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Loci, 1521 (Corp. Ref., p. 211): Duo sunt autem signa a Christo in Evangelio instituta : baptismus et participatio mensæ Domini. Luther also spoke of three sacraments in bis De Captiv. Babyl. : Baptismus, Pænitentia, Panis. On the contrary in the Catech. Major, p. 549, penance is included in baptism. The Apol. Conf., p. 200, is opposed to regarding seven as the fixed number: Sed hic [adversarii] jubent nos etiam septem sacramenta numerare. Nos sentimus præstandum esse, negligentur res in ceremoniæ in Scripturis institutæ, quotcunque sunt. Nec multum referre putamus, etiamsi docendi causa alii numerent aliter, si tamen recte conservent res in Scriptura traditas. -Yet the Apology also mentions penance among the sacraments: Vere igitur sunt sacramenta baptismus, cæna Domini, absolutio, quæ est sacramentum pænitentiæ. The number two is more definitely stated in the symbolical writings of the Reformed Church. Confess. Basil. I., Art. 5, 8 2: In this church we use only one kind of sacrament—viz. baptism, by which we are received into the Church, and the Lord's Supper in after life, as a testimony of faith and brotherly love, according to our promise in baptism.-Conf. Helv. II., c. 19 : Novi populi sacramenta sunt baptismus et cæna dominica. Sunt qui sacramenta novi populi septem numerent. Ex quibus nos pænitentiam, ordinationem ministrorum, non papisticam quidam illam, sed apostolicam, et matrimonium agnoscimus instituta esse Dei utilia, sed non sacramenta. Confirmatio et extrema unctio inventa sunt hominum, quibus nullo cum damno carere potest ecclesia. Comp. Conf. Gall,, Art. 35, Belg. 33. Calvin, Instit. iv., c. 19. [Anglican (XXXIX. Art.) Art. 25: Sacraments ordained of Christ be not only badges or tokens of Christian men's profession, but rather they be certain sure witnesses, and effectual signs of grace, and God's good will towards us, by the which he doth work invisibly in us, and doth not only quicken, but also strengthen and confirm our faith in him.-There are two sacraments ordained of Christ our Lord in the gospel, that is to say, Baptism and the Supper of the Lord.—Those five commonly called Sacraments, that is to say, Confirmation, Penance, Orders, Matrimony, and Extreme Unction, are not to be counted for Sacraments of the Gospel, being such as have grown partly of the corrupt following of the Apostles, partly are states of life allowed in the Scriptures, but yet have not like nature of Sacraments with Baptism, and the Lord's Supper, for that they have not any visible sign or ceremony ordained of God.—The Sacraments were not ordained of Christ to be gazed upon, or to be carried about, but that we should duly use them. And in such only as worthily receive the same they have a wholesome effect or operation; but they that receive them unworthily purchase to themselves damnation, as Saint Paul saith.This Article as it now stands, is largely altered from its form in Edward the VIth's Articles : Archb. Parker in 1562 inserted the clause against the Popish sacraments, employing the phrase “extreme annoyling ;" for this, Bishop Jewel, 1571, substituted "unction.” See Kidd on Thirty-nine Articles, p. 241.]
[Westminster Confession; chapter xxvii. : Sacraments are holy signs and seals of the covenant of grace, immediately instituted by God, to represent Christ and his benefits, and to confirm our interest in him : as also to put a visible difference between those that belong unto the church, and the rest of the world : and solemnly to engage them to the service of God in Christ.,
according to his word. 2. There is in every sacrament a spiritual relation or sacramental union, between the sign and the thing signified, whence it comes to pass, that the names and effects of the one, are attributed to the other. 4. There be only two sacraments ordained by Christ our Lord in the Gospel, that is to say, Baptism, and the Supper of the Lord: neither of which may be dispensed by any, but a minister of the word, lawfully ordained.] The Arminians also had only two sacraments. The Mennonites made mention of the washing of feet as a usage instituted by Christ (according to John xii.); but Ries, Conf., Art. 30, spoke only of two sacraments. Comp. Winer, p. 124.
• In the view of Protestants, the sacred Scriptures are not only the source of knowledge, but the Word of God contained in them is a living and quickening principle. Both the law and the gospel have each their peculiar évépyela, the former that of bringing men to the knowledge of sin, the latter that of being the medium through which grace is bestowed on them (Art. of Smalcald, p. 319).—The Catech. Rom. (iv. 13, 18) also speaks of the Word of God as a cibus animi, and places it on the same level with the sacraments, but understands by it the prædicatio verbi as sanctioned by the Church, rather than the Scriptures.
