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dem horribile fateor; inficiari tamen nemo poterit, quin præsciverit Deus, quem
exitum esset habiturus homo, antequam ipsum conderet, et ideo præsciverit, quia decreto suo sic ordinarat. And in the second Confess. Helvet. the articles concerning the fall of man (8), and concerning the freedom of the will (9), precede, in the order of subjects, that concerning predestination (10). Comp. also Conf. Gall. Art. 12. Belg. Art. 16. Canon. Dordr. i. 1, etc., quoted by Winer ; see note 11.
• Inst. III. c. 23, § 7, he terms the exclusion of the fall of the first man from the divine predestination, a frigidum commentum. Comp. 9 4: Quum ergo in sua corruptione pereunt (homines), nihil aliud quam pænas luunt ejusdem calamitatis, in quam ipsius prædestinatione lapsus est Adam ac posteros suos præcipites secum traxit. - It is on this particular point that Calvin (and his disciple Beza*) went further than Augustine, who did not include the fall of Adam in the divine decrees. Calvin infers the doctrine of predestination both from ethico-anthropological and from theologico-speculative premises ; in his opinion it has a practical as well as a theoretical aspect. [But compare Julius Müller in his essay in the Studien und Kritiken, referred to in the introduction to this section. The name Supralapsarians, however, does not occur prior to the Synod of Dort. It was especially the Gomarists who were favorable to the supralapsarian scheme. “Though the Synod of
• Dort hesitated to declare in favor of Supralapsarianism, yet this was, at any rate, the inmost sense of orthodoxy;" Schweizer, ii. p. 124. [Baur, Dogmengeschichte, p. 280: "The genuine Protestant antagonism to Catholicism is Calvinism, and this, too, on just that doctrine, which was at first common to all the Reformers, þut was carried out systematically only in Calvinism. The whole system of the dependence of the individual upon a power, absolutely determining his will and acts, which Catholicism presents in its doctrine of the church, Calvinism attaches to its absolute decree.” Pag. 315 : “Calvin's contradictory assertions about sin received their most paradoxical expression in his well known formula : Cadit homo, divina providentia sic ordinante, sed suo vitio cadit. From whatever, side we may consider the matter, this position can only have a rational meaning, when understood as asserting that Adam was not such a man as God would have him be, unless,
On the question, how far Luther was inclined to adopt such a notion ? see Baur, in his work against Möhler, p. 38. [Beza's Brief Declaration of the Table of Predestination, 12mo, translated, London, D. d.]
+ Episcopius Instit., v. 5, thus defines the difference between the two schemes: Duplex est eorum sententia, qui absolutam hujusmodi prædestinationis gratiam asserunt. Una est eorum, qui statuunt, decretum prædestinationis absolute a Deo ab æteruo factum esse, ante omnem hominis aut condendi aut conditi aut lapsi (nedum resipiscentis et credentis) considerationem vel prævisionem. Hi Supralapsarii vocantur. Altera est eorum, qui prædestinationis istius objectum statuunt, bomines definite præscitos, creatos ac lapsos. Definite, inquam, præscitos, etc., ut a prima sententia distinguatur, quæ statuit, objectum prædestinationis homines indefinite præscitos, seu (ut D. Gomarus loquitur) creabiles, labiles, reparabiles, salvabiles, hoc est, qui creari ac prædestinari poterant. Et hi Sublapsarii (Infrala psarii) vocantur. ... Discrepat posterior sententia a priore in eo tantum, quod prior prædestinationem præordinet lapsui, posterior eam lapsui subordinet. Illa præordinat eam Japsui, ne Deum insipientem faciat: hæc subordinat, no Deum injustum faciat, . e. lapsus auctorem. Comp. Limborch, Theol. Christ., iv. 2.
besides the perfection of his nature, there was also something in his nature averse to God, or a fallen nature."]
. This was the case, e. 9., with the preachers of Delft. Comp. Schröckh, Kirchengesch. nach der Reformation, v. p. 224. The Synod of Dort also was satisfied with the infralapsarian scheme; at least its decrees made no express mention of Supralapsarianism. And the Form. Cons. Art. 5, only says that Adam's fall was permitted.
