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must take upon himself, without being commissioned and approved of by ourselves, to do that to which we all possess equal rights. ... The office of a Christian minister ought not to be different from that of a bailiff. While he is in office he has the precedence before others; but when he is removed from office, he is a peasant or citizen like everybody else (he has not a char. acter indelebilis). Nor are women excluded from the general priesthood of Christians, but they must not teach publicly (1 Cor. xiv.). But all derive their priestly office from Christ the sole high priest.” See also his Appeal to the Nobles of the German Nation (in Walch, x. p. 302 sq.) : “Hence the bishop's consecration means only this, that he 'takes one out of the crowd instead of the whole body, who all have like authority, and commands him to exercise this authority for the others. Just as if ten brothers, the children of the king, should elect one to govern for them;' they were all kings and of equal rights, and yet one of them is appointed to rule. To set it in a clearer light, if a company of pious Christian laymen were captured and sent to a desert place, and had not among them an ordained priest, and were all agreed in the matter, and elected one, and told him to baptize, administer the mass, absolve, and preach, such an one would be as true a priest, as if all the bishops and popes had ordained him.” (Comp. ibid., x. p. 1858)...." When on the other hand, the popish parsons, to prove their priesthood, show their pates and grease, and long coats to boot, we are very willing to let them boast of their dirty trumpery, for we know, that it is very easy to fleece and grease a pig or sow, and put a long coat on the animal.” Comp. Luther, De Capt. Babyl. and his treatise: Von der Winkelmesse und der Pfaffenweihe (Wittenb. edit., vii. p. 433 ss.) Comp. Schenkel, as above, p. 16 sq., Köstlin, 59. The universal priesthood was also insisted on by Zwingle and Calvin. The former, in the concluding address to the first Zurich disputation (1523, see his Works, i. 199), calls the Catholic church “ the wife of Christ ;" it follows that all who love the head are members and children of God” (Thesis 8). Accordingly (Thesis 62), there are no other priests, “ than those who preach God's word.” Comp. Calvin's Instit. II. 15, 6; IV. 18, 13, 16, 17.—The distinction made by Protestants between sacerdotium and ministerium is very ably set forth in the Confess. Helv. II. Art. 18: Deus ad colligendam vel constituendam sibi ecclesiam, eandemque gubernandam et conservandam, semper usus est ministris, iisque utitur adhuc, et utetur porro, quoad ecclesia in terris fuerit. Ergo ministrorum origo, institutio et functio vetustissima et ipsius Dei, non nova aut hominum est ordinatio. Posset sane Deus sua potentia immediate sibi adjungere ex hominibus ecclesiam, sed maluit agere cum hominibus per ministerium hominum. Proinde spectandi sunt ministri, non ut ministri duntaxat per se, sed sicut ministri Dei, utpote per quos Deus salutem hominum operatur. ... Rursus tamen et hoc cavendum est, ne ministris et ministerio nimium tribuamus. ... Diversissima inter se sunt sacerdotium et ministerium. Illud enim commune est christianis omnibus, ut modo diximus, hoc non item. Nec e medio sustulimus ecclesiæ ministerium, quando repudiavimus ex ecclesia Christi sacerdotium papisticum. Equidem in novo testamento Christi non est amplius tale sacerdotium, quale fuit in populo vetere, quod unctionem habuit externam, vestes sacras, etc.... quæ typi fuerunt Christi, qui illa omnia

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veniens et adimplens abrogavit.-In addition to piety, it is especially theological knowledge by which the teachers of the church must be distinguished from the laity: Eligantur autem non quilibet, sed homines idonei, eruditione justa et sacra, eloquentia pia prudentiaque simplici, denique moderatione et honestate vitæ insignes.... Damnamus ministros ineptos, et non instructos donis pastori necessariis. -As regards the right to officiate as a minister, it is necessary, also, in the Protestant Church, to be rite vocatus* : Nemo autem honorem ministerii ecclesiastici usurpare sibi, i. e., ad se largitionibus, aut ullis artibus, aut arbitrio proprio, rapere debet. Vocentur et eligantur electione ecclesiastica et legitima ministri ecclesiæ, i.e., eligantur religiose ab ecclesia vel ad hoc deputatis ab ecclesia, ordine justo et absque turba, seditionibus et contentione. For further passages quoted from other symbols, see Winer, p. 1757.

