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Bellarmine was born A, D. 1542, at Monte-Pulciano, in Tuscany, entered the order of the Jesuits, 1560, was appointed cardinal, 1599, archbishop Capta, 1602, and died 1621. He wrote: Disputationes de Controversiis Fidei adv. hujus Temporis Hæreticos, Ingolst., 1581, 82, ii. f. P. iii. 1592, fol., Venet., 1596, iii. fol. This work was opposed not only by Protestants, but also by some Roman Catholics. See Schröckh, Kirchengesch. nach der Reformation, iv. p. 260, ss. The best Protestant work written against Bellarmine was that of Scherzer, J. A. (he died 1683), Antibellarminus, Lips., 1681, 4. [In 1607 Bellarmine published a volume of corrections of the previous editions of his work, under the title Recognitio Librorum, incorporated in the editions of 1615, 1620, Paris, 1635; Prague, 1721; reprinted, Rome, 4, 4to., 1832-40, with an Appendix, Monument. Eccles. The best edition is that of 1620; that of Venice, 1721–27, omits several of B.'s works. His Notes of the Church, refuted by Anglican writers, several editions; comp. Kuhn, ubi supra, 490.]
• Petavius, was born at Orleans, A. D. 1583, and died at Paris, 1652. He wrote Opus de Theologicis Dogmatibus. Par., 1644–50, iv., Antw., 1700, vi.; Heinrich, p. 377, ss. His method was adopted by Ludw. Thomassin, in biş Dogmata Theologica, 1680–84. See Heinrich, p. 582. [Petavius was Prof. of theology at Paris from 1621. Muratori represents him as the reviver of dogmatic theology. The Antwerp (really Amsterdam) edition of 1700, in 6 Tom., was edited by Johannes Clericus, under the pseudonym of Theophilus Alettinus, who in his preface defends him against Sandius and Bullus, in respect to the Trinity, etc. The edition of Zacharia, Venice, 1757, is the best. A new edition is in progress at Rome, vol. i., 1858, ed. by Passaglia and Schrader. He also wrote De Doctrina Temporum, 3 fol., Antw., 1705. Gibbon says of Petav. (Decline and Fall, chap. xlvii, note 1: “ His Dogm. Theolog. is a work of incredible labor and compass, the volumes which relate solely to the Incarnation (2, fol.) are divided into xvi. books. ... The Jesuit's learning is copious and correct; his Latinity is pure, his method clear, his argument profound and well connected; but he is the slave of the fathers, the scourge of heretics, and the enemy of truth and candor as often as they are inimical to the Catholic cause.” Comp. also Kuhn, Dogmatik, i. 505, sq., who represents him as introducing a new method, neither scholastic nor speculative, but positive, in the treatment of theology. He was followed by Thomasson, the Oratorian, 3 Tom., Paris, 1680-4; Feuardentius, Tractatus Theol., Paris, 1692-4; Du Hamel, Theologia Speculatrix, Paris, 1691; Natalis Alexander (the church historian), Theolog. Dogmat., Paris, 1693.—Most of the R. C. divines, till the middle of the 18th century, adhered to the scholastic (Thomist) method; a few followed Scotus. The Scotists were Frassen, Scotus Academicus, Paris, 1672; and L'Herminier, Summa Theol. Scholast., Paris, 1771, Gonet, Clypeus Theol. Thomist.; Burdigal, 1659, was a Thomist; as were also Cora tenson, Theologia Mentis et Cordis, Colon., 1722; Witasse, Tract, Theol., Paris, 1722; Boucat, Theol. Patrum., Paris, 1718; Billuart, Cursus theol. juxta Mentem S. Thom., 1745. Others, somewhat later, - Tournely, Prælect. Theol. Venet., 1739; Gotti, Theol. Scholast, dogm., Venet., 1750;
Berti, De Theol. Discipl., Venet., 1776; Habert, Theol. Dogm. et Moral, Vindel., 1751. Kuhn, ubi supra.]
The original name of Canisius was de Hondt; he was born A, D. 1511, and died 1597. He was the author of a Summa Doctrinæ Christianæ (In. stitutiones Christianæ.) Par., 1628, f., and of the two catechisms mentioned $ 226.
Salmeron was born at Toledo, and died A. D. 1585. His works were published at Madrid, 1597–1602. Cologne, 1612, xvi. fol.
Maldonatus was born A. D. 1534, taught in the universities of Salamanca and Paris, and died 1583. His works appeared at Paris, 1643, 77, jj. fol. Heinrich, p. 302, ss. Schröckh, iv. p. 83. (He opposed the Jesuit view of the Immaculate Conception of Mary as necessary to the faith. He was called to Rome by Gregory XIII. to superintend the publication of the Septuagint.)