* Concerning the necessary connection between the universality of grace and conditional election on the one hand, and between particularism (limited redemption) and unconditional election on the other, see Planck, 1. c. Thus we find in the Formula Concordiæ, p. 618 : Christus vero omnes peccatores ad se vocat et promittit illis levationem, et serio vult, ut omnes homines ad se veniant et sibi consuli et subveniri sinant. P. 619: Quod vero scriptum est, multos quidem vocatos, paucos vero electos esse, non ita accipiendum est, quasi Deus nolit, ut omnes salventur, sed damnationis impiorum causa est, quod verbum Dei aut prorsus non audiant, sed contumaciter contemnant, aures obdurent et cor indurent et hoc modo Spiritui Sancto viam ordinariam præcludant, ut opus suum in his efficere nequeat, aut certe quod verbum auditum flocci pendant atque abjiciant. Quod igitur pereunt, neque Deus, neque ipsius electio, sed malitia eorum in culpa est.—The same doctrine was taught by the Remonstrants, Art. 2: Jesum Christum, mundi servatorem, pro omnibus et singulis mortuum esse, atque ita quidem, ut omnibus per mortem Christi reconciliationem et peccatorum remissionem impetraverit, ea tamen conditione, ut nemo illa remissione peccatorum re ipsa fruatur præter hominem fidelem, et hoc quoque secundum evangelium. For other passages see Winer, p. 92.
Thns the first Confession of Basle (comp. note 7) does not exclude the possibility that God may have elected all men, or at least all who believe. The authors of the Confess. Helvetica also were cautious in their expressions, c. 10: Deus ab æterno prædestinavit vel elegit libere et mera sua gratia, nullo hominis respectu, sanctos, quos vult salvos facere in Christo. ... Et quamvis Deus norit, qui sint sui, et alicubi mentio fiat paucitatis electorum, bene sperandum est tamen de omnibus, neque temere reprobis quisquam est adnumerandus. Comp. too, Conf. Angl. Art. 17. Scot. Art. 8. In the Catech. Heidelberg.too, Qu. 20, predestination is made to depend on faith. The Calvinists of later times were not agreed among themselves whether Qu. 37 implies the universality of the merits of Christ or not; see Beckhaus, l. c. pp. 70, 71. [The 37th Question of the Heidelberg Catechism is, “What dost thou understand by the words He suffered ?” Answer : “That he all the time that he lived on earth, but especially at the end of his life, sustained in body and soul the wrath of God against the sins of all mankind ; that so by. his passion as the only propitiatory sacrifice, he might redeem our body and soul from everlasting damnation, and obtain for us the favor of God, righteousness and eternal life."] The Confess. Marchica maintains naïvely, Art. 14 (after a previous affirmation), “ that God is not a cause of the ruin of man, that he takes no pleasure in the death of the wicked, that he neither introduced sin into the world, nor impels men to sin, not that he will not have all men saved, for the very contrary is asserted in Scripture ·
but that the origin of sin and perdition is to be found in Satan and the wicked, whom God, on account of their unbelief and disobedience, cast into condemnation. Item, we ought not to despair of the salvation of any one, so long as the proper means for obtaining salvation are used, for no man knows when God will effectually call his people, nor who may yet believe or not, because God is not bound to any time, and orders all things according to his good pleasure. Therefore his Electoral Grace rejects all and every partly blasphemous, partly dangerous, opinions and discourses, such as that we must ascend into heaven by means of our reason, and there examine a special register, or the secret chancery or council-chamber of God, as to the question who is ordained to eternal life or not, though God has sealed up the book of life, so that no creature can look into it.” Nevertheless the same Confession expressly condemns as a Pelagian error the notion that God elected the saints propter fidem provisam.—The doctrine of particular redemption is set forth not only in the Confess. Gall. Art. 12, Belg. Art. 6 (quoted by Winer, p. 88), but definitely in the decrees of the Synod of Dort (quoted by Winer, p. 89), and the Form. Cons. Art. 4: Deus ante jacta mundi fundamenta in Christo fecit propositum seculorum (Eph. iii. 11), in quo ex mero voluntatis suæ beneplacito sine ulla meriti, operum vel fidei prævisione ad laudem gloriosa gratiæ suæ elegit certum ac definitum in eadem corruptionis massa et communi sanguine jacentium adeoque peccato corruptorum numerum, in tempore per Christum sponsorem et mediatorem unicum ad salutem perducendum, etc.
