(John Owen, the most eminent of the Independent divines, b. 1616, d. 1683. Works by Russell, 21 vols., 1826 ; and Comm. on Heb., 7 vols.; new ed., by Goold, Edinb., 16 vols. Life by Orme. Disc. concerning Holy Spirit. Display of Arminianism. Saints' Perseverance. Vindicia Evangelicæ (agst. Socinians). Justification by Faith. Christologia—the Power of Christ. Ocoloyovueva Tavtomada, sive de Natura, Ortu....veræ Theol., Brem., 1684.]

" [John Howe, b. 1630, minister in London, d. 1675. Works, 2 fol., 1724, with life, by Calamy; 3 vols., 1848, ed. by Hewlett; by Hunt, 8 vols., 1810-20. New ed., Edinb., 1856, 89. Life by Rogers, 1836. Living Temple (“a masterpiece of profound argumentation;" Williams. Part 2 contains Animadversions on Spinoza). Blessedness of Righteous. Work of Holy Spirit. Possibility of a Trinity in God. God's Prescience (“ the most profound, most philosophical, and most valuable of his writings;" Robert Hall). The Redeemer's Dominion over the Invisible World.]

» [Theophilus Gale, b. 1628, d. 1678. The Court of the Gentiles, 1672 (the original of human literature from the Scriptures); Bk. 2 is on Divine Predetermination, a vindication of Calvinism. A Discourse of Christ's Coming. Philosophia Generalis, 1676. The Ars Sciendi, ascribed to Gale by Wood, is denied by Calamy to be his.]

[Thos. Ridgeley, b. 1667, began an academy for divinity, Lond., 1712, d. 1734. Body of Divinity. Lectures on the Assembly's Larger Catechism, 2, fol., Lond., 1731-33; 4, 8vo., 1844; 2 vols., 1844; New York, 1855. Doctrine of Original Sin, 8vo., Lond., 1725.]

" (Matthew Henry, b. 1662, minister at Chester and Hackney, d. 1714. Exposition of Old and New Test. (from Romans to the end by other hands). Miscel. Works, with an Appendix on what Christ is made to believers, by P. Henry, Lond., 1830. Edward Calamy, 1571–1732. Exercit. Philos., 1688. Defence of Nonconformity, 3 vols., 1703–5. Inspiration, 1700. On Trin. (1 J. v. 7), 1722. Nonconform. Memorial, 3 vols., 1802. Autobiog., ed. Rutt, 1830.]

"? [Tobias Crisp, b. 1600, rector of Brinkworth, d. 1642. Christ Alone Exalted, 1643 ; with Notes by Gill, 4th ed., 2 vols., Lond., 1791. Crisp had “52 opponents”, among them, Williams, Edwards, Lorimer, Baxter (1690). See Nelson's Life of Bull. His son, Samuel Crisp, publ. Christ made Sin, 1691 ; new ed., 2 vols., 1832.]

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[David Calderwood, b. 1575, deprived for opposing episcopacy ; in Hjl. and, 1617--23; d. 1650. Hist. of Kirk of S., 1678 ; by Wodrow Soc., 8 vols., 1842–9. Altar of Damascus, 1621; enlarged Altare Damascen., 1708, against Episcopacy. Robert Wodrow, 1679–1734, Hist. of Sufferings of Ch. of S., 4 vols., 1838; Correspondence, ed. McCrie, Edinb., 3 vols., 1842–3. See also Wodrow Soc. Miscellany, by D. Laing, vol. i. 1844.—Thomas Halyburton, b. 1674, Prof. St. Andrews, d. 1712. Works, Lond., 1835. On Faith. Nat . ural Religion Insufficient. On Justification, etc. Thos. Boston, of Ettrick, 1676–1732. Works, fol., 1767; 12, 8vo., 1852, ed. by S. McMillan. Complete Body of Divin. (vol. 1, 2). Quest. in Div. (vol. 6). Human Nature in its Fourfold State (vol. 8). Robert Fleming, b. 1630, minister at Cambuslang, d. 1694. ; Fulfilling of Scripture, 1726; his son, Rob. Fleming, d. 1716; Christology, 3 vols., Lond., 1703-8; Disc., 1701; Rise and Fall of Papacy.]

· [The early New England colonists carried to the New World the Puritan form of Calvinism. Many of its first pastors and teachers were men trained in the universities of England. The Confession and Catechism of the Westminster Assembly were adopted by the Cambridge Synod of 1648 (excepting in respect to church government); the Savoy Conf. by the Boston Synod of 1680. At Saybrook, Connecticut, 1708, the Westminster and Savoy Conf., and the XXXIX. Articles were sanctioned.-Antinomian Controversy (1636-7) in Boston (Mrs. Ann Hutchinson), her opinions condemned by Newtown Synod, 1637. Half-Way Covenant Controver. 165762.-John Robinson, b. 1575, about 1606 at Scrooby, 1609 in Leyden, Holland, d. 1625 (6)-never in New England, but his church (Brewster) emigrated to Plymouth. Works, 3 vols., 1851, by Cong. Bd.: Controversy with Episcopius, 1613; Defence of Doctrine of Dort, 1624.-John Cotton, b. 1585, d. 1682, head lecturer in Trinity College, Camb., in Boston 1633, shaped the polity of the churches, opposed Antinomianism ; Keyes of the Kingdom of Heaven, 1644; Vindiciæ Clavium; Way of the Churches against Baylie and Rutherford, 1648, etc.—ThorHooker, b. 1586, in Cambridge 1633, in Hartford, Ct., 1636, d. 1647; Survey of Sum of Church Discipline, 1648.John Norton, b. 1606, Ipswich, 1638, Boston, 1655, d. 1663; Letter to Dary: Responsio ad totum Quæst. Syllogen a.... Guil. Apollonio propos., etc., Lond., 1648 (first Latin book written in New Eng., at the request of Apollonius and the divines of Zealand, on church controversies in England); Disc. of Sufferings of Christ, 1653 (by order of the General Court); The Orthodox Evangelist, 4to., 1654, etc. Life by Mather.