10 Suarez died a. D. 1617, at Lisbon. He wrote: Commentatio in Thomæ Summam., Mogunt., 1619–29, xix. fol.
Vasquez died A. D. 1604, at Alcala. He wrote: Commentarii in Thomam. Ingolstad., 1606. Ven., 1608. Antw., 1621.
, " Coster was professor of theology and philosophy in the university of Cologne, provincial of his order in the Rhine provinces, and died A. D. 1619. He wrote : Enchridion præcipuarum Controvers. in Religione; Meditationes. -Schröckh, iv. p. 280.
Becan was successively professor in the universities of Würzburg, Mayence, and Vienna, and died 1624, as confessor to the Emperor Ferdinand II.; he had before taught in Würzburg, Mayence and Vienna.—He wrote : Summa Theol.—Manuale Controversiarum hujus Temporis.—Opp. Mogunt., 1639, 1640, ii, f.
" Canus was a native of Taracon, [born 1523), and died a. d. 1560, as the provincial of his order in Castile. He wrote: Locorum Theol. libr. xii. Salam., 1563, f. Padua, 1714, 4, Venet., 1759, 4, and Vienna, 1764, (edited by Hyacinth Serry.) Comp. Heinrich, p. 298, ss. Schröckh, iv. p. 66, ss.
) [See Kuhn, ubi supra, p. 486, and Laemmer.]
1 Bossuet was born at Dijon, A. D. 1627, was appointed bishop of Meaux, 1681, and died 1704. Among his works were: Exposition de la Doctrine de l'église Catholique, 1671, edited by Fleury, Antw., 1678, 12.-Histoire des Variations des églises Protestantes, Par. (and Amst.), 1688, ii, 8. He was opposed by : Basnage (Hist. de la Rel. des églises Réformées, Rot., 1721), and Pfaff (Disputatt. Anti-Bossuet. Tub., 1720,) to which Bossuet replied, Defense, etc., Paris, 1701. Several Roman Catholics also pronounced against Bossuet's interpretation of their doctrines, e. 9. Maimbourg, the Jesuit. See Schröckh, vii. p. 280, ss. Comp. C. Schmidt, in Herzog's Realencycl. i, 317, 89. [Euvres, 20, 4to., Paris, 1743–1753. Deprés' edi
. ii8q tion, 27 vols., not complete. Versailles ed. by Bausset, 46 vols. (Euvres complètes de B., 59 vols., Paris, 1825 ; 12 vols., 1836. An English translation of his Exposition, by W[alter] Montague), Paris, 1672; another London. Hist. of Variations, transl., 2 vols., Dubl., 1836, 1845. On the Exposition, see Nouv. de la Républ. de Lettres, x. 931, 1252. Histoire de Bossuet
par M. le Cardinal de Bausset, nouv. ed. Paris, 8, 1855. Mémoires et Journ. sur a Vie et les Ouvrages de Bossuet (from manuscripts), par l'Abbé Guettée, 2, Paris, 1856, who also publ. in 1854, Essai sur l'Ouvrage de B. “ Avertissement sur les Réflex. morales" (of Quesnel), vindicating it as Bossuet's work, and showing that B. opposed the Jesuits. A. Floquet, Etudes sur Bossuet, vol. i. 1855. See also Bouillier, Hist. de la Philos, Cartésienne, Tom. i. A. Caillot, Vie de Bossuet, Paris, 1836.]
Reuchlin, Geschichte von Port-Royal, der Kampf des reformirten und jesuitischen Kathol.
icismus unter Ludwig XIII, XIV., 2 vols., Hamb., 1839–1844. See also the article in Herzog. [Sainte-Beuve, Hist. de Port-Royal, 4 vols., Paris, 1840–1858. Ch. Beard. Port-Royal, 2 vols., Lond., 1860. Schimmelpenninck, Memoirs of Port-Royal, Lond., 1855. On Reuchlin's work, see Sir Jas. Stephen, Essays, vol. i. C. A. Wil kens, Port-Royal, oder der Jansenismus in Frankreich, in Zeitschrift f. d. Wissenschaftliche Theologie, 1859. Meth. Quarterly, N. Y., 1855. Older Histories of Port Royal, by Fontaine, 2 vols., 1798; Racius, 2 vols., 1764; Quesnel, La Paix de Charles IX., 2 vols., 1701.- Works on the. Jansenists ; Leydecker, Hist. Jans. Traj. ad Rhenum, 1695. (Gerberon), Hist. Générale de Jane, Rom., 3 vols., 1711. Dom, de Colonia, Diction. de Livres Jansen., 4 vols, Lyons, 1752. Histories by Tregelles, 1851; Bellegrade, 1851 (see Christ. Rembr., Jan., 1852); and particularly J. M. Neale, Hist, of the so-called Jansenist Church in Holland, Lond., 1857; comp. Dublin Rev., 1858.