. Confess. August. p. 11: Per verbum et sacramenta, tanquam per instrumenta, donatur Spir. S., qui fidem efficit, ubi et quando visum est Deo, in iis qui audiunt evangelium, etc. Comp. Cat. Maj. p. 426, Art. Smalcald, p. 331, Form. Concord. p. 670.—Conf. Helv. II. cap. 1. Belg. 24.-Heidelberg. Catechism, Qu. 65: Whence cometh (justifying) faith! Answ. The Holy Spirit produces it in our hearts by the preaching of the gospel, and confirms it by the use of the sacraments.* _On the other hand, the Protestant symbols are equally definite against the Roman Catholic doctrine. Confess. Aug. p. 13 : Damnant illos, qui docent, quod sacramenta, ex opere operato justificent, nec docent fidem requiri in usu sacramentorum, qnæ credat remitti peccata. Apol. p. 203: Damnamus totum populum scholasticorum doctorum, qui docent, quod sacramenta non ponenti obicem conferant gratiam ex opere operato, sine bono motu utentis. Hæc simpliciter judaïca opinio est, sentire, quod per ceremoniam justificemur, sine bono motu cordis, h. e. sine fide.... At sacramenta sunt signa promissionum. Igitur in usu debet accedere fides.... Loquimur hic de fide speciali, quæ præsenti promissioni credit, non tantum, quæ in genere credit, Deum esse, sed quæ credit offerri remissionem peccatorum.—Helv. II. c. 19: Neque vero approbamus istorum doctrinam, qui docent, gratiam et res significatas signis ita alligari et includi, ut quicunque signis exterius participent, etiam interius gratiæ rebusque significatis participes sint, qualesquales sint.... Minime probamus eos, qui sanctificationem sacramentorum attribuunt nescio quibus characteribus et recitationi vel virtuti verborum pronuntiatorum a consecratore et qui habeat intentionem consecrandi.-But Protestant theologians also taught that the integritas of the sacrament did not depend on the dignity either of
* This in allusion to the enthusaists. On the division of the means of grace into dotikd Kal an Titikà (Quenstedt, Syst., iv., p. 281), see Gass, i. 372 [the former as offered to man, the latter as received by man.)
who administered it, or of him who receives it. Conf. Helvet 1. c. [Westminster Conf. above, Thirty-Nine Articles, XXVI.: Althongh in the visible Church the evil be ever mingled with the good, and sometimes the evil have chief authority in the Ministration of the Word and Sacraments, yet forasmuch as they do not the same in their own name, but in Christ's, and do minister by his commission and authority, we may use their Ministry, both in hearing the Word of God, and in receiving of the Sacraments. Neither is the effect of Christ's ordinance taken away by their wickedness, nor the grace of God's gifts diminished from such as by faith and rightly do receive the Sacraments ministered unto them; which be effectual, because of Christ's institution and promise, although they be ministered by evil men.—Nevertheless, it appertaineth to the discipline of the church, that inquiry be made of evil ministers, and that they be accused by those who have knowledge of their offences; and, finally, being found guilty, by just judgment, be deposed.]
• Conc. Trid. Sess. 7, can. 8: Si quis dixerit, per ipsa novæ legis sacramenta ex opere operato non conferri gratiam, sed solam fidem divinæ promissionis ad gratiam consequendam sufficere: anathema sit.—The further development of this doctrine by Bellarmine, De Sacram. ii. 1, is given by Winer, p. 125. Against the objections of the Protestants, Conc. Trident. sess. xiv. c. 4: Quamobrem falso quidam calumniantur catholicos scriptores, quasi tradiderint, sacramentum pænitentiæ absque bono motu suscipientium gratiam conferre, quod nunquam Ecclesia docuit neque sensit. See Thiersch, Protest. p. 210.
· The Quakers reject both the idea and the name of a sacrament. They only acknowledge spiritual baptism and a mystical Lord's Supper. Barclay, Apol. xii. 12, quoted by Winer, p. 120.