" [Westminster Confession : Chap. iii. : God from all eternity did by the most wise and holy counsel of his own will, freely and unchangeably ordain whatsoever comes to pass : yet so as thereby neither is God the author of sin ; nor is violence offered to the will of the creature; nor is the liberty or contingence of second causes taken away, but rather established. 2. Although God knows whatsoever may or can come to pass, upon all supposed conditions, yet hath he not decreed anything because he foresaw it as future, or that which would come to pass, upon such conditions. See also chap. ix. on Free-Will. Shorter Catechism, Qu. 13: Our first parents being left to the freedom of their own will, fell from the estate wherein they were created, by sinning against God.—On Redemption, see chap. vii. 3: Man by his fall having made himself incapable of life by that covenant [viz., of works), the Lord was pleased to make a second, commonly called the covenant of grace; wherein he freely offereth unto sinners life and salvation by Jesus Christ, requiring of them faith in him, that they may be saved, and promising to give unto all those that are ordained unto life, his Holy Spirit, to make them willing and able to believe. Larger Catechism, Qu. 31: The covenant of grace was made with Christ as the second Adam, and in him with all the elect as his seed. The Westminster Confession does not distinguish between the covenant of grace, and the covenant of redemption ; nor does it use the word atonement in distinction from redemption. The Anglican divines generally stood aloof from the definiteness of Calvinism; see Jeremy Taylor's Deus Justificatus, or a Vindication of the Glory of the Divine Attributes, in the question of Original Sin, against the Presbyterian way of understanding it; Works, ix. pp. 315-421.]
With such views were closely connected the questions about the doctrine of irresistible grace, and whether grace may be lost. According to the Reformed, grace works irresistibly, nor can man lose it when once in his possession. Calvin Instit., iii. 2, 12. Canon. Dord., V.3. The Lutherans take the opposite view, Confess. Aug., 12 (p. 13, against Anabaptists). Form. Concord., p. 705: [Et quidem imprimis falsa et Epicurea illa opinio graviter redarguenda atque rejicienda est, quod quidam fingunt, fidem ot acceptam justitiam atque salutem non posse ullis peccatis aut sceleribus amitti, sed etiamsi homo absque Dei timore et pudore pravis suis concupiscentiis indulgent Spiritus S. repugnet, et atrocia flagitia contra CORscientiam suam (et quidem malo proposito) designet, nihilominus tamen fidem, gratiam Dei, justitiam atque salutem retineri posse. Contra hanc pestilentissimam persuasionem singulari diligentia hae verissimæ, immotæ, divinæ comminationes, poenæ, et admonitiones christianis, per fidem justificatis sæpe repetendæ atque inculcandæ sunt.] Comp. also the Arminian and Sociniau creeds quoted by Winer, p. 112. So, too, the doctrine of the certainty of salvation (certitudo salutis) made a part of the theology of the Reformed Church : see Calvin, Institutes, iii., C. 24, S 4. (But equally strong statements on this point were made by Luther, and even by Melancthon; the assurance of faith is taught in the Augsburg Confession, and the Apology, and in the Saxon and Wirtemberg Confessions. Among the Reformed Confessions, it is not found in the two of Basle, the Gallican, the Belgic, the second Helvetic, the Scottish, nor in the canons of Dort. The Confession of the Westminster Assembly expressly denies, that assurance is of the essence of saving faith. Louis le Blanc, Prof. at Sedan, in his Theological Theses, 1683, maintains, against Arnauld, that the doctrine was not generally held by the Reformed. See the British and Foreign Evangelical Review, Oct., 1856, in reply to Sir William Hamilton, who, in his Dissertations, pp. 486–7 (Am. ed.), asserted, that on this point Protestants had wholly abandoned their original ground.) As regards the virtues and salvation of the heathen, the adherents of the Augustinian system adopted the views of its founder. This gave more significance to Zwingle's different view, advanced in his Christ. Fidei brevis et clara Ixpositio, & 10.
