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mystics of the middle ages. The most distirguished representatives of this tendency, were the new saints Charles Borromeo,' Francis of Sales, and others, together with Cardinal John Bona.' Nevertheless, mysticism here again showed a tendency to pantheism, as is evident in the case of the German mystic, Angelus Silesius.—The mystic quietism of Michael Molinos, a Spanish secular priest, formed a striking contrast to the intriguing worldliness of the Jesuits, and gave rise to the Quietist controversy in France. None but men of as pure a character as Fénélon,' whose life was one of constant communion with God, could hold such a doctrine in its ideal aspect, without exposing themselves to the danger of fanaticism, the bare possibility of which affrighted men of sober intellect, such as Bossuet.*
· Borromeo was born a. D. 1538, at Arona, and died 1584, as archbishop of Milan. He was canonised, 1610. Compare : *Sailer, der heil. Karl Borromeus, Augsb., 1823. For his writings, which are chiefly ascetical, see ibid. p. 146, and 225, ss. (where extracts from his homilies are given.) [Godeau, La Vie de Chs. Borrom., Paris, 1747. Giussano, Leben des B. (from Italian), by Klitsche, 3 vols., Augsb., 1836. Dieringer, der heil. Borrom. d. Kirchen- Verbess, seiner Zeit. Köln., 1846.]
• Francis of Sales was born a. D. 1567, in Savoy, and died 1822, as bishop (in partibus) of Geneva. He was canonised 1665.—A new edition of his works appeared, Paris, 1834, in sixteen vols.-Introduction à la vie dévote. A memoir of his life was published by Marsollier, Paris, 1747, ii. 8. Comp. Sailer, Briefe aus allen Jahrhunderten, Vol. iii. p. 127, 88. [Baudry, Supplement aux Euvres de Franç. de Sales, Lyon, 1836. Reusing Leben d. heil. Fr. v. Sales, Paderb., 1818. L. Clarus, Leben von Fr. v. Sales, ii. Schaffh., 1860. An Introduction to a Devout Life, translated by W. Nicholls, Lond., 1701. Philotheca, or an Introduction to a Devout Life, Dubl., 1844.]
• Cardinal Bona was born a. D. 1609, at Mondori, in Piedmont, entered the order of the Benedictines, was made cardinal, 1669, and died 1674.He wrote: Via Compendii ad Deum. Col., 1871, 12.- Manuductio ad Cælum. Par., 1664, 12. His works appeared Par. (Antw.), 1677, and Antw., 1739, fol. [Bona's Guide to Eternity, transl. by Sir R. L'Estrange, 6th ed., Lond., 1712; Moral Essay on Friendship, Lond., 1702.]
* His proper name was Scheffler,* he was born A. D. 1624, at Breslau, renounced Protestantism for the Roman Catholic Church, 1653, and died 1677, in the monastery of the Jesuits at Breslau. He wrote: Heilige Seelenlust-Cherubinischer Wandersmann, etc. Extracts from his works are given by Wackernagel, Deutsches Lesebuch, ii, col. 427, ss.- Varnhagen von Ense, Denkwürdigkeiten und vermischte Schriften, 1837, i. p. 307, ss. *Goschel, in the Jahrbücher für wissenschaftliche Kritik, 1834, N°, 41, s
Schrader objects to the identity of Silesirus and Scheffler, in his work, Angelus Sile sius in seiner Mystik, Halle, 1853, 4to., but on insufficient grounds.
Wittmann, Angelus Silesius, als Convertit, Myst. Dichter, und Polemiker, Augsb., 1842. Kahlert, Angelus Silesius, Bresl., 1853. [Comp. Schuster, in Zeitschrift f. d. hist. Theologie, 1857. Westminst. Rev., Oct., 1853.]
