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Infant Baptism was at first opposed by rude enthusiasts and the promoters of revolution.' But, at a later period, about the middle of the sixteenth century, Menno Simonis,' a native of Holland, succeeded in collecting those who held these views concerning baptism, and in constituting a regular denomination, which took the name of Mennonites, and, in the course of time, divided itself into several smaller bodies. The earliest confession of faith adopted by the Mennonites, is that drawn up by John Ries, and Lübbert Gerardi, about the year 1580. Other confessions of faith do not enjoy such general authority among the adherents of this sect."

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* Concerning the first movements of the prophets of Zwickau (Nicholas Storch, Martin Cellarius [Borhaus), Mark Stübner, and Thomas Münzer) and of Carlstadt, as well as concerning the Anabaptists of Switzerland, and the negotiations with them (Grebel, Manz, Hochrütener, Hubmeier, and others); and also, respecting the disturbances made by the Anabaptists of Münster (Rottman, Bochold, Knipperdolling), see the works on the history of the Reformation. Concerning their doctrines (though from the polemical point of view) see Melancthon's Vorlegung etlicher unchristlicher Artikel, welche die Wiedertäufer vorgeben, in the German works of Luther, Vol. ii. of the edition of Wittenberg, p. 282 ss. .... Justus Menius, de Weidertäufer, Lehre und Geheimniss aus heil. Schrift widerlegt. ibid. p. 299 ss.Bullinger, von der Wiedertaufe Ursprung, Secten und Wesen. Zür. 1561. 4 Ott, Annales anabaptistici. Bas. 1624. [C. A. Cornelius, Gesch. des münsterischen Aufrubs, in 3 Búchern, i. 1855; ii. Die Widertaufe 1860.] Hast, Gesch. Widertäufer, Münster, 1836. The remarkable mixture of (montanistic) fanaticism, transgressing the limits of Scripture, with narrow-minded adherence to the letter of Scripture, was already remarked upon by Zuingle ; see his works (edited by Schuler and Schulthess) ii. 1. p. 298: “Sometimes they insist upon taking the letter in its strict sense, without understanding it and without any interpretation; sometimes they wholly refuse to admit it.”

Menno was born A. D. 1505, and died 1561. The fundamental principles of Mennonitism are: The rejection of infant baptism, the refusal to take oaths, and to serve in the army, and lastly, the rite of washing the feet.

Waterlandians and Flamingians, the more refined and the more rude. Concerning their further gradations, and the entire history of that sect and its spread, see the works on ecclesiastical history,

* It appeared under the title : Korde Belydenisse des Geloofs, etc. : Præcipuorum Christianæ Fidei Articulorum brevis Confessio. 1580. The Latin edition which is given by Schyn l. c. c. 7, p. 172 ss. consists of 40 articles. [On the Confessions of the English Baptists see Cutting, ubi supra, and the work of Underhill, for Hansard Knollys Soc. referred to 8 222, last Note.]

Comp. Schyn l. c. Köcher, Bibl. Symb. p. 467 ss. Winer, pp. 24, 25. (Concerning their Catecbisms, see ibid.)

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Sandii, C. C. Bibliotheca Antitrinitariorum. Freist. (Amst.) 1684. 8. Bock, F. S., Historia

Antitrinitariorum, maxime Socinianismi et Socinianorum. Regiomont. 1774–84. * Trechsel, die protestantischen Antitrinitarier vor Faustus Socinus. 1. Buch. Michael Servet und seine Vorgänger. Heidelb. 1839. 8; 2. Buch. Lelio Socino und die Antitrinit. seiner Zeit. 1844. 0. Fock, der Socinianismus nach seiner Stellung in der Gesaumtentwicklung des Christl. Lebens, nach seinem Verlauf, und nach sei. nem Lehrbegriffe, Kiel, 1847. Hilgenfeld, Kritische Studien über den Socinianismus, in Zeller's Jahrbücher, 1848, s. 371, sq. [Fock, in Zeitschrift f. d. Hist. Theol, 1845. Literatur des Socin. ibid., 1853. J. P. Bauermeister, de Syst. Socin. Dogmat. Comment. tres. Rostock, 1830–3. L. Lange, Gesch. des Lehrbegriffs des Socinian. Leips. 1831. Baur, Lehre d. Dreieinigkeit, iii., 46, sq. Dorner, Lehre v. d. Person Christi, ii., 751, sq. Th. Lindsey, Hist. View of Unit. from the Reformation, Lond. 1783, and Mem. of L., by Belsham, Lond. 1812. Thos. Reez, Racovian Catechism, with Hist. Introd. Lond. 1818. Wallace, Anti-Trinitarian Biography. J. R. Beard, Historical Illustrations of Trinity, Lond. 1846.]

