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ton's Mem. of Clarke, 1730 : Disney's Life of Sykes; Nelson's Life of Bull; Toulmin's Life of Biddle; Lindsey's Hist. Unitarianism. On the question of the Unitarianism of Milton, Locke, and Newton, sce Hales' on Trinity; King's Life of Locke; Unit. Tracts, Bost., No. 77; Smythe, in Southern Presb. Rev., 1854. On Milton's Christ. Doctrines, see Bib. Sacra, 1860. For a full list of the works in the above Trinitarian Controversy, see Watt's Bibliotheca Britannica, 4 vols., Edinb., 1824, and the Biographia Britan., 7 vols., fol., 1747.]
C. ARMINIANS (REMONSTRANTS.)
Regenboog, Geschichte der Remonstranten. Transl. from the Dutch. Lemgo, 1781. *Abr.
des Amorie van der Hæven, het tweede Eeuwfest van het Seminarium der Remonstranten, Leeuwarden. 1830. 8. (For the literature of the controversy, see Gieseler (N. Y. edition) iv., S 43, p. 505.— The works of Uylenbogært, Triglandius, Brandt, Regenboog, Mosche, G. S. Franckius, De Hist. Dogm. Armin., Killiae, 1813. Brandt's History transl., 4 vols., Lond. 1720-23, 1770. Schweizer, Protest. Centraldogmen, ii., 31-201. Gass, Gesch. d. Protest. Dogmatik, ii. Graf, Beiträge zur Gesch. d. Synode von Dordrecht, Basel, 1825. John Hales', Hist. Conc. Dord, ed. Mosheimius, Hamb. 1724: and in Hales' Golden Remains, 1673, 1690. Thos. Scott, Articles of Synod of Dort, Works, vol. 8; Utica, 1821, and often. Article Arminius, by Pelt in Herzog's Realencyclop.]
Excluded from the Reformed Church, on account of their more moderate views concerning predestination, the Arminians found themselves compelled to form a distinct religious community,' the principles of which are contained both in the Five Articles of the Remonstrants (A. D. 1610),' and in the confession of faith drawn up by Simon Episcopius.' Arminianism is characterized not only by holding to the universality of the provision for redemption, but also by a kind of moderate orthodoxy, almost imperceptibly commingled with heterodox elements, and has chief respect to the moral rather than the rigid dogmatic element. As regards its tendency, it is, in some respects, allied to the sober common sense of Socinianism, but it has, at the same time, preserved a sufficient amount of positive religion, to oppose the special negative doctrines of that creed. Next to Arminius himself, and Simon Episcopius, Hugo Grotius,' and Philip a Limborch,' were the most distinguished of the Arminian theologians, the former in his philosophico-apologetic and exegetical writings, the latter in his doctrinal works. The Arminian Church numbered also among its members many eminent men,' who exerted a beneficial reaction upon Protestantism by their thorough scientific attainments no less than by the mildness of their sentiments.' [On English Arminians, see § 225, b., Note 15, etc.]
Arminius (Harmsen, or Hermann,) was born A. D. 1560 at Oudewater, taught from the year 1603 theology in the university at Leyden, and died 1609. His theological works were published, Lugd. Bat. 1629, 4. On the controversy between him and his colleague, Franciscus Gomarus, and its consequences, see the works on ecclesiastical history. [Life and death of Arminius and Episcopius, Lond., 1672; Life of A. by Brandt, transl. by John Guthrie, Lond., 1855; by N. Bangs, New York, 1844. Works of Arminius, transl., 3 vols., Auburn, New York, 1852 (a more complete ed. than that of Jas. Nichols, Lond., 3 vols., 1825-8). Moses Stuart, The
, Creed of Arminius (to show that he was not an Arminian), Bibl. Repos., 1831. Articles on Arminius by Warren, in Meth. Qu. (N. Y.), 1857, also in vol. iv.; Christ. Examiner, 1860; Lit. and Theol. Rev., vol. vi.-Francis Gomarus, the chief opponent of Arminius, b. 1563, Prof. Leyden, 1594, at Saumur, 1614, at Groningen, 1618, d. 1641; Opera Theol., 2d ed., Amst., 1664.]
