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This remarkable work anticipated Cumberland's theory (1672) of independent morality; it is not noticed by Stewart, or Mackintosh, or Hallam.Francis Lee, M. D., 1660, d. 1719. Wrote works tinged with Mysticism: Apoleipomena : or Diss. Theol. Mathemat., etc.; 2, Lond., 1752. History of Montanism. On Books of Ezra and Esdras, 1722. Prolegomena to the historical part of Grabe's Septuagint. Samuel Shaw, b. 1635, d. 1691, rector of Long-Whatton, a divine of the same class : Immanuel, or Discovery of True Religion, 1667, 4th ed. 1804. Also Joseph Truman, b. 1631, d. 1672. A Disc. of Natural and Moral Impotency; ed. H. Rogers, Lond., 1834; The Great Propitiation, Lond., 1669. See Brown's Preface to Culverwell, ubi supra, p. xxii.- Robert Fludd (De Fluctibus), M. D., b. 1547, d. 1637, a mystical (Rosicrucian, Cabalistic) philosopher. Works, Oppenheim, 1617–38, 6 vols., fol. Mosaical Philos., transl. Lond., 1659. See Wood's Athen. Oxon.]

[John Milton, b. 1608, Latin Secretary to Cromwell, d. 1674. Prose Works, by Toland, 3, fol., Amst., 1697–8; 2, fol., 1738; 2, 4to, Life by Birch, 1735; Symmond, 7 vols., 1806; 1848–53, 5 vols.; whole works, 8 vols., 1851, Lond. and Boston. Ref. in England; Episcopacy; Reason of Church Gov. (vol. 2); on Smectymnus (vol. 3). De Doctrina Christ. curav. C. R. Sumner, 1825, also translated. Life by Keightly, 1855 ; Masson, vol. 1, 1859. On his Religious Life and Opinions, Bib. Sac., 1859–60, by Barber; the question of the time at which the Christian Doctrine was written-in his earlier life, about 1640 ? on the basis of Ames and Wollebs.]

" [William Chillingworth, b. 1602, became a Rom. Cath. through the influence of John Fisher, alias John Perse, but was brought back by Laud, 1631, d. 1644. Religion of Protestants, 1638; 6th ed. with other works, 1704; 10th, fol., 1742; 3, 8vo., Oxf., 1838. Life by M. Des Maizeaux, Lond., 1725. His Religion of Protestants was written in reply to Edward Knott's (real name Matthias Wilson, a Jesuit), Charity Mistaken. Tillotson calls C. “the glory of the age and nation." He also wrote Nine Sermons, 1634; The Apostol. Institution of Episcopacy, 1644. His great work also takes a position in contrast with Hooker's theory of the rightful authority of the national church.]

[John Tillotson, b. 1630, Dean St. Paul's, 1089, Abp. Canterb., 1691, d. 1694. Works (254 Discourses), 3, fol., 1752. 12 vols., 1757 (Life by Birch, publ., 1753 ; vol. xiii. Rule of Faith, 3d ed., 1688.) ]

" [Samuel Clarke, b. 1673, rector St. James', Westminster, 1709, d. 1729. He aided in displacing the Cartesian by the Newtonian system (ed. Rohault's Physics). Boyle Lectures, Demonstr. of Being and Attrib. of God, and Obligations of Nat. Rel., 2 vols., 1705-6. Script. Doctrine of Trinity, 1712 (provoked a long controversy: Waterland, Whitby, Nelson, Jackson, etc.) Collect. of Papers bet. C. and Leibnitz, 1717; on Collins on Liberty, 1717 (in French by Des Maizeaux, 1720). Letter to Dodwell on Immortality, eta Sermons. Works, life by Hoadly, 4, fol., 1738.]

[Symon Patrick, bp. Ely, b. 1626, d. 1707. On Communion, 1685, Tradition, 1683, the Eucharist, etc., Comm. on the 0. and N. Test. and Apoc. (Lowth, Arnold, Whitby, and Lowman, added), new ed., 4 vols., 1853,




- Daniel Whitby, b. 1638, Prebend. Salisbury, 1688, d. 1726; Arminian and at last Arian. Protestant Reconciler, 1683 (retracted). On Dodwell, 1707. On the Five Points, 1710. De Imput. Peccati Adami, 1711; transl. by Heywood, 1739. Ethices Comp., 1713. Disquis. Modestä (on Bull, replied to by Waterland, and rejoinder by Whitby), 1720, etc.- Arthur Ashley Sykes, b. 1684, Prebend. Salisbury and Winchester, d. 1756. Controversies with Collins, S. Clarke, Warburton, Middleton. Script. Doctr. of Redemption, 1756. Resurrection. On Sacrifice. Memoirs by Disney, 1785.-- William Whiston, b. 1667, Prof. Math. Cambr., expelled for Arianism, 1710, d. 1752. Boyle Lect. on Prophecy, 1708. Prim. Christianity revived, 5 vols., 1711-12. Text of Old Test., 1722. Hist. O. and N. Test., 6 vols., 1745. Prim. New Test., 1745. Liturgy of Church of England reduced, 1750. Memoirs, 3 vols., 1749–50, etc.]