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While infant baptism and other doctrines were opposed on practical grounds, the orthodox dogma of the Trinity was, about the same time, attacked from the theoretical point of view, so that the history of the first Unitarians, from the period of the Reformation, appears in many aspects entangled with that of the Anabaptists.' The violent persecutions, by which both Roman Catholics and Protestants endeavoured to suppress Unitarianism,' most marked in the execution of Michael Servetus,' could not prevent the formation of a sect,' which maintained, that a plurality of persons in the Deity could not be proved from the Scripture, though they acknowledged its Divine origin, and professed all reverence for the human person of Christ. By the labors of Lælius Socinus,' and still more of his nephew Faustus Socinus,' the scattered Unitarian party were united into a distinct church organization, and adopted the name of Socinians. The onesided rationalistic tendency of Socinianism included the germs both of later Rationalism (negatively), and of a merely external biblical Supernaturalism (positively), and thus contributed to the transition from one period to another.” The appellation Racovienses, which is also applied to the Socinians, as well as the name of their catechism, Catechismus Racoviensis, were derived from the Polish town Racow. Besides the authors of that catechism, the following theologians more fully developed the Socinian doctrine – viz. Jonas Schlichting, J Völkel, John and Samuel Crell, Christian Ostorodt, Valentine Schmalz, Lewis Wolzogen, Andrew Wissowatius, and others.' [The controversy passed over into England, where it was continued by Bishop Bull;"° and especially by Clarke and Waterland in the early part of the eighteenth century."]

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!" That which the Anabaptists attempted in reference to the Church and to practical religion, other theologians, of a tendency closely allied to it, and largely impregnated with Anabaptistic elements, sought to accomplish in reference to theology. The latter tendency was, properly speaking, only a distinct branch of the former, and a particular form and expression of the same general movement." Trechsel, 1. c. p. 8.

Trechsel, 1. c. p. 8. What was said 232, concerning the onesided rationalistic system of criticism (which apparently forms a contrast to the fanaticism of the Anabaptists) has primary reference to the later development of Unitarianism by Socinus. Comp. note 7, and Trechsel, pp. 3 and 4. Baumgarten-Crusius, Compend. i. pp. 332, 333, also regards the Antitrinitarians as the speculative opposition, the Anabaptists as the practical one.

Among the earlier Antitrinitarians we may mention : Lewis Hetzer, of Bischofszell in the Thurgau (Switzerland); he was executed at Constance A. D. 1529; John Denck, a native of the Upper-Palatinate. [On Denck and Hetzer, see Gieseler, iv. 351; Keim, in Zeitschrift f. d. Hist. Theol., 1856, and in Herzog's Realencyclop. sub voce; Hefele, in Stud. u. Kritiken, 1855.] Jacob Kautz, of Bockenheim; Conrad in Gassen, a native of Wirtemberg (he was executed at Basle A, D. 1559); John Campanus, a native of Holland, who was professor in the University of Wittenberg ; Melchior Hofmann, at Strassburg; Adam Pistoris, and Rudolph Martini, both natives of Westphalia; David Joris, of Bruges, an Anabaptist (comp. Gieseler, iv. 353, Note 9], and Claudius of Savoy. On their doctrines, concerning which they widely differed, inasmuch as some adopted the notions of Arius, others those of Sabellius, or of Paul of Samosata, compare Trechsel, 1. c. (Section i.), and the special history of doctrines. John Valdez, a native of Spain, who died A. D. 1540 at Naples, is also numbered by some writers, not only among the promoters of the Reformation, but also among the forerunners of Unitarianism ; on the other side, comp. Sandius, loc. cit. 2-6, and C. Schmid, in Iligens Zeitschrift für historische Theologie, i. 4.

