Page images
PDF
EPUB

arbitrii.... Quantum vero ad bonum et ad virtutes, intellectus hominis non recte judicat de divinis ex semet ipso. Heidelberg Catechism, Qu. 7: By the fall and disobedience of our first parents our nature has been so corrupted that we are all conceived and born in sins. Quest, 8. But are we so corrupt that we are wholly unable to do anything that is good, and inclined to do all that is evil ? Ans. Yes, unless we be regenerated by the Holy Spirit.* Comp. Conf. Gall. c. 9, Belg. 15: (Peccatum orig.) est totius naturæ corruptio et vitium hæreditarium, quo et ipsi infantes in matris suæ utero polluti sunt, quodque veluti radix omne peccatorum genus in homine producit ideoque ita fædum et exsecrabile est coram Deo, ut ad generis humani condemnationem sufficiat. Canon. Dord. c. 8, Art. 1, Form. Cons. 10: Censemus igitur, peccatum Adami omnibus ejus posteris, judicio Dei arcano et justo, imputari. 11: Duplici igitur nomine post peccatum homo natura, indeque ab ortu suo, antequam ullum actuale peccatum in se admittat, iræ ac maledictioni divinæ obnoxius est : primum quidem ob trapáTitwua et inobedientiam, quam in Adami lumbis commisit ; deinde ob consequentem in ipso conceptu hæreditariam corruptionem insitam, qua tota ejus natura depravata et spiritualiter mortua est, adeo quidem, ut recte peccatum originale statuatur duplex, imputatum videlicet et hæreditarium inhærens. [The XXXIX. Articles of the Church of England, Art. 9 : Of Original or Birth-sin : Original sin standeth not in the following of Adam (as the Pelagians do vainly talk); but in the fault and corruption of the nature of every man, that naturally is engendered of the offspring of Adam ; whereby man is very

far

gone from original righteousness, and is of his own nature inclined to evil, so that the flesh lusteth always contrary to the spirit; and therefore in every person born into this world, it deserveth God's wrath and damnation. And this infection of nature doth remain, yea, in them that are regenerate; whereby the lust of the flesh, called in the Greek, phronema sarkos, which some do expound the wisdom, some sensuality, some the affection, some the desire of the flesh, is not subject to the law of God. And although there is no condemnation for them that believe and are baptized, yet the Apostle doth confess, that concupiscence and lust hath of itself the nature of sin.—The Westminster Confession, chapter vi. 3: They [our first parents) being the root of all mankind, the guilt of this [their first] sin was imputed, and the same death in sin and corrupted nature conveyed to all their posterity, descending from them by ordinary generation. Larger Catechism, Qu. 22: The covenant being made with Adam, not for himself only, but for his posterity, all mankind descending from him by ordinary generation sinned in him and fell with him in his first transgression. Qu. 25. The sinfulness of that estate whereinto man fell, consisteth in the guilt of Adam's first sin, the want of that rightousness wherein he was created, and the corruption of his nature, whereby he is utterly indisposed, disabled, and made opposite unto all that is spiritually good, and wholly inclined to all evil, and that continually; which is commonly called original sin, and from which do proceed all actual transgressions.

• The Roman Catholics also rejected pure Pelagianism, Conc. Trid. sess. v. * Concerning the controversies to which this proposition afterwards gave rise, see Beck baus, l. c. p. 57, (A. D. 1583, it was opposed by the Dutch theologian, Coornhert)

1, 2.... Si quis Adæ prævaricationem sibi soli et non ejus propagini asserit nocuisse, et acceptam a Deo sanctitatem et justitiam, quam perdidit, sibi soli et non nobis etiam eum perdidisse, aut inquinatum illum per inobedientiæ peccatum mortem et pænas corporis tantum in omne genus humanum transfudisse, non autem et peccatum, quod mors est animæ : anathema sit. Sess. vi. c. 1, it is asserted that the free will of man is, by the fall, weakened and turned aside (attenuatum et inclinatum); on the other hand, it is maintained, in terms quite as decided, Can. 5 : si quis liberum hominis arbitrium post Adæ peccatum amissum et extinctum esse dixerit....anathema sit. Comp. Cat. Rom. 3, 10, 6, and especially Bellarmine, De Amiss. Gratiæ.