. -Thos. Shepard, b. 1605, minister Camb., (N. E.) 1635, d. 1649; on Liturgies, Power of Keys, etc., 1653; Parable of Ten Virgins, 1660, 1663, Aberd. 1838. The Sound Believer, 1671. Meditato, 1791. Works, Cong. Bd. See Allen and Sprague.Richard Mather, b. 1596, Dorchester 1636, d. 1669 ; on Justif., 1662; Reply to Rutherford, 1646, etc.; see Wood's Athen. Oxon. ii. 427. His son, Increase Mather, b. 1639, Prest. Harvard, 1681, d. 1723. Numerous works : see Allen's Biog. Dict. Cotton Mather, son of latter, b. 1663, minister Bost. 1684, d. 1728. He published 382 works; see Allen, u. s. Nagnalia Christi Americana, in 7 books, fol., 1702, repr. Hartford, 2, 8vo. Christ. Philosopher, 1721. John Davenport, of New Haven, b. 1597, d. 1672.


-John Eliot, apostle to Indians, b. 1604, d. 1690; Christ. Commonwealth, 1650; Indian Bible, 1661-4, first Bible printed in America. Life by C. Francis.- Samuel Willard, b. Jan. 31, 1639-40, minister Boston, 1678, d.

. 1707; Body of Divinity in 250 Lect. on Assembly's Catechism, fol. Bost. 1726. Comp. J. F. Stearns, in Am. Theol. Rev., Aug., 1860.]

" (Ralph Cudworth, b. 1617, educated at Cambridge, Prof. Hebrew, 1645, d. 1688. The True Intellectual System of the Universe, fol., 1678; 2, 4to, 1742, and life by Birch; repr. 2, 8vo., at Andover (New Eng.), 1837, with Treatise on Immutable Morality, 1731 ; 3, 8vo., 1845, with transl. of Mosheim's notes; True Notion of Lord's Supper, 1670, and often ; Sermon on 1 John ii. 3, 4, against Antinomians. Systema Intellectuale, ed. Mosheim, 2, fol., Jen., 1733; 2, 4to., L. Bat, 1773. “ The Latin transl, is greatly to be preferred :" Warburton. On Free-will, with notes by John Allen, 1838. A number of Cudworth's unpublished MS. are in the British Museum; e. g., on Liberty and Necessity; the Notion of Hobbes concerning God and Spirit. Paul Janet, Essai sur le médiateur plastique de Cudworth, Paris, 1860.]

[Henry More, b. 1614, d. 1687. Theological Works, fol., Lond., 1708. (Mystery of Godliness. Mystery of Iniquity. Grounds of Certainty of Faith. Antidote against Idolatry). Collection of Philosoph. Writings, fol., Lond., 1712. (On Atheism; Enthusiasm ; Immortality ; Epistol. ad R. Des Cartes; Conjectura Cabbalistica). Discourses, Lond., 1692. Enchiridion Ethicum, Amst., 1695. Divine Dialogues, Glasg., 1743. Opera, 3 fol.,

3 Lond., 1675-9. Life by R. Ward, Lond., 1710. Comp. Vaughan's Hours with Mystics. John Morris, of Bemerton, 1657, d. 1711: a Cambridge Platonist. Miscellanies, 2d ed., Lond., 1690. Theory and Regulation of Love, 1680. Disc. on Beatitudes, 4 vols., 1699, 89. Reason and Faith, 1697. Theory of Ideal World, 2 vols., 1701–4 (his chief work, on basis of Malebranche). Letters to Dodwell, etc.]

[John Smith, of Cambridge, b. 1618, d. 1652. Select Discourses, 4to., 1660, 1673, 8vo., 1821 (by Worthington), 4th ed. by H. G. Williams, with bp. Patrick's Sermon, Camb., 1859.—The Disc. on Prophecy was transl. by Le Clerc for his Commentary on the Prophets. The other Discourses are on True Way of Attaining Divine Knowledge; Superstition; Atheism ; Immortality ; Existence and Nature of God; Legal and Evang. Righteousness ; Excellence and Nobleness of True Religion, etc.- See Theophilus Gale, note 39.—Rd. Cumberland, b. 1632, bp. Peterborough, 1691, d. 1718. De Legibus Naturæ, 1672, transl. by Maxwell, 1727, by Towers, Dubl. 1750, in French by Barbeyrac, Amst., 1744. On Sanchoniathon, 1729. Origines Gentium, 1724. Benjamin Whichcote, b. 1610, Prof. Div. King's College, d. 1683. Discourses, 4 vols. Aphorisms, in 1703, by Jeffery, rep. by Salter, 1753. Select Sermons (originally publ. by Lord Shaftesbury), 1792, 1798.-Nathaniel Culverwel, (Culverel), d. 1650 or 1651. An elegant and learned Discourse of the Light of Nature (written in 1646) with several other Treatises (The Schism; The Act of Oblivion; The White Stone; Spiritual Optics, first printed 1651), etc., 1652, 4to.; 1654; 1661; 1669. The Light of Nature, ed. by J. Brown, with Essay by Cairns, Edinb., 1857.

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