• On the views of the Anabaptists, see Schenkel, iji. 88, 89. Münzer's positions, as given by Stobel (Leben Münzers), p. 19, 89.: Quis non septies spiritu sancto profusus fuerit, Deum audire et intelligere minime potest.... Vera ecclesia est, quæ audit vocem sponsi.-The Quaker principles are given in Barclay, Theol. Christ. Apol. Thes. 10 : Sicut dono et gratia seu lumine Dei omnis vera cognitio in rebus spiritualibus recipitur et revelatur, ita et illo, prout manifestatur et in intima cordis receptum est, per ejus vim et potentiam unusquisque verus evangelii minister constituitur, præparatur et suppeditatur in opere ministerii, et hoc movente, ducente et trahente oportet evangelistam, pastorem christianum, duci et mandari in labore et ministerio suo evangelico, et quoad loca, ubi, et quoad personas, quibus, et quoad tempora, quando ministraturus est. Porro, qui hujus habent auctoritatem, possunt et debent evangelium annunciare, licet humanis mandatis carentes et humanæ literaturæ ignari. E contra vero, qui hujus divini doni auctoritate carent, quamquam eruditione et scientia præditi et ecclesiarum mandatis et hominum auctoritate ut plurimum pollentes, impostores tantum et fraudatores, non veri evangelii ministri seu prædicatores habendi sunt. Præterea, qui sanctum et immaculatum donum acceperunt, sicut gratis accepere, ita et gratis distributuri sunt absque mercede vel pacto stipendio, absit, ut eo utantur sicut arte ad lucrandam pecuniam, etc. (Women are also permitted to teach. Barclay, Comment. 27.)

[The Anglican literature has been very fruitful on the subject of the Church and its polity, in opposition to Rome, on the one hand, and to Presbyterian and other Protestant churches on the other hand. The question of the relation of the church to the state was also largely discussed—as, e. 9., on the question of passive obedience, and in the controversies with the nonjurors.-- In the XXXIX. Articles, Art. XIX. of the Church, declares : The visible church of Christ is a congregation of faithful men, in the which the pure word of God is preached, and the sacraments be duly administered, according to Christ's ordinance, in all those things that of necessity are requi

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* On the different views of Lutherans and Calvinists (Ordinatio vaga) respecting ordination, see the Canon law.

+ Socinians, in the doctrine about the church, follow in substance the statements of the Protestant symbols, but view the matter, when possible, in a still more external way. seo Fock's Socinianismus, and note 2 above.

site to the same. Art. XX, declares that the church hath power to decree rites and ceremonies, and authority in controversies of faith-yet that it is not lawful for it to ordain anything contrary to God's word. Art. XXXVI. approves the Book of Consecration of Archbishops and Bishops, as set forth in the time of Edward VI.--Hooker's Ecclesiastical Polity (see $ 225, b., note 11,) advocates the Anglican system with the greatest ability. See also, Abp. Potter, Disc. of Church Government, 1724 (1838). Parker's Government of the Church, 1683. Jeremy Taylor, Episcopacy Asserted. John Rogers (1679–1729), on the Visible and Invisible Ohurch, 2d ed., 1719. Bilson, Perpetual Gov. of Church, 1593–1842. William Nichols, 16641712, Defence of Doctrine and Discipline of Church of England, 3d ed., 1730. Bp. Robert Sanderson, (1587–1663), Divine Right of Episcopate, . and, The Church, ed. W. Goode.-Richard Field (1561-1616), Of the Church, 1606, fifth book, 1610, 2d ed., 1628, 1635, or Eccles. Hist. Soc. 4, Canıb., 1847–52. Thos. Jackson, Of the Church, etc., in Works, Vol. xii. --Thos. Brett, (non-juror, 1667–1743), Account of Church Government, 1710; Divine Right of Episc., 2d ed., 1728.-George Hickes (non-juror, b. 162, d. 1715), Treatises on Christian Priesthood and Episcopal Order, 4th ed., Oxfog 1847, 3 vols. (Libr. Angl. Cath. Theol.); he also edited Bibliotheca Script. Eccles. Anglic.—a Collection of Tracts on the Church. Richard Cosin (civilian), Ecclesiæ Anglic. Politeia, 1684. Herbert Thorndike, d. 1672, On the Government of the Churches, 1541, 1841, in Lib. Angl. Cath. Theol., 1844, vol. 1. Bp. John Overall (1559-1619), Convocation Book, Gov. of Church, 1690, Lib. Angl. Cath. Theol., 1844. Peter Heylin, Ecclesia Vindicata in Hist. Tracts,. 1681. Bp. Thos, Morton (1564-1659), Episcopacy of Church of England Justified, 1670. William Saywell, The Ref. of Ch.