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Servetus, surnamed Reves, was born a. D. 1509, or 1511, at Villaneuva, in the kingdom of Arragon, accompanied the Emperor Charles V. on his expedition to Italy (1529), took up his residence in Basle, 1530 (with Ecolampadius), and wrote (1531) his work entitled : De Trinitatis Erroribus, libri VII. Afterwards he abode several times in France, etc. His trial and execution took place at Geneva, A. D. 1553. Concerning the history of his life, see Mosheim, neue Nachrichten von dem berühmten span. Arzte, Michael Serveto, Helmst., 1756, 4, and Trechsel, I. c. [On Servetus, see Henry, Leben Calvin, iii. 95; Baur's Dreieinigkeit, iii. 54; Heberle, in Tubing. theol. Zeitschrift, 1840; A. Rilliet, Relation du Procès criminel contre M. Servet, Genève, 1844; Schade, Etude sur le Procès, Strasb., 1853; Saisset, in Revue des deux Mondes, Feb., Mar., 1848; Calvin and Servetus, by T. K. Tweedie, Edinb.; Calv. and Serv., by T. S. Porter, Lond., 1854 ; Bulletin de la Société pour l'Hist. du Protest. Français, 1858.]

* To this sect belonged also John Valentin Gentilis (he was executed at Berne A. D. 1566); Paul Alciat (who died at Dantzic, 1565), Matthæus Grá baldi (his death took place 1564 in Savoy), George Blandrata (who lived ir

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Poland and Transylvania, and died 1590), and in some measure (?) Bernard Ochino (he died 1564 in Moravia), Celius Sec. Curio (he died 1569), Paul Vergerius (he died 1565), and several others. From the middle of the sixteenth century Antitrinitarian principles were chiefly spread in Poland. The Socinians formed themselves into a distinct ecclesiastical body at the Synods of Pinczow and Petrikow (1563–65.) [See F. Meyer, Die evang. Gemeinde io Locarno, 2 Bde., Zurich, 1836. Heberle, on Blandrata in Tübing. Zeitschrift f. Theol., 1840. Bock, in Hist. Antitrinit.]

Lælius Socinus was born at Siena A. D. 1525, and died 1562.--See C. F. Ilgen, Vita Lælii Socini. Lips., 1814, 8. J. C. Orelli, Lælius Socinas, in the Basler Wissenschaftliche Zeitschrift., 1824, part 3, p. 28. ss., and the requisite documents, ibid., p. 138, ss. [Gieseler, Vol. iv. p. 358.]

Faustus Socinus was born A. D. 1539, and died 1604. Comp. the memoir of his life by Pizipcovius in Bibliotheca Fratrum Polonorum (note 9), P. i. He chiefly labored in Poland and Transylvania. BaumgartenCrusius justly designates Lælius Socinus“ the spiritual father of Socinianism," and Faustus Socinus “ the founder of the sect." Compend. i. p. 334.

i. [Gieseler, iv. 365.]

?" We may call Socinianism the common birth-place at once of the Supranaturalism and the Rationalism of modern Protestant theology." Strauss, christliche Glaubenslehre, i. p. 56.

An older Socinian Catechism was composed by George Schomann, a Socinian minister in Cracow, who died A. D. 1591. It was followed by that of F. Socinus, which appeared under the title : Christianæ Religionis brevissima Institutio per interrogationes et responsiones, quam Catechismum vulgo vocant, Racov., 1618, 8. (It was incomplete, inasmuch as it includes only theology and christology.) It formed the basis of the larger Socinian catechism, which was composed by Hieronymus Moscorovius, a Polish nobleman, who died 1625, and Valentin Schmalz, a Socinian minister, and published 1605, 12, in the Polish language. It was translated into Latin under the title : Catechesis Ecclesiarum, quæ in regno Polon, et magno ducatu Lithuaniæ et aliis ad istud regnum pertinentibus provinciis affirmant, neminem alium præter patrem domini nostri J. C. esse illum unum Deum Israelis, hominem autem illum, Jesum Naz., qui ex virgine natus est, nec alium præter aut ante ipsum, Dei filium unigenitum et agnoscunt et confi. tentur. Racov. 1609, 12.-A new edition, together with a refutation, was pablished by G. L. Oeder, Francf. and Leips., 1739, 8; here the questions are for the first time numbered. [This Catechism was ordered to be burnt by the Parliament of England, in 1652. It was translated, with Notes and Illustrations, and a Sketch of the History of Unitarianism, by Thos. Rees, Lond., 1818. Extracts in Gieseler, iv. 367, 89.] Concerning other editions, which also contain other confessions of faith adopted by the Socinians (the Confessio Fidei drawn up by Joh. Schlichting, 1646, 8,) comp. Winer, pp. 25, 26.