§ 226.


Sarpi [P. Soave Pol.], Istoria del Concilio di Trento, London, 1619. [Bp. Burnet says 1856; Brownson's Quarterly, Oct., 1856. Jas. Waterworth, Essays on Hist. of Council, prefixed to his transl. of its Decrees and Canons, Londo, 1848. Chs. Butler, Historical and Literary Account of Formularies, etc., Lond., 1816, reprinted in his works, vol. iv., 1817.]

of Sarpi, " that it was generally looked upon as the rarest piece of history the world ever saw.” It was translated into English by Sir N. Brent, together with his History of the Inquisition (a previous transl., 1655), Lond., 1696; his treatise of Beneficiary Matters, Westm., 1727; his Life, 1651. The Lond. ed. of 1619 was edited by De Dominis. French transl. by Courayer, 2 Tom., Amst., 1736.) +Pallavicini, Istoria del Conc. di Trento. Rom., 1636, ii. fol., Milan, 1717; Latin by Guttini, Ant., 1673; in French, 3 vols., 1844; translated into German by +Klitsche, Augsburg, 1835. Chemnitii Examen Concilii Tridentini, Francof., 1707. Salig, vollständige Historie des Tridentinischen Conciliums, Halle, 1741, fol. iii. 4. Göschl, Dr. J. M., geschichtliche Darstellung des grossen allgemeinen Concils zu Trient. ii., Regensb., 1840. Danz, Gesch. des Trident. Concils nach der Darstellung eines Katholischen Schrifts. tellerg, Jena, 1846. Marheineke, System des Katholicismus (see vol. i., § 16). J. P. Lange, Die gesetzlich-katholische Kirche, als Sinnbild der freien evang-kathol. Kirche, Heidelberg, 1850. [Von Wessenberg, Die grossen Kirchen-versammlungen, 4 Bde., Constanz., 1840 (Bde., 3 and 4), comp. Hefele's Beurtheilung, 1842. Köllner's Symbolik, i., Hamb., 1844, on Sarpi, p. 48, on Pallavicino, p. 55. Comp. Ranke's Hist, of Popes, Phil. ed., on Sarpi, p. 437; on Pallavicino, 437; on Trent, 71–74, 108–114, et passim. See the Literature in Gieseler's Church Hist. (N. Y. edition), vol. v. $ 55. G. J. Planck, Anecdota ad Hist. Conc. Trid. pertinentia, 26 Göttingen Programmes, 1791–1818. J. Mendham, Memoirs of the Council of Trent, Lond., 1834; and Acta Conc. Trident. a Paleotto, ed. Mendham, Lond., 1842, and Suppl., 1840. J. N. Brischar, Beurtheilung Sarpi's u. Pallavic., Tüb., 1843, 2 Bde. Ellies du Pin, Hist. du Concile de Trente, 2, 4to. Bruxelles, 1721. Bungener, Hist. Council Trent, from the French, Lond., 1842, N. Y., 1855. T. A. Buckley, Hist. of Council of Trent, Lond., 1832. Bucholz's Ferdinand I., 1850. Rosseeuw St. Hilaire's Histoire d'Espagne, Tom. viii., 1861, contains new and learned investigations on the Council, in him, as in Ranke, there are new materials. Among the older works, Heidegger's Vindication of Fra Paolo, in his Tumulus Concil. Trident., 2, 4to., Zürich, 1690, still deserves to be consulted.—Bp. Jewel

, Apology and Letters to Scipio on Council of Trent, in his works, and separately published, 1854. On Trent, comp. Christ. Rev., Jan.

Confronted by Protestantism, the Roman Catholics found themselves compelled to examine the state of their own Church. They had to perform a twofold task-viz., first, to secure the doctrines which they held from misrepresentation and false inferences, and, secondly, to hold fast, with renewed vigor, that which their principles bound them to maintain. The Council of Trent (1545-1593) had therefore to enlighten the Roman Catholic Church on its own position, and solemnly to sanction its system (developed to a great extent by the scholastics of the preceding period) in direct opposition to the demands of the reformers. The declarations of this Council,' as well as those set forth in the Roman Catechism, which was based upon the former,' are therefore to be regarded as the true symbols of the Romish Church, and every deviating doctrine must in its view renounce all claims to catholicity.

