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Ibid. p. 85: Falso calumniantur nos adversarii, quod nostri non doceant bona opera, cum ea non solum requirant, sed etiam ostendant, quomodo fieri possint, etc. Comp. Winer, p. 99 and 105, where other passages are quoted from the Lutheran symbols.—The creeds of the Reformed Church express themselves in similar terms. Thus the Confession of Basle, Art. 9, Concerning Faith and Good Works : We acknowledge the forgiveness of sins by faith in Jesus Christ, the crucified one; though this faith continually exercises, and manifests itself, and is preserved, by works of love, we do not ascribe righteousness and satisfaction for our sins to works as the fruit of faith, but solely to true confidence and faith in the blood of the Lamb of God, which was shed for the remission of our sins ; for we freely confess that all things are given to us in Christ. Therefore believers are not to perform good works to make satisfaction for their sins, but only in order to manifest their gratitude for the great mercy which the Lord God has shown to us in Christ.—Compare also the arrangement of the Catechism of Heidelberg, where the whole system of ethics is included in the article concerning Gratitude. Conf. Helv. II. c. 15: Docemus cum Apostola, hominem peccatorem justificari sola fide in Christum, etc. The following definition is given in ch. 16: Fides humana non est opinio ac humana persuasio, sed firmissima fiducia et evidens ac constans animi assensus, denique certissima comprehensio veritatis Dei.... atque adeo Dei ipsius, summi boni, et præcipue promissionis divine et Christi, qui omnium promissionum est colophon.Heidelberg Catech., Qu. 21: What is true faith? Answ. It is not only a certain knowledge whereby I hold for truth all that God has revealed to us in his Word, but also an assured confidence, which the Holy Ghost works by the Gospel in my heart, that not only to others, but to me also, remission of sins, everlasting righteousness and salvation are freely given by God, merely of grace, only for the sake of Christ's merits.

• For example, Thomas Münzer, David Joris, Seb. Frank, Thamer, Schwenkfeld, etc. See Schenkel, ii, 251. Hagen., ii. 374.

• Confess. Remonstrant. 18, 3, and Apolog. Conf. Rem. p. 112, a. (quoted by Winer, p. 97): Justificatio est actio Dei, quam Deus pure pute in sua ipsius mente efficit, quia nihil aliud est, quam volitio aut decretum, quo peccata remittere et justitiam imputare aliquando vult iis, qui credunt, i. e., quo vult pænas peccatis eorum promeritas iis non infligere eosque tamquam justos tractare et præmio afficere.— The Socinians also regarded justification as a forensic act. Catech. Racov. Qu. 433 (ibid.): Justificatio est, cum nos Deus pro justis habet, quod ea ratione facit, cum nobis et peccata remittit et nos vita æterna donat. Comp. Socinus, de Justif. (Opp. ii. p. 603): Duplici autem ratione amovetur peccatum : vel quia non imputatur ac perinde habetur ac si nunquam fuisset, vel quia peccatum ipsum revera aufertur, nec amplius peccatur.... What he says further on: Utraque hæc amovendi peccati ratio in justificatione coram Deo nostra conspicitur, might lead us to think that he identified sanctification and justification, but in the sequel he distinctly separates them : Ut autem cavendum est, ne, ut hodie plerique faciunt, vitæ sanctitatem atque innocentiam effectum justificationis nostræ coram Deo esse dicamus, sic diligenter cavere debemus, ne ipsam sanctitatem atque innocentiam justificationem nostram coram Deo esse credamus, neve illam nostræ coram Deo justificationis causam efficientem aut impulsivam esse affirmemus, sed tantummodo causam, sine qua eam justificationem non contingere decrevit, Deus. The difference between justificatio and obedientia is so defined, that by the former we are to understand the remissio peccatorum, and by obedientia a mere condition, under which justification occurs.

'Ries, Conf. Art. 21 : Per vivam fidem acquirimus veram justitiam, i. eng condonationem seu remissionem omnium tam præteritorum quam præsentium peccatorum, ut et veram justitiam, quæ per Jesum cooperante Spir. Sancto abundanter in nos effunditur vel infunditur, adeo ut ex malis.... fiamus boni atque ita ex injustis revera justi.-- Barclay, Apol. 7, 3, p. 128, does not comprise under justification good works as such, not even when viewed as the effects of the Holy Spirit in us, but the formatio Christi in nobis, the new birth, which at the same time comprehends sanctification; for it is realis interna animæ renovatio; for those, qui Christum in ipsis formatum habent, integrum eum et indivisum possident.

'Limborch Theol. Christ. vi. 4, 22:.... Sine operibus fides mortua et ad justificationem inefficax est. 4, 31. Comp. Conf. Remonstr. xi. 1 ss, and Apol. Confess. p. 113 (quoted by Winer, p. 102). According to Socinus (De Justif. in the Biblioth. Fratr. Pol. Tom. ii. p. 601, ss.) there is faith in obedience to the divine commandments. “ When they advance anything else concerning justifying faith.... they borrow it from Roman Catholic theologians." [1] Möhler, p. 634. For the views of the Mennonites concerning justification, see Ries, Confess. Art. 29: Fides. ... debet comitata esse amore Dei et firma confidentia in unum Deum.