- The True Idea of Jansenism, both Historick and Dogmatick, by T[heophilus] G[ale], Lond., 1699.- Articles in Irish Eccies. Journal, 1862; Bibl. Repos., 1847; Church Rev., Jan., 1858; Dublin Rev., 1854 (tracing the French revolution to Jan. senism; and the same view in Brownson's Quarterly); Princeton Rev., Jan., 1856; Christ. Rev., April, 1856; Am. Theol. Rev. (L. Whiting), 1860; Kitto's Journal of Sacred Lit., vol. vii.—Specimen Hist. Theol. exhibens Historiam Eccl. Ultraject, Rom. Cath,, male Jansenisticæ dictæ, scripsit J. A. Gerth van Wijk, Traj. ad Rhen., 1859.)
In opposition to the Jesuitic and Pelagian dogmatic theology and ethics, Jansenism took its rise, following some earlier precedents,' and spread from the Netherlands into France, gaining a powerful centre and support in the Congregation of Port-Royal." On the one hand (in reference to the doctrine of election, etc.) the Jansenists manifested a leaning towards Protestantism, and thus maintained the Protestant principle about faith within the bosom of the Roman Catholic Church ; on the other (as regards the sacraments and the doctrine about the Church), they retained the views of the latter. In both respects their views were in accordance with the earlier Augustinianism, which they were desirous of restoring in all its purity. The theologians of Port-Royal, such as Antoine Arnauld, Peter Nicole, and others, exerted greater influence upon the belief of their contemporaries, by their practical and ascetic writings, or scientific works of a more general character, than by strictly dogmatic works. The profound Pascal, in particular, ad
vanced the good cause, both by his opposition to the casuistry of the Jesuits, and by his ingeniu us defence of Christianity. Paschasius Quesnel, a priest of the Oratory, propagated Jansenistic principles, together with the New Testament, among the people, and thus exposed the Jansenists to new persecutions, and called forth new controversies."
On the earlier manifestation of the Augustinian tendency in the Catholic Church, see Ranke, History of the Popes (Philad.) p. 73, and the special history of doctrines.-Concerning the doctrines of M. Bajus at Louvain, and the controversy to which they gave rise, respecting Lewis Molina and others, see ibidem. [See Niedner, Kirchengesch., 649, 706–110. Mich. Baji Opera, Colon., 1696. Du Chesne, Hist. du Bajanisme, Douay, 1791. Molina, Liberi Arbitrii cum Gratiæ Donis. ... Concordia, Lisb., 1588, Antw., 1595.—Pius V. condemned in a mild form, 79 theses from Baius, in 1567, in the Bull Ex omnibus Afflictionibus. See Gieseler, s. 8 59.
Cornelius Jansen was born A. D. 1585, and died 1638, as bishop of Ypern. His principal work was edited after his death : Augustinus seu Doctrina S. Augustini de humanæ Naturæ Sanitate, Ægritudine, Medicina adversus Pelagianos et Massilienses, Low, 1640, iii. f. Concerning the external history of Jansenism (the bull In Eminenti issued by Pope Urban VIII., A. D. 1642), as well as of Jean du Vergier, abbot of St. Cyran, and PortRoyal des Champs, compare the works of Reuchlin, Neale, etc., and the works on ecclesiastical history in general; as regards the scientific importance of the Society of Port-Royal, in its bearing upon France, see the works on the history of literature, especially: Sainte Beuve, Port-Royal, 4 vols., Paris, 1840–58. [Histoire des cinq Propositione de Jansen, Liège, 1699, 2 vols., (by Dumas.)]