· Canones et Decreta Concilii Tridentini Rom., 1564, 4. In the same year several editions were published at Rome, Venice, Antwerp, Louvain, Cologne, and many others; Lyons, 1580 (with the Index Librorum Prohibitorum). In later times editions have been published by J. Gallemart, Col., 1618, 20, Antw., 1644, Lyons, 1712 ; by Phil. Chiffelet, Antw., 1640, and * Jodoc. le Plat., Antw., 1779, 4 (Comp. Walch, Bibl. Theol., Tom. i. p. 407, ss.), reprinted by Danz and Streitwolf (comp. Vol. i. p. 31). As regards the history of doctrines and symbolism, the Sessions 4–7, 13, 14, 21-25, are of special importance. [W. Smets, Sacros. Conc. Trid. Canones et Decreta, ed. 4, 1854. Canones et Decreta, ex Bullario Romano, ed. Richter, et Schultze, Lips., 1853. Canons and Decrees, transl. by T. A. Buckley, Lond., 1851: and by James Waterworth, Lond., 1848. The Doctrinal Decrees and Canons, transl. by W. C. Brownlee, N. Y., 1845.)-The Professio Fidei Tridentinæ, based upon the canons of the council, was drawn up A. D. 1564, by order of Pope Pius IV., and no one could obtain either an ecclesias tical office or an academical dignity, etc., without subscribing it. It is in the Bullar. Roman. Tom. ii. p. 127, ss. (and in the form of an appendix in the earlier edition of Winer.) Comp. G. Ch. F. Mohnicke, Urkundliche Geschichte der sogenannten Professio fidei Trident., etc., Greifswalde, 1822, 8. Winer, p. 9. [Bungener's Hist. of Council of Trent, ubi supra. Köll. ner, Symbolik, ii. 161-165.]

• The Catechismus Romanus was composed (in accordance with a resolution of the Council of Trent, sess. 25), by Archbishop Leon Marino, Bishop Egidius Foscarari, and Fr. Fureiro, a Portuguese scholar, under the superintendence of three cardinals, and published A. D. 1566, by authority of Pope Pius IV. (the Latin version by Paul Manutius.) Several editions and translations into the modern languages have been published; e. 9., that of Mayence, 1835, 12mo. for general use. In the earlier editions nothing but the text was given, without any division ; in the edition of Cologne, 1572, it was for the first time divided into books and chapters; that of Antwerp, 1574 contained questions and answers. The Catechism consists of four parts : de Symbolo Apostolico, de Sacramentis, de Decalogo, and de Oratione Dominica. Concerning the relation in which the catechism stands to the canons of the Council of Trent, and the inferior importance assigned to it by the Jesuits and other Roman Catholic theologians, see Winer, l. c. [The Catechism for the Curates, composed by the decree of the Councilof Trent. Faithfully translated, permissu superiorum, Lond., 1887. A translation by T. A. Buckley, Lond., 1852. Comp. Köllner, Symbolik, ii. 166–190.]

The catechisms composed by the Jesuit P. Canisius (the larger of which appeared, 1554, the smaller, 1566), which acquired greater currency than the Catechismus Romanus, bave not received the papal sanction, and on that account cannot be regarded as symbolical books; but they excited more attention, and gave rise to new controversies. Comp. Joh. Wigand, Warnung vor dem Catechismus des Dr. Canisii, des grossen Jesuwidders, () Jena, 1570, 4 The Confutatio (comp. & 215, note 2,) might also be regarded as a document which sets forth the principles of Romanism, in opposition to Protestantism; but it was not formally sanctioned by the Church.

[Among the secondary sources are the Roman Missal, and the Breviary. See Kölner, ii. 190, sq. The Council of Trent ordered the revision of the Missal, published in 1570; again in 1604, which is followed in all the reprints. On the Breviarium, see Köcher Bibl. Symbol. i. 755, sq.; it is so called, because in it the previous offices were abbreviated (under Gregory VII). The Council of Trent ordered a revision; printed 1568, and often. English translation of Missal, Lond. Robertson, Rom. Liturgy, Edb., 1792. Geo. Lewis, The Bible, Missal and Breviary, 2 vols., Edinb, 1853, contains the first complete English transl. of the Liturgy. Besides the Catechism of Canisius, that of Bellarmine, prepared by direction of Clement VIII., 1603, and of Bossuet, for the diocese of Meaux, 1687, have had much authority).

