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yet, notwithstanding, by the right use of this ordinance, the grace promised is not only offered, but really exhibited and conferred, by the Holy Ghost, to such (whether of age or infants), as the grace belongeth unto, according to the counsel of God's own will, in his appointed time.” The right to administer it to children is on the ground (Directory for Church Worship, ch, vii. 4) “ that the seed of the faithful have no less a right to this ordinance than the seed of Abraham to circumcision," etc.) The Socinians and Arminians approved of infant baptism, but did not think it necessary. Comp. Winer, p. 232. Even from the custom of infant baptism, which he adopts, Socinus argues against the church doctrine, that regeneration is connected with it, since infants cannot be regenerated : Titus, iii. 5, he says, refers not to baptism with water, but to spiritual renovation ; Cat. Racov. Qu. 348. Fock, p. 583.—Labadie and his followers, in accordance with their other principles, not only rejected infant baptism as such, but in general the baptism of every unregenerate person, whether young or old. See Arnold, Kir. chen und Ketzergesch, vol. ii. B. xvii. c. 21, § 17. Göbel, ubi supra, p. 240.
Comp. Winer, p. 133, note 1. It was only some fanatical priests, at the time of the Reformation, who in this respect did not act in accordance with the principles of their own church. The Mennonites at first re-baptised those who joined them, but afterwards discontinued this usage. Nor did the followers of Labadie re-baptise those who had been baptised in their infancy. (Arnold, I. c.) Some of the fanatical sects, however, continued to repeat the act of baptism.
. (See Pusey and Goode, ubi supra. Roger Laurence, (a non-juring bishop), Lay-Baptism invalid, 3d ed., 1711, (1842): 2d. part, 1713; Supplement, 1714. Brett's Letter to the Author of Lay-Baptism, etc., 1711. G. Bingham, Scholastic History of Lay-Baptism, 2 vols., Lond., 1712. Bp. W. Fleetwood (bp. of Ely), Judgment of Church of England in case of Lay-Baptism, with Letter to Bp. Cosin, Lond., 1712; anonymously published; such baptism not declared invalid by the church. Waterland, on Lay-Baptism, Works, vol. x., ed. of 1828. The Jacobites were most strenuous on this matter. A noted couplet reads :
For that schismatic Primate and Hollander King,
the primate was Tillotson, who was not baptised in the Anglican communion; and the King was William III., who had only received “ Dutch baptism."]
In respect to those who could rightfully administer baptism, all the communions that had a regular order of priests or teachers, assigned baptism to them. Cat. Rom. Qu. 18. Conf. Helv. c. 20.
Jealous as is the Roman Catholic Church in other respects as to the rights of the priestly order, it here concedes an exception, because assuming the absolute necessity of infant baptism. In the absence of the priest, in cases of extreme necessity, laymen, and if there be no male, then women, nurses, may perform the rite: Cat. Rom., Qu. 19. The Reformed Church declares against this in the most definite manner. Conf. Helv., c. 20: Docemus baptismum in ecclesia non administrari debere a mulierculis vel obstetricibus. Paulus enim removit mulierculis ab officiis ecclesiasticis. Baptismus autem pertinet ad officia ecclesiastica. [Presb. Directory of Worship, ch. viii.: Baptism is not to be admin. istered, in any case, by any private person, but a minister of Christ, called to be the steward of the mysteries of God.”]-In practice the Zwinglian Reformed Church is farthest from the Catholic, denying not only the so-called baptism in cases of necessity, but also the baptism in emergency (Jähtaufe), which is customary in the Lutheran Church, and in the less strict Reformed churches. The same holds of baptism in the house. (Presb. Directory, ch. vii: "There may be cases when it will be expedient to administer the ordinance in private houses ; of which the minister is to be the judge."]
And, lastly, Protestants and Roman Catholics were in almost perfect accordance as to the doctrine of the last things' (with the exception of the doctrine concerning purgatory, § 263). The minor sects also adopted, in the main, the same views respecting the second advent of Christ to judge the world, and the resurrection of the body. As regards the state of the blessed and the lost, the opinions of the different denominations were modified in various ways by their respective creeds, but these differences were not introduced into the symbolical books." Calvin combated the theory called Psychopannychy, revived by some Swiss Anabaptists ;the Second Confessio Helvetica expressly rejected the idea that departed spirits re-appear on earth."