• Molinos died A. D. 1696, after several years' imprisonment in Rome. On the question whether he stood in connection with the Alombrados, see Baumgarten-Crusius, Compend. d. Dogm. Gesch. i. p. 407. He composed a Guida spirituale, Rom., 1675. (It was translated into Latin by A. H. Francke, Lips., 1687, 12. C. E. Scharling, Michael de Molinos (from the Danish) [in Niedner's Zeitschrift, 1854), Gotha, 1855. [Recueil de diverses Pièces concernant le Quietisme; on Molinos, ses sentiments, etc., Amst., 1688. Molinos' Spiritual Guide, transl., 'Lond, 1688. Lettres écrits de Rome touchant l'affaire de Molin. Amst., 1696. See Notes and Queries, June, 1855, p. 424, in Three Letters on Italy, 1687, by Burnet? Account of English Mystical works, Notes and Queries, Dec. 20, 1856 (Willis, Tryon, Bromley, etc.) Other Spanish mystics prior to his time were: Therese a Jesu (who died A. D. 1582) and Johannes a Cruce (who died A. D. 1591, and was canonised 1726). Lope de Vega, died 1635. Comp. BaumgartenCrusius, I. c. p. 410. Hamberger, 189.
• The controversy was called forth by Antoinette Marie Bouvières de la Mothe-Guyon (who died A. D. 1717); see her autobiography, Col., 1720, iii. and the account of her life given by her confessor, François la Combe. Concerning the controversy itself, see the works on ecclesiastical history, and the biography of Fénélon mentioned in the following note. [Der Quietismus in Frankreich, Ruckgaber, in Theol. Quartalschrift, 1856, 2, 4. Vaughan, Helfferich, Noack, in their works on Mysticism. Life of Madam Guyon, by Prof. T. C. Upham, 2 vols., 1824; comp. Brit. Qu. Rev. May, 1853.—The complete works of Madame Guion form 49 volumes. The Life of Lady Guion, written by herself in French, abridged, Bristol, 1772.Life by T. Digby Brookes, Lond., 1806. Poems transl. by W. Cowper, 1801.]
'Fénélon was born A. D. 1651, and died 1715, as bishop of Cambray. He wrote: Explication des maximes des Saints sur la vie intérieure, Par., 1697, Amst., 1698, 12. Euvres Spirituelles, Amst., 1725, v. 12. They were translated into German by Claudius, Hamb., 1823, iii. A very full memoir of his life (in which an account of the whole controversy is given) is contained in the work of * Bausset, Histoire de J. B. Bossuet, 4 Vols., Vers., 1814, and Herder, Adrastea (Werke zur Philosophie, Vol. ix. p. 43). See Lechler, in Herzog's Realencyclop., and comp. & 228, note 7. [Bonnel, De la Contro
, verse de Bossuet et Fénélon, Paris, 1850. Fénélon, Euvres, 10 vols., Par., 1851. Transl. of Directions for Holy Life, 1747 ; Demonstration of Being of of God, 1715; Pastoral Letter concerning Love of God, 1715; Part of his Spiritual Works, by R. Houghton, 2 vols., Dubl., 1771; De Bausset's Life of F. transl. by W. Mudford, 2 vols., Lond., 1810. Fénélon's Life by Ch. Butler, 1810. Selections from F.'s Writings, with a Memoir, by Mrs. Follen, Bost., 1851. Spiritual Progress, or Instructions in the Divine Life, from the French of Fénélon and Madame Guyon, ed. T. W. Metcalf, Bost, 1854.]
• See his Relation sur le Quiétisme, 1693.
On the different features which the mysticism of the Roman Catholic Church presents ("areopagitic, ascetic, speculative, and truly religious mysticism"), see Baumgarten-Crusius, i. p. 409.
LIBERAL TENDENCIES IN CRITICISM AND SYSTEMATIC THEOLOGY.
TRANSITION TO THE FOLLOWING PERIOD.
Though a system of liberal criticism in general was restrained by the very principle of Romanism, yet in respect to biblical literature the critical spirit was able to develop itself more freely among
Roman Catholics than among Protestants. Thus Richard Simon laid the foundation of biblical criticism,' and also contributed, by his doctrinal writings, to prepare the way for that new state of things which was to grow out of the conflicts of the most heterogeneous elements. About the same time John Baptist du Hamel,' and Natalis Alexander,' were distinguished as theologians of a more liberal tendency, who endeavoured to throw off the yoke of scholasticism. [Comp. $ 228, Note 6.]