Comp. Vol. i., § 84, 114. Jansenism may be called Protestantism within the Roman Catholic Church, so far as Jesuitism, which is its antithesis, represents modern Catholicism. But we ought to bear in mind, that this can be said only in reference to the doctrines of grace and of good works. As regards the sacraments (and especially the Lord's Supper), the Jansenists have strictly retained the views of the Roman Catholic Church, and are quite as decidedly opposed to the Protestant doctrines as the Council of Trent, or the Jesuits,
• Arnauld was born A. D. 1612, and died 1694. His complete works appeared after his death, Lausanne, 1680, 4. Comp. Reuchlin, p. 132, ss. Kirchenhistorisches Archiv., 1824, p. 101, ss. [The chief works of Arnauld, De la fréquente Communion, 1643; La Theologie Morale des Jesuites, 1643 ; Apologie de Jansen, 1644; Euvres, 48, 4to. He wrote against the Protestants (Jurien and Aubertin), the Jesuits (Maimbourg, Annat), and the philosophers (Descartes and Malebranche). Causa Arnaldina, 2 vols., Leod. Eb., 1699. Vavin, La Verité sur Arnauld, 2 vols., Paris, 1847.]
• Nicole, was born a. D. 1625, and died 1695. He opposed the Jesuits as as well as the Protestants. Kirchen. Archiv. I. c. p. 121, ss. [Nicole and Jansenists, Princeton Rev., Jan., 1856. His essays have a high reputation : 25 vols., Paris, 1733, sq.]
• Pascal was born A. D. 1623, at Clermont in Auvergne, and died 1662. He wrote: Les Provinciales (Lettres écrites par Louis Montalte à un Pro vincial de ses amis.) Col., 1657.—Pensées sur la Religion, 1669. They were translatea into German by K. A. Blech, with a preface by Neander, Berlin, 1840. Euvres, Paris, 1816. Comp. the biography composed by his sister (Mad. Périer), and prefixed to his Pensées; Theremin (Adalberts Bekenntnisse, Berlin, 1831), p. 222, ss. J. Rust, de Blasio Pascale, Erlang., 1833, 4, and * Reuchlin, Pascals Leben und der Geist seiner Schriften, Stuttg., 1840. [Pascals Pensées, first published by Périer, imperfect, and mutilated; also by Condorcet, 1776; Voltaire, 1778; revised by Faugères, after the original, 2 vols, 1844, and Havet, 1852, and Astié, 2 vols., Lausanne, 1857. Des Pensées de Pascal, par V. Cousin, 1843 (comp. Rev. de deux Mondes, Nov. 15, 1853, article by Planche, reviewing the whole controversy, and Villemain's Discours., 1855). A. Vinet, Etudes sur Blaise Pascal, Paris, 1848. Neander, geschichtliche Bedentung d. Pensées in his wissenschaftliche Abhandlungen. Abbé Maynard, Les Provinciales et leur Refutation, 2 vols., Paris, 1851; comp. Christ. Remembr., July, 1852, a vindication of Pascal.-Au English transl. of the Provincial Letters, 2d ed., 1658, Lond. ; also, 1816. Thoughts, newly transl. ed. by Bickersteth, 1833. McCrie's transl. of Letters, Edinb. Thoughts and Letters, etc., 3 vols., Lond., 1847–50 by Geo. Pearce, New York, 2 vols., 1858. Thoughts, transl. by O. W. Wight, and Priv. Letters; 2 vols., New York, 1861. Articles on Pascal; Kitto's Journal, vol. 3; Eclectic (Lond.), Nov., 1852; Princeton Rev., Jan., 1854; Rogers, in his Miscellanies; North American (Bowen) vol. 60; Neander on Pascal, transl. ip Kitto, vol. 3; on Recent Editions and Transl., Meth. Quarterly, xii.]
Quesnel died A. D. 1719. He published Le Nouveau Testament en français avec de reflexions morales, etc., Par., 1687. On the controversies respecting the constitution of the Church, see the works on ecclesiastical history. [The 101 Propositions of Quesnel, condemned, see in Church Review, Jan., 1858. The New Test. of Quesnel, with Moral Reflections, Lond., 4 vols., 1719-25: his Four Gospels, 2 vols. Balt., 1790 : republ., edited by bp. Wilson in 3 vols.; Philadelphia ed., 2 vols., 1855. Acta Publica Constitutionis Unigenitus, ed. Pfaff, Tab., 1721 ; Collectio Nova Actorum, ed. Dubois, 1725 ; Anecdotes, on Mém. secretes de la Const. Unig., 3 vols., Utrecht, 1732.]
THE MYSTICISM OF THE ROMAN CATHOLIO CHOROB.
Hamberger, Stimmen aus dem Heiligthum d Christl Mystik u. Thesophie. Stuttg. 1857.
[Vaughan, loc. cit.]
Nothwithstanding all the efforts made by Roman Catholics to obtain the ascendency in science, art, and politics (an attempt in which the Jesuits displayed the greatest activity), they never entirely lost that spiritual tendency which characterized the orthodox