The fanatical notions of the Anabaptists, concerning the restitution of all things, and Millennarianism, were rejected by the Protestants. Nevertheless several Protestant writers, on various occasions, revived Millennarian errors, which were also harbored by the mystics.' William Petersen and his wife, misunderstanding Spener’s doctrine concerning better times to come, and the realization of God's kingdom on earth,' anannounced the speedy approach of the Millennial reign.
· Protestant theologians generally enumerate the following four particulars as constituting what is called the last things: mors, resurrectio, extremum judicium, and consummatio mundi ; some, however, adopt other modes of reckoning. Comp. De Wette, p. 207.
. On the views about heaven as held, e. g., by Lutherans and Reformed, see Schneckenburger, Ueber den doppelten Stand Christi, p. 115.
• Conf. Aug. Art. 17 (p. 14): Item docent, quod Christus apparebit in consummatione mundi ad judicandum et mortuos omnes resuscitabit, piis et electis dabit vitam æternam et perpetua gaudia, impios autem homines ac diabolos condemnabit, ut sine fine crucientur (the saine doctrine is set forth in the other symbolical books).-At a later period theologians endeavored (in the spirit of the scholastics) to define the distinction between the happiness which the soul will enjoy without the body, and that of which it will partake after the resurrection of the body. The general judgment at the end of the world was also distinguished from the judicium extremum par. ticulare et occultum, which takes place after the death of each individual.
He wrote: Traité par le quel est prouvé, que les âmes veillent et vivent sprés qu'elles sont sorties des corps, Orléans, 1534. It was also translated into Latin under the title : Psychopannychia, quo refellitur eorum error, qui animos post mortem usque ad ultimum judicium dormire putant. Par., 1534. Comp. Henry's Calvin, i. p. 63, ss.—The question started by some of the fathers, whether the soul of itself possesses immortality (vol. i. $ 58) was also revived in the seventeenth century. Henry Dodwell, a learned highchurch divine of the Church of England, in order to exalt the doctrine of baptismal grace, asserted that the soul is itself mortal, but rendered immortal by becoming connected with the Divine Spirit in baptism. None but the Episcopal church enjoys the true possession of this baptismal grace ! This assertion called forth several replies. The controversy lasted principally from the year 1706 to 1708. See Lechler, Geschichte des englischen Deismus, p. 211, ss. [Henry Dodwell, b. 1641, d. 1711, Camden Prof. at Oxford, 1688, ejected for refusing the oath to William and Mary. His work was entitled: Epistolary Discourse, proving from the Scriptures and First Fathers, that the soul is a principle naturally mortal, but immortalized, actually by the pleasure of God, to punishment, or to reward, by its union with the divine baptismal Spirit. Wherein is proved that none have the power of giving this immortalizing spirit since the Apostles, but only the Bishops, Lond., 1706. Among the replies were works by Samuel Clarke, A Letter to Mr. Dodwell (Works, iii.); Edmund Churchill, Charge of Heresy against Dodwell, 1706; Richard Baxter; Daniel Whitby, Reflections, etc., 1707. See Dodwell's Life by Francis Brokesby, 2 vols., 1715, 1723.-William Coward, M. 1., in his Second Thoughts concerning the Human Soul, by Estibius Psychalettres, 1702, 2d ed., 1704, defended Materialism : replies by Dr. John Broughton, Psycholegia ; John Turner, Vindication, etc., 1703. His work was burnt by the common hangman, by order of Parliament, 1704.] Comp. Baumgarten, Geschichte der Religionsparteien, p. 71.
Art. 26 (in reference to the doctrine of purgatory): Jam quod traditur de spiritibus vel animabus mortuorum apparentibus aliquando viventibus, et petentibus ab eis officia, quibus liberentur, deputamus apparitiones eas inter ludibria, artes et deceptiones diaboli, qui, ut potest se transfigurare in angelum lucis, ita satagit fidem veram vel evertere, vel in dubium revocare. (Deut. xviii. 10, 11; Luc. xvi. 31.)
Conf. Aug. 1. c.: Damnant Anabaptistas, qui sentiunt, hominibus damdatis ac diabolis finem pænarum futuram esse. Damnant et alios, qui nunc spargunt judaicas, opiniones, quod ante resurrectionem mortuorum, pii regnum mundi occupaturi sint, ubique oppressis impiis.