• See the passages quoted by Winer, pp. 122, 123, and compare the following $. The difference referred to may (after the example of Winer) be 80 defined, that according to the Roman Catholics, Lutherans, and Calvinists, God bestows something on man by the medium of the sacrament, while those sects taught that man renders something to God (or testifies to something in the presence of men before God). Yet the idea of service on man's part is also contained in the Catholic view of sacrifice. See the next section.
• Zwingle, De vera et falsa Relig. p. 231: Sunt sacramenta signa vel ceremoniæ (pace tamen omnium dicam, sive neotericorum sive veterum), quibus se homo ecclesiæ probat aut candidatum aut militem esse Christi, redduntque ecclesiam totam potius certiorem de tua fide, quam te; si enim fides tua non aliter fuerit absoluta, quam ut signo ceremoniali ad confirmationem egeat, fides non est : fides enim est, qua nitimur misericordiæ Dei inconcusse, firmiter et indistracte, ut multis locis Paulus habet. Comp. Fidei Rat. ad Carol. V.: Credo omnia sacramenta tam abesse ut gratiam conferant, ut ne afferant quidem aut dispensent.... Credo, sacramentum esse sacræ rei h. e. factæ gratiæ signum.-Klare Underrichtung vom Nachtmahl Christi (Works ii. 1) p. 429: “A sacrament is the sign of a sacred thing.
“ The Deprem
* This does not harmonize with the caption given by Schenkel, i. 412 sq. ciation of the Sacrament by the Reformed."
.... Now the priests well knew that this word sacrament denotes nothing but a sign, nevertheless they left the simple-minded in the mistakon idea, that it was something else, or something very precious, which they (the simple-minded) did not understand, but were induced to believe that the sacrament was God himself.” Annot. in Evang. Matth. (Opera, vi. p. 373): Ad hoc enim Christus sacramenta instituit, non ut his jam justitiam quæreremus aut collocaremus, sed ut per bæc admoniti et excitati ad veram coru's adeoque fidei justitiam penetraremus. Signa enim externa non justificant, ut quidam perhibent, sed justificationis per fidem admonent et vitæ innocentiam excitant.-Annot, in Evang. Marci, ib. p. 554 : Nequaquam rejicienda sacramenta quæ Deus instituit, sed summa cum religione et veneratione tractanda.* Verum his tribuere quod solius est Dei, non minus est impium. Comp. his Expositio Fidei (Opera, iv. 2, p. 56): Sacramenta res sanctæ et venerandæ sunt, utpote a summo sacerdote Christo institutæ et susceptæ.... Testimonium rei gestæ præbent. ... Vice rerum sunt, quas significant, unde et nomina eorum sortiuntur. ... Res arduas significant. Ascendit autem cujusque signi pretium cum æstimatione rei, cujus est sig. num, ut si res sit magna, pretiosa et amplifica, jam signum ejus rei eo majus reputetur. (Annulus reginæ uxoris tuæ, quo eam despondit tua majestas, illi non auri pretio æstimatur, sed pretium omne superat, etc.).... Auxilium opemque afferunt fidei. ... Vice jurisjurandi sunt. [See, further, in Christoffel's Zwingle, Cochran's translation, 1858, seventh section.]-Comp. the Catechism of Leo Judæ (Grab's edition), p. 227: “As Christ will not break the bruised reed, nor quench the smoking flax, he has appointed for us, his members, while here in the flesh, two external signs of duty, that our timidity may abate.” Page 329: “A sacrament is an oath, or sacred duty : those who speak to us of holy matters have called it a sign of sacred things, to present and image forth these things to us; whereby, too, those who make use of it bind and pledge themselves to these same holy things." — Calvin unfolds the idea of the sacrament in the 4th Book of his Institutes, cap. 14. He defines the sacrament, in § 1, the externum symbolum, quo benevolentiæ erga nos suæ promissiones conscientiis nostris Dominus obsignat, ad sustinendam fidei nostræ imbecillitatem, et nos vicissim pietatem erga eum nostram tam coram eo et angelis quam apud homines testamur. $ 3: Ex hac definitione intelligimus, nunquam sine præeunte promissione esse sacramentum, sed ei potius tamquam appendicem quandam adjungi, eo fine, ut promissionem suam confirmet ac obsignet, nobisque testatiorem, imo ratam quodammodo faciat: quo modo nostræ ignorantiæ ac tarditati primum, deinde infirmitati opus esse Deus providet : neque tamen (proprie loquendo) tam ut sacrúm suum sermonem firmet, quam ut nos in ipsius fide stabiliat, siquidem Dei veritas per se satis solida certaque est, nec aliunde meliorem confirmationem, quam a se ipsa accipere potest. Verum ut exigna est et imbecilla nostra fides, nisi undique fulciatur, ac modis omnibus sustentetur, statim concutitur, fluctuatur, vacillat adeoque labascit. 89: Quamobrem ....velim lectorem .... non quasi arcanam vim nescio quam illis perpetno insitam putem, qna fidem per se promovere aut confirmare valeant, sed quia
* This does not harmonize with the caption given by Schenkel, i. 412 sq., viz., “ The De preciation of the Sacrament by the Reformed."