1 Simon was born A. D. 1638, and died 1712. His work is entitled : Histoire Critique du Vieux Test. Rot., 1685, 4, du N. T., 1689.
• Du Hamel was born a. D. 1624, officiated as priest of the Oratory, and died 1706. He wrote : Theol. Speculativa et Practica, Par., 1691. Heinrich, p. 382. Schröckh, vii. p. 208.
Noel Alexander was born a. D. 1639, and died 1724; he belonged to the order of the Dominicans, and was a learned monk. [He was condemned for his Gallicanism by Pope Innocent XI., 1684.] Besides his famous Hist. Eccles., best ed. 20, 4to., by Romaglia and Mansi, 1785-90; he wrote: Theologia Dogmatica et Moralis, Par, 1693, X. 8, 1699, 1703. Dissertationes Historico-ecclesiasticæ, ii. fol. Heinrich, p. 384. Schröckh, l. c.
IV.-THE GREEK CHURCH.
While the very foundations of the Roman Catholic Church were shaken by the Reformation, which, nevertheless, exerted, in some respects, a reviving and regenerating influence upon it, the Greek Church presented the mournful aspect of a ruin in the midst of surrounding Mohammedan nations. It came into contact with Protestantism, but only externally, and for a very short time.' Cyrillus Lucaris, patriarch of Constantinople, lost his life (A.D. 1638) in consequence of betraying a leaning toward Calvinism.' Soon after
(A.D. 1642), Petrus Mogilas, metropolitan of Kiew, together with some other Greek theologians, drew up a confession of faith for the Russians, which met with the approbation of the patriarchs of the East, and received (1672) the sanction of the Synod of Jerusalem. Though Leo Allatius (1669), endeavoured to prove the agreement between the doctrines of the Greek and the Roman Churches, the former continued to maintain its independence."
"A, D. 1559 Melancthon transmitted a Greek translation of the Confessio Augustana to the patriarch Joseph II., but without results. Nor did the negotiations between the patriarch Jeremias II. (1574) on the one hand, and Jac. Andreä, and the theologians of Tübingen on the other, lead to any more favorable result. The correspondence to which they gave rise was broken off A. D., 1581; see Schnurrer, De Actis inter Tub. Theoll. et Patriarchas Const. (Oratt. Acad. ed. Paulus, Tub., 1828.)
1 (Λεύκαρις.) Ανατολική ομολογία της χριστιανικής πίστεως, lat. Genev., 1629, Greek, 1633, Latin and Greek, 1645. It is given by Aymon, Monumens Authentiques de la Rel. des Grecs, etc. à la Haye, 1708, 4; and by Kimmel, Libri Symbol. Eccl. Orient, p. 24, sq. See his Prolegomena, p. xxii. [On Cyril Lucar, see Neale's Holy Eastern Church, 4 vols., 1848–50. British Magazine, Sept., 1842, Dec., 1843, Jan. and June, 1844. Mohnike, in Studien u. Kritiken, 1832. A. Twesten, in Deutsche Zeitschrift, Sept. and Oct. 1850. Edinburgh Rev., April, 1858. Spectateur de l'Orient, 1855. Κύριλλος Λούκαρις, ο δικομενικός Πατριάρχης. Υπο Μάρκου 'Pevtépn, Athens, 1859. Comp. Gersdorf's Repert., Sept., 1860. Princeton Review, vol. 5.]