They were presented to the States of Holland and West-Friesland under the title : Remonstrantia, Libellus Supplex exhibitus Hollandiæ et Westfrisiae Ordinibus ; they are reprinted in Walch, Religionsstreitigkeiten ausser der lutherischen Kirche, iii. p. 540, ss. [In Gieseler, iv. (N. Y. ed.), p. 508, Note.]
* Simon Episcopius (Bishop) was born A. D. 1583, and died 1643. Confessio seu Declaratio Sententiæ Pastorum, qui in fæderato Belgio Remonstrantes vocantur, super præcipuis Articulis Relig. Christ., Harderov., 1622, 4 (in Sim. Episc. Opp. ii. 2, p. 69, ss.) It consists of 25 chapters. Concerning the different editions and translations of that confession see Clarisse, Encycl. Theol. p. 443, and Winer, p. 23.—Episcopius wrote his Apologia pro Confessione, etc., 1629 (1630 ?) 4, Opp. p. 95, ss., in reply to the Censura in Confess. Remonstr. (Lugd. Bat., 1626), composed by J. Polyander, Andrew Rivetus, Anton Walæus, and Ant. Thysius, all of them professors in the university of Leyden. As regards several other controversial matters, comp. Episcopii Verus Theologus Remonstrans. ibid. p. 208, In addition Episcopius wrote Institutiones Theologicæ, libri iv. (income plete ; Opp. [Amst., 1650, 65, Tom. ii. fol.] Tom. i.) On the catechisms composed by John Uytenbogard, and Bartholomew Prævostius, see Winer, 1. c. Heppe in Herzog's Realencyclop., iv. 100. [Another ed. of Episcopius, Opera, 2 fol., Lond., 1678 ; his Conf. Fidei, and Apologia, ii. 69-284. Limborch, Vita Episcopii, Amst., 1701.]
Grotius was born A. D. 1583, and died 1645. To clear himself from the charge of Socinianism, he wrote his Defensio fidei Catholicæ de Satisfactione Christi, 1617, 8.—De Veritate Rel. Christ. Lugd. Bat., 1627, 12.Opp. Theol. Amst., 1679, iii. f., 1697, iv, fol. Bas., 1731, iv, f. (the three first volumes contain writings of an exegetical character). See * Luden, Hugo Grotius nach seinen Schicksalen und Schriften, Berlin, 1806. [Opera, Lond., 3 vols., in 4 fol., 1679. Truth of Christ. Relig., transl. by John Clarke, Lond., 1793, 1860. Life by Chs. Butler, Lond., 1826. Life by M. de Burigny, transl. Lond., 1754. Grotian Theory of Atonement, from Baur, by Swain, Bib. Sacra, ix. Articles on G., by Osgood, Christ. Exam, 42; in Southern Rev., vol. i. Grotius and the Sources of International Law
in Edinb. Rev., Oct., 1860—to show that he introduced the Protestant principle into the exposition of the law of nations.]
• Limborch was born A. D. 1633, professor in the Gymnasium of the Remonstrants at Amsterdam, and died 1712. His Theologia Christiana appeared Amst., 1686, Basil., 1735, fol. “ The most complete exposition of the Arminian doctrine is the celebrated work by Philip a Limborch, ....a man distinguished for genius, learning, and modesty, whose literary labors are of great value. The very arrangement of his system displays originality. ... Admirable perspicuity and judicious selection of the material characterise the entire work ;” Stäudlin, Geschichte der theologischen Wissenschaften, i. p. 319. [Limborch's Complete System or Body of Divinity, transl. with Improvements from Wilkins, Tillotson, Scott, and others, by Wm. Jones, 2, 8vo, Lond., 1702. His Llist. of Inquisition, transl. by Saml. Chandler, fol., Lond., 1731.]
The following were distinguished writers on dogmatic theology: Stephen Curcellæus, the successor of Episcopius; he was born a. D. 1586, and died 1659. He wrote Institutio Relig. Christ. Libb. 7, in Opp. Theol. Amst., 1675, f. (incomplete.)- Andr, a Cattenburgh was born 1664, and died 1743. He wrote: Spicilegium Theol. Christ. Philippi a Limborch, Amst., 1726, f. -Bibl. Scriptor. Remonstrantium. [John le Clerc, b. at Geneva, 1657, d. 1736, a universal scholar. Account of his Life and Writings, Lond., 1712. Vetus Test., 4 fol., Amst., 1710; New Test., 1799; Of Lucredulity, transl. Lond., 1697 ; Bibliothèque Universelle et Test., 26 vols., Amst., 1686-93. Bibl. choisie, 28 vols., 1703-13; Bibl. Ancienne et Moderne, 29 vols., 1714–27.]