sunt in hoc a Domino instituta, ut stabiliendæ augendæque fidei serviant.$ 12, he calls sacraments pignora. He refutes not only those who despise the sacraments, but also those (8 14), qui arcanos nescio quas virtutes sacra. mentis affingunt, quæ nusquam illis a Deo insitæ leguntur.—The substance of the sacraments (materia et substantia) is Christ himself (f 16); they have in him their soliditas. They are nothing, separated from him.-Cal. vin does not hold to a specific difference between the sacraments and the Word. $ 17: Quamobrem fixum maneat, non esse alias sacramentorum quam verbi Dei partes : quæ sunt offerre nobis ac proponere Christum, et in eo cælestis gratiæ thesaurus : nihil autem conferunt aut prosunt nisi fide accepta. He also calls the Old Testament types (Noah's rainbow, etc.), sacraments ($ 18), and only distinguishes them from the New Testament sacraments by the fact that the former represent the promised Messiah in type, the latter testify to him in fact (820). Comp. 8 26: Utraque paternam Dei in Christo benevolentiam ac Spiritus Sancti gratias nobis offerri testantur; sed nostra illustrius ac luculentius. In utrisque Christi exhibitio; sed in his uberior ac plenior. Comp. Schenkel, i, 425, 89., and the passages there adduced.
THE SACRIFICE OF THE MASS. THE LORD'S SUPPER.
Larater, L. Historia Controversiæ Sacramentariæ. Tigur., 1563, 1672. Hospiniani, H.
Historia Sacramentaria, Tigur., 1598, 1602, ii. f., 1611, 4. The Works of Luther (Walch, vol. xvii, xx.) Ebrard's Abendmahl, i.; M. Göbel, Luther's Abendmahlslehre vor und in dem Streite mit Carlstadt (Stud. u. Kritiken, 1843). Julius Muller, Lutheri et Calvini Sententiæ de sacra Cona inter se comparatæ, Hal. 1853, 4to. A. W. Dieckhof, Die Evangelische Abendmahls lehre in Reformations zeit alter, Götting. 1854. (K. F. A. Kahnis, Die Lehre von Abendmahle, 1851. L. J. Rückert, Das Abendmahl, Wesen, Geschichte, Leipz. 1856: comp. Baur, in Theol. Jahrb. 1857: and Rückert in Zeitschrift f. wiszenchall. Theologie, 1858.-John Cesim, Hist. of Popish Transubstantiation, new ed. by J. Brewer, 1851. Jeremy Taylor, The Real Presence and Spiritual of Christ, against Transubstant. (Works, vol. ix, x). See also the works of Hooker, Abp. Bramhall and Bishop Andrews, for the doctrine of the Church of England. Hampden's Bampton Lectures (viii). W. Wright, Doctrine of Real Presence in the Divines of the Church of England, 2 Parts, 1855. E. B. Pusey, The Real Presence, the Doctrine of the English Church, with Vindication of the Reception of the Wicked, and of the Adoration of Jesus Christ truly present, 1857: ibid., The Holy Eucharist a Comfort to the Penitent, a Sermon, 1843. W. Goode, The Nature of Christ's Presence in the Eucharist, 2, 1856 (against Pusey, and in the Denison case). R. J. Wilberforce, Doctrine of Eucharist, 1853. Tracts for the Times, No. 81.]
While the Reformers made common cause in their opposition not only to the doctrine of transubstantiation, but especially to the sacrifice of the mass,' and the witholding of the cup from the laity,' all of which they rejected as unscriptural, they still differed widely in their opinions concerning the positive aspect of the doctrine of the Lord's Supper. Different interpretations of the words pronounced