"Έκθεσις τής των Ρωσών πίστεως, 1642 ; afterwards under the title: 'Ορθόδοξος ομολογία της καθολικής και αποστολικής εκκλησίας ανατολικής. Kimmel, p. 45, and Prolegomena p. 1. Comp. Synodus Hierosolymitana advers. Calvinistas anno MDCLXXII. sub Patriarcha Hierosolymorum celebrata, in Kimmel, p. 325, 89., and Prolegomena, p. lxxv. [Hase, Glaubenszeugnisse der griechischen Kirche : in Appendix to 5th ed. of his Dogmatik, 1860. Macaire, Theologie dogm. orthodoxe, traduite par un Russe. 2 vols., Paris, 1860. R. W. Blackmore, Doctrine of the Russian Church, translated, Lond. A. N. Monravieff, Hist. of the Church of Russia, transl. by Blackmore. John Covel, Account of the Greek Church, Lond. 1722. Antiquit. Eccl. Orient., Lond. 1682, (see Notes and Queries, X., p. 60.) The Greek Church in Russia, its Rites, Doctrines, etc., by John G. King, 4to., Lond. 1772. The Orthodox Doctrine of Apost. Eastern Chh., transl., G. Petassaco, Lond. 1858. W. Beveridge, Synodikon, sive Pandectae Canonum, etc., ab Eccl. Græca recept., 2 vols., Oxon. 1672–82. H. J. Schmitt, Krit. Gesch. d. neu-griech und Russ. Kirche, 1850 (4). Gass in Herzog's Realencycl. Palmer on the Church, i., 176-206, and in his Dissertations. Pitzipios, L'Eglise Orientale. Articles in New York Rev., Oct., 1853 ; Christ. Remembrancer, July, 1853 ; Church of Eng. Quarterly, July, 1854 ; Christ. Rev., 1855; Christ. Examiner, 1855; Bibliotheca Sacra, (Manning), 1858;
Encyclop Britan. (8th ed.), by Hetherington. Dean Waddington, Hist. of Greek Church, new ed., 1854. Stanley, Lect. on East. Church, Lond., 1861.)
V.—MINOR RELIGIOUS PARTIES (SECTS).
Schlüsselburg. Conrad, Catalogus hæreticorum Francoff., 1696. 88. xiji. 8.
Gesch, d. Protest. Secten im Zeitalter der Reformation, Hamb. 1848.
While the reform was pursuing its great work, various tendencies also manifested themselves in opposition to the existing Catholic Church, which we may in part regard as a continuation of an earlier unchurchly spirit of antagonism, and partly as the one-sided negative efforts of a narrow-minded criticism. Protestants could not make common cause with them without becoming disintegrated. On that account, Anabaptism and Unitarianism, which had already been rejected by the Catholic Church (though under different forms), met with an equally decisive opposition from Lutherans and Calvinists, and were, accordingly, stigmatized as sects. And, again, at a later period, several sects made their appearance, of which only a few, e. g. the Society of Friends, have prolonged their existence to the present time. On the other hand, the rigid dogmatism of the Protestant churches might evoke a justifiable opposition, and compel the more moderate to build their chapel by the side of the church. This was the case with the Arminians (Remonstrants), who formed not so much a sect, as a fraction of the Reformed Church.
Schyn, Historia Christianorum, qui in Belgio Fæderato, Mennonitæ appellantur. Amstel
1723. 8, Hunzinger,das religiöse Kirchen-und Schulwesen der Mennoniten. Speier 181. 8. Göbel, Geschichte des Christl. Lebens in d. Rhein. Westph. Kirche, ii. 290 8q. For the rest of the literature see the works on Church History.-[Hase, 431, 610, and his Reich d. Wiedertäufer in his Neue Propheten, and separately, 1860. Hochmuth in Zeitschrift f. hist. Theol. 1858–9. Gieseler's Church Hist., (N. Y.) Vol. iv., 8 30, 32. J. J. Van Osterzee in Herzog's Realencyclop. Heberle, Die Anfänge des Anabapst. in der Schweiz, Jabrb. f. deutsche Theologie, 1858. Supplement to Neal's Hist. of Puritans. J. Ivimey, Hist. of Eng. Baptists. G. H. Orchard, Hist. of Foreign Baptists, 1855. Publications of Hansard Knollys Soc. England. Martyrology of Baptist Churches, from the Dutch of P. J. Van Beaght, 2, Lond. 1850–3. Backus, Hist. of English and Am. Baptists; 2, 1772–84, and often reprinted. T. F. Curtis, Progress of Baptist Principles, N. Y., 1855. S. S. Cutting, Hist. Vindications, Bost. 1859. C. A. Cornelius, Die Wiedertäufer, 1860,
Second part of his Gesch. d. münsteriøchen Aufruhrs.]