Valentin Weigel, Jacob Böhme, Felgenhauer, Drabicius, Quirinus Kuhlmann, etc. Comp. Corrodi, Geschichte des Chiliasmus, and Adelung, Geschichte der menschlichen Narrheit.
• John William Petersen (was from the year 1688 superintendent in Lüneburg, dismissed 1692, and died 1727 on his estate Thymern, near Zerbst), published from 1700–1710 his Mysterium Apocatastaseos, in which the common millennarian doctrine (concerning a twofold resurrection, and Christ's visible kingdom on earth, which will last a thousand years) was
connected with Origen's notion of the restitution of all things.* His wife, Johanna' Eleonora von Merlau, agreed with him in all points; both boasted of having received particular revelations from God. See Petersen's Autobiography, 1717. Corrodi, iii. 2, p. 133, ss. Schröckh, Kirchengesch. nach der Reformat. viii. p. 302, ss.
Spener, firmly believing in the final victory of Christianity, entertained " the hope of better times.” Previous to the general judgment the Jews will be converted, and Papacy overthrown. But ir his opinion this glorious state does not abrogate the kingdom of grace, not will it manifest itself in a secular manner.
He did not venture to determine anything respecting the exact period of time (the period of a thousand years).“ But his opponents found no difficulty in drawing invidious inferences from the moderate hopes of Spener ;" Schröckh, viii. p. 282.—The views of Joachim Lange, concerning the Revelation of John, were more literal than those of his master; see Corrodi, iii. 1, p. 108, ss.
* He also held the idea of Christ's heavenly (divine) humanity, referred to in § 266, noto 7.
FROM THE YEAR 1720 TO THE PRESENT DAY.
THE AGE OF CRITICISM, OF SPECULATION, AND OF THE ANTAGONISM BETWEEN FAITH AND KNOWLEDGE, PHI. LOSOPHY AND CHRISTIANITY, REASON AND REVELATION, AND OF ATTEMPTS TO RECONCILE
A. GENERAL HISTORY OF DOCTRINES DURING THE
J. A. Von Einem, Versuch einer Geschichte des 18 Jahrhunderts. Leipzu, 1776 88
Schlegel, Kirchengeschichte des 18 Jahrhunderts, Heilbr., 1784 ss., ii., continued by Fraas. Schlosser, Geschichte des 18 und 19 Jahrhunderts, Heidelberg, 1836 ss., 2d vol. to the year 1763. [5 vols. to 1797; 3d ed., 1843; transl. by Davidson, Lond. 6 vols., 1846.] J. R. L. Gieseler, Kirchengesch. d. neusten Zeit, von 1814 bis auf die Gegenwart, Bonn, 1845 [to be comprised in vol, v. of the New York, translation of Gieseler. Hagenbach, Kirchengesch. des 18th und 19th Jahr., 2 Bde., 1848. Neudecker, Geschichte des evang. Protest. in Deutschland, 2 Thle. Lpz., 1845.] Coinp. the literature in Hase's Church Hist., New York translation, p. 483, and in Niedner, Kirchengeschichte, s. 795. [Comp. the general histories of Alison, De Koch, Raumer, Heeren und Ukert's, Staatsgeschichten, etc. C. L. Michelet, Gesch, der Menscheit in ihrem Entwicklungsgange seit 1775 bis auf die neuesten Zeiten. 2 Bde., Berl., 1860. G. G. Gervinus, Geschichte des 19. Jahr, seit d. Weiner Verträgen, 4 Bde.,
1859.) J. K. L Gieseler, Rückblick auf die theologische und kirchliche Entwicklung der letzen
50 Jahre., Gött., 1837 (kritische Prediger-Bibliothek, xviii., part 5, p. 908 8s.) On the other side: Tholuck, Abriss und Geschichte der Umwälzung, welche seit 1750 auf dem Gebiet der Theologie in Deutschland stattgefunden, in the Berliner evangelische Kirchenzeitung, Dec. 1830 (see his Vermischte Schriften, vol. 2.) [Tholuck's History of Theology in the Eighteenth Century, in Theol. Essays from Princeton Re