Schyn, Plen. Deduct. p. 232 (quoted by Winer, p. 107): Non credimus bona opera nos salvare, sed agnoscimus bona opera pro debita obedientia et fructibus fidei. Socinus also asserted, that good works, though necessary, are not meritorious (non sunt meritoria): de Justif. p. 603.

• [The article on Justification in the Book of Homilies, 1547, was drawn up by Cranmer. Bp. George Bull, Harmonia Apostolica, two dissertations on the doctrine of James on Justification, and his agreement with Paul (Works, vol. iii.). John Davenant, Bp. of Salisbury, Treatise on Justification, 1631, new ed., 1844, defends the Reformed doctrine. Bp. William Forbes (of Edinburgh, b. 1585, d. 1634), Considerationes Modestæ (against Bellarmine on Justification), Lond., 1658 (posthumous), reprinted, Lib. Angl. Cath. Theol. i. 1850. The Article XI. (of the XXXIX. Articles) reads: We are accounted righteous before God, only for the merit of our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ by Faith, and not for our own works or deservings, wherefore, that we are justified by Faith only is a most wholesome doctrine,

full of comfort, as more largely is expressed in the Homily of Justification. Art. XII. represents good works only as the “ fruits of faith." The views of the Platonizing English divines are set forth most clearly in John Smith's (of Cambridge) Select Discourses ; Of Legal and Evangelical Righteousness, the 7th Discourse.)

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§ 252.


Differences of opinion, however, obtained among Protestant tneologians themselves. Thus, Andrew Osiander represented justification and sanctification as forming only one act ;' and as regards the relation in which good works stand to faith, the views of Nicolas Amsdorf were diametrically opposed to those of George Major. The latter asserted that good works contributed to salvation, while the former maintained, that they are productive rather of evil than of good.' Calixtus, somewhat later, emphasized the ethical element, and although he retained the formula, sola fides, he opposed the fides solitaria.' Both the Lutheran and Calvinistic mystics attached (like the Quakers) great importance to sanctification, and were strongly opposed to that theology which represents justification as an external, legal transaction."

"On Osiander's doctrine in its earliest form (after 1524) see Heberle in the Studien u. Kritiken, 1844. It is further developed in the two disputations which he held, A. D. 1549 and 1550, in his treatise : De unico Mediatore, 1551, and in various sermons. He maintained, that what was called justification by orthodox theologians, should be more properly designated redemption. (Illustrated by the case of a Moor, ransomed from slavery.) In his opinion, the signification of dikaloûv is to “make just;" it is only by metonymy that it can mean “ to pronounce a person just." Comp. Planck, iv. p. 249, ss. Tholuck's Anzeiger, 1833, No. 54, 55. Schenkel, ii. 355. He was opposed by Francis Staphylus, Mörlin, and others. [Baur in Dogmengesch. 332 : Justification according to Osiander, is the mystical union of man with Christ, as the absolute principle of righteousness. ...The believer is so embodied in Christ, that in this living concrete unity, he is flesh of his flesh, and bone of his bone.... The Formula Concordia is incorrect in, representing his doctrine, as excluding the human nature of Christ from the work of redemption.]

* Compare Amsdorf's treatise: Dass die Propositio, gude Werke sind schädlich zur Seligkeit, eine rechte sei, reprinted in S. Baumgarten, Geschichte der Religionsparteien, p. 1172–78. Amsdorf speaks, in the first instånce, of those works by which men hope to deserve salvation ; but even those works which are the fruit of faith are imperfect, on account of sin, and would condemn us before the judgment-seat of Christ, if God did not condescend to accept them for the sake of faith in Christ. In his opinion there was no medium between that which is necessary to salvation, and that which does harm. “Though the dialectical proof of this inference, or consequence, come short of being complete, which, however, it does not, it can satisfactorily be established on theological grounds." But it is especially “on account of monks and hypocrites that it is necessary to adhere to this proposition, though it may give offence to reason and in philosophy.” Ams



dorf admits that works may be the “manifestations and evidences of faith," " for as long as faith exists, good works also follow, and when we commit sin, we do not lose salvation, because we have previously lost it by unbelief.Comp. Planck, iv. p. 69, šs. Calvin is also decidedly opposed to Osiandrism, which he calls a calumnia. Comp. Institutes III. c. 11, § 10, 8q., and c. 13, 8 5: Quicunque garriunt, nos fide justificari, quia regeniti spiritualiter vivendo justi sumus, nunquam gustarunt gratiæ dulcedinem, ut Deum sibi propitium fore confiderent. (See above, p. 149. Ritschl, Die Rechtfertigungslehre Osianders, in Jahrb. f. deutsche Theologia, 1857. Frank, De Satisf. Christi ex Lite Osiandr. Erlang., 1858. Gran, De Andr. Osiand. Doctrina, 1860. Baur, Lehre d. Versöhnung, 1838, p. 326, 89.]