• The Arminian principle which renounced the authority of the symbolical books, gave such an impulse to eregetical investigations, to independent hermeneutical labors, and to the speculative treatment of theology, that in consequence of the influence exerted by the works of Episcopius and Hugo Grotius, it was introduced into the whole Evangelical Church. Thus a general desire manifested itself in the Protestant Church of Germany, to do away with the authority of the symbolical books.” Schleiermacher, Kirchengeschichte, p. 620. Comp. Gass, loc. cit., 435 : “The Arminian divines constantly make a discount upon the dogmas, and introduce flowing lines among their sharp outlines, and so keep up a moderate or abbreviated orthodoxy, no longer confined to the symbolical books, and which is, by way of contrast, to be supported by practical piety and moral zeal."
H. Oræesii Historia Quakeriana. Amstel. 1695. ed. 2. 1703. 8. Quäker historie, Berlin.
W. Sewel, Geschichte von dem Ursprunge des christlichen Volkes, so Quaker genannt werden, [from the English, publ. fol., Lond. 1722]. H. Tuke, die Religionsgrundsätze, zu welchen die Geselschaft der Quäker sich bekennt. Transl. from the English (1805), Leipz. 1828. J. J. Gurney, Observations on the Peculiarities of the Society of Friends, Lond. 1824. [Penn, Summary of the History, Doctrines, and Discipline of the Society of Friends, Lond. 1694, ed. 6, 1707. Gough, History of the People called Quakers, 4 vols., Dubl. 1789. Thos. Clarkson, Portraiture of Quakerism, 3 vols., Lond. 1806. W. R. Wagstaff, Hist. Soc. of Friends, Lond. 1855, Thos. Elwood, Sacred Hist. 3, 8vo., 1778. Neal's Hist. Puritans, Supplement to vol. 3. S. M. Junney, Hist. Soc. Friends, 4 vols., 1828 (1859). Fothergill
, Fox, Sheppard, Rowntree, (prize essay), Hancock, on Causes of Decline of Quakerism, 1859-60. Comp. Westminst. Rev. 1852, and North Brit. Rev. 1860. Summary of Hist. Doctrine and Discipline of Friends, written at the desire of the Meeting for Sufferings in London, 3d ed. Lond. 1844. Epistles of the Yearly Meetings, 1675–1759, fol., Lond. 1760: from 1681 to 1817, Lond. 1818.)
The principles of the Quakers are in some points allied with those of the Anabaptists (as regards e. g. the relation of the internal to the external word, etc.). After the fire of enthusiasm kindled by George Fox,' the founder of this sect, had gradually subsided, the Society of Friends, under their leader William Penn, obtained (A. D. 1689) the confidence of the English government. But it was especially in the United States (Pennsylvania) that this sect gained numerous adherents, though it also spread in other countries. Robert Barclay, a Scotchman, set forth their doctrines, if we may so term them, in a systematic form, and drew up a confession of faith.
· Fox was a shoemaker, born in the county of Leicester, held fanatical notions, and died 1691. He founded the Society of Friends (to whom the nickname Quaker was given) A. D. 1649, amid the commotions of the English revolution. [Life of Fox, by J. S. Watson, Lond. 1860. Retrospective Rev., Aug. 1854. A list of his publications in Bibl. Britann. Works, 3 fol., 1694-8. New ed. 8 vols., Philadelphia. S. M. Janney, Life of Fox, Phil. 1853.]