• Their writings are collected in the Bibliotheca Fratrum Polonorum, quos Unitarios vocant. Irenop. (Amst.], 1626, 6 vols., fol. For further particulars, see Winer, p. 27. [On the division into Non-Adorantes (Davidis), and Adorantes, see Gieseler, iv. 569, sq. The doctrine of the Ador.

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antes in Summa Universæ Theol. Christ., 1787, from the papers of Michael Lombard Sz. Abrahami, died 1658, ed. by George Markos.]

[Bp. Bull's (see § 225, b., Note 18) Defensio fidei Nicæn., was published in 1685, (written several years previous, but could not find a publisher), and was directed against Sandius (a Socinian, died at Amst., 1680), author of Nucleus Hist. Eccles. exbibitus in Hist. Arian., and collector of the Bibliotheca Anti-Trinitar.); Zuicker, b. 1612, a physician of Dantzic, author of Irenicum Irenicorum, 1658, also a Socinian; and in fact against the position of Petavius as to the views and authority of the Fathers. Bull's Judicum Ecclesiæ Catholicæ, 1694, is in part against the views of Episcopius and Curcellæus (successor of Episcopius at Amsterdam, died 1658), who had also been attacked by Maresius, 1650, in his Defensio Fidei Cathol. His Primitive and Apostolic Tradition, 1703, in continuation of the controversy, is against the Socinian interpretation of the views of the early fathers. -Among the English Socinian writers of this period, were Dr. Arthur Bury, The Naked Gospel, 1690 (a Historical Vindication of the same is ascribed to Le Clerc): John Biddle, d. 1662, Tracts, 3 vols., reprint, 1691–5; Thos. Firmin, d. 1697, Life, Lond., 1698, with an account of the Unit. controversy; and Gilbert Clerke, who in his Ante-Nicenismus, 1695, and other works, replied to Bull's Defensio.]

[Samuel Clarke's (see $ 225, b. Note 51) Scripture Doctrine of the Trinity was published in 1712 (see vol. fourth of his Works, containing his further controversial writings on the subject), advocating the high Arian view. It was answered by Dr. Wells, 1713, Nelson, Jas. Knight, Bp. Gustrell, Dr. John Edwards (who also opposed Bull's subordination scheme), Welchman, Ewd. Potter, Richard Mayo, and others.--In 1719 Dr. Daniel Waterland published his Vindication of Christ's Divinity, a Defence of some Queries (1726), in relation to Clarke's scheme, in Answer to Jackson, (b. 1686, d. 1763), and a second Vindication in 1732; and a further Vindication, 1734 (Works, vol. i. ii. iii.) Daniel Whitby (b. 1638, d. 1726), when he published his Commentaries was orthodox, but in 1715 wrote Disquisitiones Modestæ in Clariss. Bulli Defens. Fid. Nic., to show that the controversy between Clarke and Waterland was not decided by Christian antiquity. Waterland replied (Works, ii. 232-279); Whitby's rejoinder, 1720, and Waterland's Answer, 1720; Whitby's Last Thoughts. Jackson also wrote (aided by Clarke), a Reply to Waterland, 1722, and remarks on W.'s Second Defence by Philalethes Cantabrig.-Edm. Calamy's Sermons on Trinity, 1722. Webster, in 1735, at Waterland's request, translated Mainbourg's Hist. of Arianism.- William Whiston, b. 1667, d. 1732, in his Prim. Christ. Revived, 5 vols., 1711-12, and on Primitive Liturgies, 2d ed., Lond., 1730.-A. A. Sykes, Modest Plea and Modest Plea continued (this latter, 1720, by Clarke).--Thomas Emlyn was also a leading advocate of Arianism (b. 1663, d. 1743), Works, 3 vols., Lond., 1746—the first two volumes chiefly on this controversy in reply to Stillingficet, Bennet, Willis, Leslie, etc. The Rom. Cath. divine Hawarden, also wrote an acute Answer to Dr. Clarke, and Mr. Whiston, etc., by H. E., Lond., 1729.–For the His. tory of this controversy, see Van Mildert's Life of Waterland (prefixed to Wi's works); life of Clarke ; Whiston's Memoirs, 3 vols., 1749-50; Whis

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