• Apol. Conf. Remonstr., p. 84, b. (quoted by Winer, p. 59): Peccatum originale nec habent (Remonstrantes) pro peccato proprie dicto, quod posteros Adami odio Dei dignos faciat, nec pro malo, quod per modum proprie dictæ pænæ ab Adamo in posteros dimanet, sed pro malo, infirmitate, vitio aut quocunque tandem alio nomine vocetur, quod ab Adamo justitia origine ali privato in posteros ejus propagatur : unde fit, ut posteri omnes Adami eadem justitia destituti, prorsus inepti et inidonei sint ad vitam æternam consequendum, aut in gratiam cum Deo redeant, nisi Deus nova gratia sua eos præveniat, et vires novas iis restituat ac sufficiat, quibus ad eam possint pervenire....Peccatum autem originis non esse malum culpæ proprie dictæ, quod vocant, ratio manifesta arguit : malum culpæ non est, quia nasci plane involuntarium est, ergo et nasci cum hac aut illa labe, infirmitate, vitio vel malo. Si malum culpæ non est, non potest esse malum pænæ, quia culpa et pæna sunt relata. Comp. Limborch, Theol. Christ., 3. 4. 4, and other passages quoted by Winer, pp. 60, 61.

• Cat. Racov. (Winer, p. 57), p. 21: Homo morti est obnoxius, quod primus homo apertum Dei mandatum, cui adjuncta fuit mortis comminatio, trangressus fuit. Unde porro factum est, ut universam suam posteritatem secum in eadem mortis jura traxerit, accedente tamen cujusvis in adultioribus proprio delicto, cujus deinde vis per apertam Dei legem, quam homines transgressi fuerant, aucta est.-Cat. Rac., qu. 423 (Winer, p. 59): Peccatum originis nullum prorsus est.

Nec enim e Scriptura id peccatum originis doceri potest, et lapsus Adæ, cum unus actus fuerit, vin eam, quæ depravare ipsam naturam Adami, multo minus vero posterorum ejus posset, habere non potuit.— Faust. Socinus, De Christo Serv., 4, 6. (Opp., ii. p. 226): Falluntur egregie, qui peccatum illud originis imputatione aliqua pro ea parte, quæ ad reatum spectat, contineri autumant, cum omnis reatus ex sola generis propagatione fluat. Gravius autem multo labuntur, qui pro ea parte, quæ ad corruptionem pertinet, ex pæna ipsius delicti Adami illud fluxisse affirmant.... Corruptio nostra et ad peccandum proclivitas non ex uno illo delicto in nos propagata est, sed continuatis actibus habitus modo hujus modo illius vitii est comparatus, quo naturam nostram corrumpente ea corruptio deinde per generis propagationem in nos est derivata. Neque vero si Adamus non deliquisset, propterea vel nos a peccatis immunes fuissemus vel in hanc naturæ corruptionem incurrere non potuissemus, dummodo, ut ille habuit, sic nos quoque voluntatem ad malum liberam habuissemus.Prælect. Theol., c. 4: Cæterum cupiditas ista mala, quæ cum plerisque hominibus nosci dici potest, non ex peccato illo primi parentis manat, sed ex eo, quod humanum enus, frequentibus peccatorum actibus, habitum peccandi contraxit et seipsum corrupit: quæ corruptio per propagationem in posteros transfunditur. Etenim unum illud peccatum per se, non modo universos posteros, sed ne ipsum quidem Adamum corrumpendi vim habere potuit. Dei vero consilio, in peccati illius pænam id factum esse, nec usquam legitur, et plane incredibile est, imo impium id cogitare, Deum videlicit omnis rectitudinis auctorem, ulla ratione pravitatis causam esse : quæ tamen pravitas, quatenus, ut dictum est, per propagationem in hominem derivatur, peccatum proprie appellari nequit. ...Concludimus igitur, nullum, improprie etiam loquendo, peccatum originale esse, i. e., ex peccato illo primi parentis nullam labem aut pravitatem universo humano generi necessario ingenitam esse sive inflictam quodammodo fuisse, nec aliud malum ex primo illo delicto ad posteros omnes necessario manasse, quam moriendi omnimodam necessitatem, non quidem ex ipsius delicti vi, sed quia, cum jam homo datura mortalis esset, ob delictum illud suæ naturali mortalitati a Deo relictus est, quodque naturale erat, id in delinquentis pænam prorsus necessarium est factum. Quare qui ex ipso nascuntur, eadem conditione omnes pasci oportet : nihil enim illi ademtum fuit, quod naturaliter haberet, vel habiturus esset.-Comp. Opp. i. p. 334 b: Vita æterna donum Dei est singulare et excellentissimum, quod nihil cum natura hominis commune habet (comp. $ 245, Note 6), aut certe ei nulla ratione naturalitur debetur. Ipsius autem hominis perpetua dissolųtio ei naturalis est, ut mitissimus existimandus sit Deus, si homini delinquenti eam pænæ loco constituit. Nam quid illi vel boni aufert, vel mali infert, si eum naturæ ipsius propriæ relinquit, et a se ex terra creatum atque compactum, in terram rursus reverti ac dissolvi sinit. Hoc adeo rationi per se consentaneum est, ut pæna quodammodo dici non possit. Comp. Fock, u. Sa, 498, 654 sq.