See Disputatio Theologica de gratuita Justificatione, præside J. Calixto exponit G. Titius, Helmst., 1650. Against this the Consensus Repetitus, Punct., 42–57 (in Henke's ed., p. 32, sq.). Gass, i. 74. [Gieseler, Church Hist., New York ed., iv. $ 52.

* Schwenkfeld had already maintained that the tendency of Luther's doctrine was to seduce common people into errors and carnal liberty. He admitted that the doctrine (concerning faith and good works) was true in a certain sense, and under certain limitations, but he thought that it might easily be perverted so as to lead to belief in the mere letter of Scripture, and to moral indifference. Comp. Planck, v. 1, p. 83, ss. Schenkel, u. s.


, § 251, note. Faith, according to Schwenkfeld, is essentially dynamic, “ a gracious gift of the divine essence, a drop from the heavenly fountain, a glittering of the eternal sun, a spark of the eternal fire, which is God, and in short, a communion and participation of the divine nature and essence (ÚTÓOTOOLS, Hebr. xi. 1); see his work, Vom Worte Gottes, 110, b. and Erbkam, Prot. Secten, 431, sq.—[The fundamental significance, which Osiander ascribed to the essential righteousness of Christ, in the matter of justification, is attributed by Schwenkfeld to the glorified flesh of Christ. Baur, p. 333.] J. Böhme (von der Menschwerdung Christi, vol. ii. c. 7, 8 15, quoted by Umbreit, p. 51) says: “The hypocritical Babylon now teaches : Our works deserve nothing, Christ has redeemed us from death and hell, we must only believe it, in order to be saved. Dost thou not know, Babylon, that the servant who, knowing his master's will, does not fulfill it, will be beaten with many stripes ? Knowledge without action is like a fire, which glimmers, but cannot burn, because the fuel is moist. If thou wilt have thy fire of faith burn, thou must blow upon it, and free it from the moisture of the devil and of hell; thou must enter into the life of Christ, and do his commandments," etc.—Though Arnd adhered more firmly than Böhme to the fundamental principles of Lutheranism, he always urged the necessity of that love which proceeds from faith (see the passages quoted from his Wahres Christenthum, in Hagenbach's Vorlesungen, vol. iii. p. 377–79.) Poiret called that faith wbich manifests itself especially as an uncharitable spirit of opposition, military faith. (Ibid. iv. p. 327.)

§ 253.



[Schröder, Die Ordo Salutis, in Studien und Kritiken, 1857.] The fundamental principles laid down in the symbolical books, were more fully developed by theologians, especially by those of the Protestant Church, so as to form a definite economy of redemption. After God has called the sinner (vocatio), and man heard that call (auditio), operations of the Divine Spirit (operationes Spiritus), follow each other in definite succession-viz. 1. Illuminatio ; 2. Conversio (pcenitentia) ; 3. Sanctificatio (renovatio) ; 4. Perseverantia; 5. Upio mystica cum Deo. Theologians, however, did not quite agree as to the precise order of these operations.' The mystics, and the so-called pietists, neglected all those scholastic definitions, and had a system and terminology of their own.'

Compare the works of the orthodox Protestant theologians, cited in De Wette, Dogmatik, p. 151, ss. Hase, Hutterus Redivivus, p. 287, ss., where passages are also quoted from the writings of other divines; Gass, i. 362, 89., and the works of Hülsemann, and Musäus, to which he refers.

• The theory of the economy of salvation was established on account of, and in opposition to, the pietists. See De Wette, p. 151. For their views concerning the so-called Theologia Irregenitorum, and the economy of salvation, see Planck, Geschichte der protestantischen Theologie, p. 223 ss. The pietists asserted that the regeneration of man commences with a change in his will; their opponents maintained that the illumination of the understanding was the first step. The conscious experience of the unio mystica raised some mystics to the height of ecstasy; with others it subsided into quietism. See Molina's Guida Spirituale (extracts in Scharling, ubi supra, p. 55 sq), and the appendix, p. 236. [This Spiritual Guide was published in Spain, 1675; an English translation appeared, 1688.] As no reference was made to the unio mystica in the symbolical books, theologians entertained different views.-On the controversy between the theologians of Leipsic and Wittenberg on the one hand, and those of Tübingen and Helmstadt on the other (which had its origin in the assertion of Justus Feuerborn, that there is an approximatio of the divine substance to the human), comp. Walch, Religionsstrieitigkeiten der evangelisch-luther. Kirche, iii. p. 130 ss. [In the Augsburg Confession, justification is made the fruit of conversion, and precedes sanctification. Calvin, Inst. III, cap. 5, puts faith first, and then Pænitentia, with its two divisions of mortificatio and vivificatio. Ger. hard's order is, Pænitentia, Justificatio, Bona Opera. Hollaz is most minute : Vocatio, Illuminatio, Conversio, Regeneratio, Justificatio, Unio mystica, Renovatio, Conservatio, Gratia glorificans, etc. Comp. Schröder, ubi supra. On the different positions assigned in the Lutheran and Reformed systems to decrees, imputation, satisfaction, faith, etc., see Schneckenburger, in Theol. Jahrb., 1844.]

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