. of Eng. Justified, 1688. Bp. Stilling fleet, Irenicum, a Weapon-salve for the Church's Wounds, or the Divine Right of particular Forms of Church Government, 1661 (Works vol. 2). Bp. Saml. Parker (Oxford, b. 1640, d. 1687) Discourse of Eccles. Politie, 1670; Defence of same, 1671 ; Account of Government of Church for first hundred years, 1683. Slater's Original Draft of the Primitive Church, 1717; repr., 1830 (reply to King).---General Works on Church Polity : Gibson's Codex Juris Ecclesiast. 2 fol., 1764; Sir Henry Spelman (1562-1641), Concilia, Decreta, Constitutiones, etc., 2 fol., 1639-64. David Wilkins (d. 1745) Concilia ; accedunt Constitutiones, etc., 4 fol., 1737. Jos. Bingham, Antiquities of Christ. Church, new ed., 9 vols., 1840. On the English Convocation, see Apb. William Wake, State of the Church and Clergy of England, occasioned by a book entitled The Rights and Powers of an English Convocation, fol., Lond., 1704. Hody, Hist. of Convocation. G. Trevor, Hist. of Convocation, 1853; see Christ. Rembr., 1853, and Oct., 1854.]

[On the question of the position of the Church of England in respect to the recognition of the validity of the orders of other churches, see Wm. Goode, Vindication of the Doctrine of the Church of England, etc., 1851; republished in New York, 1853 ; abridged, 1860 ; replies by the bishop of Exeter, and Archd. Churton. See also Bp. John Cosin, on the Validity of Orders, etc., ed. Goode ; and the works on the Church by Abp. Whately, and Edward Arthur Litton.-Tracts for the Times, 1833-4, No. 74, Catena

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Patrum, Testimony of Writers in the English Church to the Apostolical Succession.—Bp. Burnet, in his Exposition of the Articles, says, that their authors, and successors for half an age after, did “acknowledge the foreign churches.... to be true churches as to all essentials of the church,” al. though somewhat “irregularly formed." Even Hooker concedes (Eccl. vol. vii. 14) “ that there may be sometimes very just and sufficient reason to allow ordination made without a bishop.” Clergymen from the continent, who received benefices in England, were only required to subscribe the Articles, not to be reördained. Abp. Usher said : " in places where bishops cannot be had, the ordination by presbyters staudeth valid.” Abp. Wake: Ecclesias Reformatas etsi in aliquibus a nostra Anglicana dissentientes libenter amplector.... Interim absit ut ego tam ferrei pectoris sim, ut ob ejusmodi defectum (sic mihi absque omni invidia appellare liceat) aliquas earum a communione nostra abscindendas credam; aut, cum quibusdam furiosis inter nos scriptoribus, eas nulla vera ac valida sacramenta habere, adeoque vix Christianos esse pronuntiem. Letter, 1719, 4th App. to Mosheim's Eccl. Hist., transl. by Maclaine.]

• [On the Controversy with Rome : Cardinal Bellarmine's Notes of the Church refuted by Tenison, Kidder, Patrick, Williams, etc.; repr. 1840. Brogden's Catholic Safeguard (a collection of treatises) 3 vols., Lond., 1846. Gibson (Edmund, 1667-1748), Preservation against Popery (also a collection of tracts), 18 vols., Lond., 1848-9. Jewel's Apology. Bp. Thos. Barlow, (1607–91), Popery, 1679; Brutum Fulmen, 1681. Isaac Barrow (1630–1677), Treatise of Pope's Supremacy, Jeremy Toylor, Dissuasive from Popery. Crakanthorp, Defens. Eccles. Angl., new ed., 1847. Chillingworth's Religion of Protestants (see $ 225, b.) Andrew Willett (15621621), Synopsis Papismii, 5th ed., 1634, repr., 10 vols., 1852. Roger T'wysden, Hist. Vind. of Ch. of Eng., 1657, 3d ed. James, Bellum Papale, 1600. 1847. Bp. Henry Fern (1602–1661), Ref. Church of England, against Ant. Champney, of the Sorbonne, 1653. Henry Hammond (1605–1660), Works 4 fol., 1774; on Schism; a Parænesis, in defence against Romanists (vol. 2). Daniel Brevint (d. 1695), Missale Romanum, etc. Geo. Hickes, Controversial Disc., and Corruptions of Church of Rome, 1705, 3d ed., 1727; he also edited Bp. Joseph Hall (1574-1656), in Works, vol. 8, on the Peace of Rome, etc. Geo. Reynolds, Hist. Essay on Gov. of Church of England, 1743. Andrew Sall, d. 1682, True Cath, and Apostolic Faith, new ed. by Allport, 1840. Francis Mason (1566–1621), Vindiciæ Eccles. Anglicanæ, against Bellarmine, etc., fol., 1638; transl., 1728. Bp. John Buckeridge (of Ely, d. 1631), De Potestate Papæ in rebus temporalibus, Lond., 1614. Abp. John Sharp (1644-1714), Works, vol. 7 (1754), on Roman Cath. controversy. Abp. Wm. Luud (1573–1645), Relation of Conterence with Mr. Fisher, 1624; in Works, vol. 2, Oxf., 1849; Rome's Masterpiece (in Remains) by Wharton, fol. 1700, vol. i. p. 567, sq. Francis White, d. 1638, Reply to Jesuit Fisher, etc., 1624. Nathl. Spinckes (non-juror, b. 1653 or 1654, d. 1727), Essay on Cath. Communion in Union with Rome, 1705. Bp. Ed. Stillingfleet, Rational Account of the Grounds of the Protestant Religion, 2d ed., 1681 (Works, vol. +). William Sherlock, Preservative against Popery ; Suinmary of Controversies; on Bellarmine's Notes. Dean Hum.