§ 247.

ANTAGONISMS WITHIN THE CONFESSIONS THEMSELVES.

But differences of opinion also manifested themselves among theologians belonging to the same denomination. In the Lutheran Church, Matthias Flacius carried the Protestant doctrine to an extreme, advancing notions which bordered on heresy; he held that original sin was of the substance of man, while Victorin Strigel regarded it only as an accidens. Among the theologians of the age of the Reformation there were not wanting, on the other hand, those who held to views that volatilized the essence of sin ;' and in respect to the doctrine of original sin, some of the later theologians of the Reformed Church, as those of the school of Saumur, especially Joshua de la Place, manifested a disposition to adopt the milder views of the Arminians. On the other hand, in the Roman Catholic Church, the Jansenists returned to the stricter doctrines of Augustine.

1

Concerning the controversy, see Planck, Geschichte des protestantischen · Lehrbegriffs, v. 1, p.285 ss.; the Dissert. of Otto and Twesten (above $ 215

7, 5,); and Schmid in Illgens Zeitschrift, 1843, 2. The views of Flacius are principally brought out in the work “ Clavis Scripturæ," and the appended treatise, De Peccato Originali; then in the book, De Peccati Originalis Essentia, Basil., 1568. See p. 655 : Hoc igitur modo sentio et assero, primarium peccatum originale esse substantiam, quia anima rationalis et præsertim ejus nobilissimæ substantiales potentiæ,nempe intellectus et voluntas-quæ ante erant ita præclare formatæ, ut essent vera imago Dei fonsque omnis justitiæ, honestatis ac pietatis, et plane essentialiter veluti aureæ et gemmeæ, nunc sunt fraude Satanæ adeo prorsus inversæ, ut sint vera ac viva imago Satanæ, et sint veluti stercoreæ, aut potius ex gehennali flamma constantes. See further in Schenkel, ii. 44; and Heppe, Gesch, d. deutschen Protestantismus, ii. 395 sq. On this point the authors of the Formula Concordiæ expressed themselves as follows, p. 285 : Etsi peccatum originale to tam hominis naturam, ut spirituale quoddam venenum et horribilis lepra... infecit et corrupit. ... tamen non unum et idem est corrupta natura seu snbstantia corrupti hominis, corpus et anima, aut homo ipse a Deo creatus, in quo originale peccatum habitat.... et ipsum originale peccatum, quod in hominis natura aut essentia habitat eamque corrumpit. In like manner the body of a person infected with leprosy, and the disease itself, are two different things. The theologians of the Reformed Church also rejected tho views of Flacius; see J. H. Heidegger, Corpus Theol. Christ. x. 40, (Ed. Tig. 1700, p. 346). This opinion may in its opposition to Pelagianism, be termed Manicheeism, inasmuch as it converts the moral element in the idea of sin into a merely physical one; accordingly, Heidegger calls it I. c. manichæismus incrustatus.

? Thus Sebastian Frank finds the essence of sin in ignorance and folly, and in general, views it in a negative aspect; see Schenkel, ii, 60 sq. Similar views were held by Ochino, Thamer, Münzer, and others; ibid., p.

70 sq.