$ 227.


[Kuhn, Kathol. Dogmatik, 2te, Aufl. 1 (1859) 8. 463–519. Hugo Laemmer, Die vortriden

tinisch-katholische, Theologie. Aus den Quellen, Berl., 1858. Gieseler, V., $ 63.]


Among the theologians who defended the doctrines of the Roman Catholic Church, during the age of the Reformation,' along with Eck, Faber, Cochlæus, and others, Desiderius Erasmus occupied the most prominent place, though he did not transmit to posterity a system of dogmatic theology. To this period also belongs Albert Pighius,' whom Calvin opposed. After the Council of Trent, the members of the Order of Jesus, in particular,“ made the defence of modern Romanism (both theoretically and practically) the task of their lives. The most conspicuous doctrinal and polemical writer among them was Robert Bellarmine;' while Dionysius Petavius, endeavored to prove historically the antiquity of the catholic faith.' The following writers on dogmatic theology (and ethics), belonged to that religious society ; Peter Canisius,' Alphonse Salmeron,



John Maldonat,' Francis Suarez,' Gabriel Vasquez," Francis Coster," Martin Becanus," and others. Among the opponents of the Jesuits and their scholastic method, Melchor Canus, a Dominican monk was the most distinguished.” Jacques Bénigne Bossuet, the acute and clever Bishop of Meaux, by idealising Catholicism as much as was possible, endeavored to render it more agreeable to Protestants, while, on the other hand, he showed the changes which Protestant doctrines had undergone within a short space of time.''


· On Thomas Cajetan (who wrote a commentary on Thomas Aquinas), Eck, Faber, Cochlæus, Wimpina, Ambrose Catharinus, and others; see the works on the history of the Reformation, and Bouginé, Literaturgeschichte, ï. p. 70, ss., and Laemmer, l. c. [On Cajetan, see Gieseler, V., $ 63. Opera Ommia, 5, fol., Lugd., 1639. His translation of the Bible was literal. For his liberal views he was assailed by the Dominican Catharinus. C. F. Jäger, Cajetan's Kampf gegen die lutherische Lehrreform, in Zeitschrift f. d. hist. Theol., 1858.] Concerning George Wicel, who returned to the Romish Church (he was born A. D. 1501, and died 1573; he wrote: Via Regia, Helmst., 1650, De sacris nostri Temporis Controversiis, ibid., 1659), comp. *Neander, de Georgio Vicelio., Berol., 1839, 4, and by the same: das Eine und Mannigfache des christlichen Lebens, Berlin, 1840, p. 167, ss. [Gieseler, iv., 8 51, note 6.]

· Erasmus died at Basle, A, D. 1536. The most important of his controversial writings, in which he opposed Luther's notions concerning the will of man, are mentioned in the special history of doctrines. Comp. * Ad. Müller, Leben des Erasmus von Rotterdam, Hamb., 1828, 8. [Jortin's Life of E., 2, 4to., 1758-60; Knight's Life, Cambr., 1760; Hess, 2, Zürich, 1770; Chs. Butler, Lond., 1825. Der theol. Standpunkt des Erasm., by Kerker, in Theol. Quartalschrift, 1859, s. 531-567. Articles on Erasmus in Eclectic (Lond.), Sept., 1854; Christ. Examiner (by C. T. Brooks), vol. 49; Southern Rev., vol. 3; Christ. Rev. (by W. C. Wilkinson), April, 1858. See alco Nisard, Etudes sur la Renaissance, 1855.]

• The family name of Pighius was Von Campen; he died as provost of the church of St. John at Utrecht, Dec., 1542. Works : De Hierarchia Ecclesiasto, and De libero Hominis Arbitrio, et div. Gratia, libri x., Cola., 1542. See Bayle, Diction., and Schweizer's Centraldogmen, i. 180. [Calvin's defence against this work of Pighius is entitled Defensio sanæ et orthodoxæ Doctrina de Servitute et Liberatione humani Arbitrii advers. Calumnias Alb. Pighii Campensis, Genev., 1545; it is published in his Tractatus.]

• On the foundation of this order by Ignatius Loyola, (1534-40), see the works on ecclesiastical history. Respecting the doctrinal views of the Jesuits (Mariolatry) see Baumgarten Crusius, Compendium der Dogmengesch. i. pp. 394, 395. (Ranke, Hist. Popes (Phil.) 56–71, 77–81, et passim. .

( App. 520. The literature in Gieseler, v., $ 54. Abbé Guettée, Hist. des Jesuites, Paris, 2 vols., 1859.]

As regards controversies, he was the best writer of his age.”—Bayle.

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