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phrey Prideaux, Ecclesiastical Tracts; Validity of Orders of Ch. of England; against Papists, 1688. Thos. Brown, Story of the Ordination at Nag's Head, 1731. Peter Francis Courayer (b. 1681, d. 1776), Diss. on Validity of English Ordinations, and Defence of the same, new ed., Oxf., 1844. William Cave (1637-1713), Diss. on Gov. of Ancient Church, 1683. Abp. Wm. Wake, Continuation of the Controversy between Church of England and Rome; being a full account of the books published on both sides, Lond., 1688.]

[Presbyterian Church Government. Ratio ac Forma publice orandi Deum, etc., Genev., 1556, (drawn up by the English exiles in the Marian Persecution.) George Gillespie, Aaron's Rod blossoming, or the Divine Ordinance of Church Government. Publ. by authority, Lond., 1646. Cartwright, vs. abp. Whitgift. Smectymnus, An Answer to Bp. Hall's Divine Right of Episcopacy (the authors, whose initial letters make up the name of the book, were Steph. Marshall, Edm. Calamy, Thos. Young, Matth. Newcomen, and Wm. Spurstowe). John Milton wrote an Apology for Smectymnus ; also a work on Prelatical Episcopacy against Wall and Usher ; Reason of Church Gov. against Prelacy. Edm. Calamy, Vind. of Presb. Government, 1654. London Ministers, Jus Divinum Regiminis Eccles., 1646. Divine Right of Church Gov., new ed., 1799 ; repr. New York, 1844. Ayton's Original Constitution of the Church. Peter King (Lord Chancellor) b. 1669, d. 1733, Inquiry into the Constitution of the Prim. Ch. (anon.), 1812, often reprinted, is favorable to the Presbyterian view.Among the opponents of Presbyterians in the Church of England, were Henry Hammond, Vind. Episc. Dissert. quatuor (against Blondel); H. Dodwell, Separation of Churches, 1679; Bp. Sanderson, Puritan Prejudices against Clergy of Church of England; F. Brokesby (1657–1715) Hist. of Gov. of Prim. Ch. (against Blondel); Bp. Henry Fern, Episc. and Presb., 1647; The Case as it Stands, 1655; Bp. John Sage (of Scotland), b. 1652, d. 1711, Charter of Presb., and Principles of Cyprianic Age; Peter Heylin, Aërius Redivivus, Hist. Presb., 2d ed., 1672 ; Bp. Wm. Lloyd, Hist. Account of Church Gov. (against Blondel), 2d ed., 1700; Bp. Ed. Stilling fleet, Unreasonableness of Separation, 2d ed., 1681 (Works, vol. 2); Wm. Sherlock, Defence of the same, 1675; Disc. of Church Unity, 1681-2.]

[John Cotton (see 225, b., note 44), Doctrine of Church to which are committed the Keys, etc., Lond., 2d ed., 1643, 1644; Vindiciæ Clavium; Way of the Churches, against Baylie and Rutherford, 1648. Cotton's work made a convert of John Owen; he had previously brought Thos. Goodwin and Philip Nye over to his views. Robinson's church, and the Plymouth church were formed on this basis. See Owen's Nature and Gov. of the Gospel Church, and other treatises in his works, vols. xv. xvi. Thos. Goodwin (b. 1600, d. 1679), Works, 5 fol., Lond., 1681; Constitution and Gov. of the Churches of Christ, vol. vi., 1-408, and other works in the same volume. Thos, Hooker (see ante, p. 192), Survey of Summe of Church Discipline, 1648.—Thos. Shepard (ante, p. 192), Power of Keys, 1653. John Wise, (Ipswich, New Engl.) Churches Quarrel, 1710; Vindication of Gov. of Churches, 1715; fourth ed., Boston, Congregational Board, 1860. Cambridge Platform, 1648. Saybrook Platform, 1708.)

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