[ocr errors]

a

Joshua Placæus, Theses Theologicæ de Statu Hom. lapsi ante Gratiam. 1640, and Disput. de Imputatione primi peccati Adami, Salmur, 1655. He only admitted a mediate imputation of the sin of Adam, but not an immediate one; the opposite view was defended in the Formula Consensus. [See above, $ 225 a, Note 3. S. J. Baird, the Elohim Revealed, Phil., 1860, p. 45. Theological Essays from Princeton Review (New York, 1846), pp. 195 sq. Schweizer, Central Dogmen, ii. 234 et passim.]

. See Reuchlin, Port-Royal, p. 342 ss. Appendix, vii. p. 753 ss.

.

In respect to individual sins, Protestantism rejected their arbitrary classification, after the scholastic style. The real mortal sin, in the Protestant view, is unbelief, which Luther calls the "many-headed, and many-footed rat-king among the sins." (Walch, iv. 1075): Schenkel, ii. 73.

In connection with their rigid views concerning the nature and origin of sin, the Protestants could not but reject the notion of the immaculate conception of the Virgin; that they for some time retained the predicates-pura et intemerata virgo (Conf. Bas. I.), and others, does not by any means prove that they admitted the doctrine itself: comp. Declaratio Thoruniens. (quoted by Augusti, pp. 415 and 416): Omnes homines, solo Christo ex. copto, in peccato originali concepti et nati sunt, etiam ipsa sanctissima Virgo Maria.-But the doctrine in question continued to meet with opposition on the part of Roman Catholio writers themselves, and neither the Council of Trent, nor Bellarmine, nor some of the later popes (e. g. Gregory XV. and Alexander VII.) ventured to determine the point at issue,

9 Comp. Winer, p. 67, noto 2. Augusti, Archæologie III, p. 100. See, however, the next period.

§ 248.

FURTHER DEVELOPMENT OF THE DOCTRINE CONCERNING MAN, IN

THEORY AS WELL AS IN PRACTICE.

3

The anthropology of the Protestant Church was more fully developed both in its practical workings, and by the adherents of the schools. In the spirit of the earlier scholasticism, the Lutheran and Reformed divines alike entered isto inquiries respecting the creation of man,' the propagation of the human race (Creationism and Traducianism),' the nature of the fall,' of original sin,' and of actual sin.' The conscious sense of sin and moral inability, as well as the consciousness of freedom, continued to manifest themselves in practical life; though, in reference to the former, the definitions of the schools, and the bigoted zeal which Calov displayed in his controversy with Calixt and his followers,' hardened it into a dead letter. On the other hand, the Pietists again emphasized the importance of the practical bearing of the doctrine concerning the corruption of mankind, and yet insisted none the less upon the strictest injuuctions of morality.' This was also the case with the Jansenists in the Roman Catholic Church, while the Pelagianising principles of the Jesuits were favorable to a looser morality.'

a

8

"The assertion that there had been human beings prior to the creation of Adam (Preadamites), gave rise to a short controversy in the Reformed Church. Isaac Peyrerius (de la Peyrère), a Hugnenot, who had become a convert to Romanism, and died A. D. 1676, as one of the priests of the Oratory, published 1655, a work entitled : De Præadamitis. Comp. Bayle, Dictionaire, iii. pp. 637, 638. His notion was opposed by Calov, iii. p. 1049, who called it “monstrosa opinio;" Quenstedt, i. p. 733, ss., and Hollaz, p. 406. [See, Isaac la Peyrère, and his book, The Præadamites, in the American Theological Review, Jan., 1861.] The common definition of man, given in the works on systematic theology, was, that he is an animal rationale. Most of the writers adopted the dichotomistic principle, according to which man consists of body and soul. Thus Hollaz says, P. i. c. 5, Qu. 6 (p. 410): Homo constat e duabus partibus, anima rationali et corpore organico; other definitions are given by Hase, Hutteras Redivivus, p. 192. -John Gerhard thought that man was an image of the Trinity; see his Loci Theol. Tom. iv. loc. ix. 8 6. Comp. $ 245, note 3, on the image of God. On God's breathing the breath of life into man's nostrils, comp. Gerhard, ibid. § 12 (quoted by De Wette, Dogmatik, p. 89); Non ex intimo ore suæ essentiæ spirat Deus animam hominis, sicut Spiritum S. ab omni

« PreviousContinue »