CONTROVERSIES RESPECTING PREDESTINATION WITHIN THE DENOM.
As early as the lifetime of Calvin himself, Sebastian Castellio, and Jerome Bolsec, both of Geneva, raised their voices against the Calvinistic doctrine, but did not produce any impression. The more moderate views of Arminius and his followers, always had secret adherents in the Reformed Church itself. Moses Amyraldus, a disciple of Cameron, and professor of theology in the academy of Saumur, openly pronounced in favour of what is called Universalismus hypotheticus,' a synthesis of universalism and particularism, and was followed by other French theologians.' Claude Pajon, his disciple, represented the gracious influence of the Holy Spirit as so intimately united with the efficacy of the word, that he denied an immediate influence of the Spirit upon the heart; but yet he pro posed to have no controversy with the Calvinistic doctrine of predestination. Samuel Huber, who had seceded from the Reformed to the Lutheran Church, extended the universality of salvation farther than the Lutheran theologians allowed, and was therefore
persecuted by both parties.'—In the Roman Catholic Church, the advocates of the strict system of Augustine endeavoured, on different occasions, to re-establish its former authority. The controversies carried on in the University of Louvain,' and the attempt of Lewis Molina to reconcile the doctrine of predestination with that concerning the freedom of the will,' gave rise to the papal Congregationes de Auxiliis (gratiæ divinæ), which, however did not lead to any important result;o until at last Jansenism established a permanent
a opposition to the Pelagian tendency of the Romish Church. The Jansenists also adopted the views of their master concerning predestination.' [In the Church of England, predestination was taught in the Thirty-nine Articles ; but was gradually supplanted by the Arminian system, in conjunction with Episcopal and Sacramental tendencies. The Scotch Presbyterians, and the English non-conformists held to the Calvinistic view, substantially as stated in the Confession of Faith and the Catechisms of the Westminster Assembly of Divines.]
Shortly after Castellio had removed from Geneva to Basle (1544), he published an exposition of the ninth chapter of Paul's Epistle to the Ro
mans, in which he violently attacked the Calvinistic doctrine. In an anony| mous pamphlet published at Paris under the title: Auszüge aus den latei
nischen und französischen Schriften Calvins, the doctrine of election by grace was combated“ with the weapons of the keenest satire and acutest dialectics in a manner worthy of Voltaire.” Henry, Leben Calvins, i. p. 389. After his death were published : Sebast. Castellionis Dialogi IV. de predestinatione, de electione, de libero arbitrio, de fide. Aresdorffii [Basil.] 1578. 12mo.*
(.* On the controversial writings of Bolsec, see Bretschneider, in Reformatoren-Almanach 1821, p. 117. Henry, iii. 48; Schenkel, ii. 174.
. Concerning his history (he died 1664), see Bayle, Dictionnaire, sub voce : Amyraut; Jablonski, Institutt. Hist. Christ. recent. p. 313. Schröckh, Kirchengesch, nach der Reformation, viii. p. 660 ss. See also above, $ 225 a, p. 181. It was especially against the assertions of Amyraut, as well as of Lewis Cappellus and Joshua de la Place, that the rigid doctrine of the Formula Consensus was directed (comp. $ 249, note 11.) The views of Amyraut are developed in his Traité de la Prédestination. Saumur, 1634. 12. comp. e. g. p. 89 : Si vous considerés le soin que Dieu a eu de procurer le salut au genre humain par l'envoy de son fils au monde, et les choses qu'il y a faites et souffertes à ceste fin, la grace est universelle et présentée à tous les hommes. Mais si vous regardés à la condition qu'il y a nécessairement apposée, de croire en son fils, vous trouverés qu'encore que ce soin de donner aux hommes un Rédempteur procède d'une merveilleuse charité envers le genre humain, néantmoins ceste charité ne passe pas ceste mesure, de donner le salut aux hommes, pourveu qu'ils ne le refusent pas : s'ils le refusent, il leur en oste l'espérance, et eux par leur in
* With a Preface by Felix Turpio Urbevetanus (Faustus Socinus): seo Athen. Raur.