* Penn was the son of the celebrated admiral of the same name, entertained more moderate opinions than Fox, died a. D. 1718. See the memoirs of his life by Marsillac, Par. 1791, 8, transl. into German, Strasb. 1793, 8. Th. Clarkson, Memoirs of the private and public Life of W. Penn, Lond. 1813, ii. 8. Morgenblatt, 1816, Feb. Nos., 43-47. Penn himself wrote: A Summary of the history, doctrine and discipline of Friends. Ed. 6, Lond. 1707, 8, (transl. into German by Seebohm, Pyrmont, 1792. [Works, 2 fol., 1726. No Cross, no Crown, 13th ed. Lond. 1789. W. H. Diron, William Penn, an historical Biog., with a chapter on the Macaulay Charges, Lond. 1851, new ed., 1856. A. J. Paget, Inquiry into Macaulay's Charges, London
, 1859. M. L. Vulliemin, Guillaume Penn, Paris, 1856. Geo. Bancroft, Hist. United States, vol. ii., chap. xvi.]
· Their first settlement in the United States took place A. D. 1681. From the year 1686 they enjoyed toleration in England. But it was not till the eighteenth century that they gained any adherents on the Continent (the community existing in Pyrmont was founded 1791). See Ludw. Siebohm, Kurze Nachr, von dem Entstehn und dem Forgang der christlichen Gesellschaft der Freunde. Pyrmont, 1792.
• 1. Theologiæ vere Christianæ Apologia. Amsterdam 1676, 4°. German translations of it appeared 1648, 1740, 8. 2. Catechismus et Fidei Confessio approbata et confirmata communi Consensu et Consilio Patriarcharum, Prophetarum et Apostolorum, Christo ipso inter eos præsidente et prosequente. Rot. 1676, 8. It was originally written in English, (all made up of Bible texts). Collective edition of Barclay's works, by W. Penn, 1692. [Robert Burclay, b. 1648, d. 1690. See the article in Allibone's Dict. of Authors. His first work, 1670, Truth cleared of Calúmnies (against William Mitchell); two other treatises, to 1671. In 1675, Catechism and Confess. of Faith ; Anarchy of Ranters, 1076; Universal Love, 1677; on Immediate Revelation, 1679. His chief work, An Apology for the true Christ. Divinity, 1678, on the basis of Theses Theologicae, previously propounded and sent to all parts. This has been frequently reprinted and translated into most of the languages of Europe. Against it, Thos. Bennet's Confutation, 1705, and other English as well foreign divines; Arnold, of Franeker, Baier of Jena, Anton Reiser, Barthold Holzfuss, Ben. Figken, etc.]
ATTEMPTS AT UNION (SYNCRETISM.)
C. W. Hering, Geschichte der kirchlichen Unionsversuche, seit der Reformation bis auf
unsere Zeit., Leipz. 1836–38, ii. [Comp. also § 218, note 2.] H. Schmid, Gesch, d Synkretist Streitigkeiten, Erlang, 1846. W. Gass, Geo. Calixt. u. der Synkretismus, Breslau, 1846 [and in his Gesch. d. Dogmatik, ii., 67–216.) Heppe, dio alt Protest. Union (Confessionelle Entwicklung), p. 252 sq. [Gieseler, iv., $ 51, 52. C. G. Neue decker, Die Hauptversuche zur Pacification der Evang. Protest. Kirche Deutschlands, Leipz. 1846. Henke, Geo. Calixtus und seine Zeit, ii., Halle, 1853–60; comp. Hundeshagen in Stud. u. Kritik., 1856. Schweizer, Centraldogmen, ii., 632 sq. Niedner, Gesch. d. Kirche, 743–7. Christ. Remembrancer, Lond. 1855, on Calixt and the Peace-makers.)
Though the different religious parties were at that time strongly opposed to each other, there were, nevertheless, attempts to effect a union between the Lutherans and Calvinists' on the one side, and between Protestants and Roman Catholics on the other. These efforts tended to relax the stiffness of dogmas, but also to emasculate what was characteristic in them. The sects, too, exerted a reacting influence on the greater ecclesiastical bodies, since the mystics, who still adhered to the church, agreed in essential points with the Anabaptists and Quakers.' Arminianism and even Socinianism, so influenced sober common sense theologians, that they became favorable to greater concessions.
As early as the time of the conflicts to which the Reformation gave rise, Martin Bucer and Philip Landgrave of Hesse, endeavoured to allay the demon of dissension. [On Cassander, see Gieseler, iv. 577; on De Dominis, p. 579; Junius, p. 580. In the year 1614, the Calvinist, David Pareus, d. 1622, took steps towards the effectual establishment of such a union. His