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the power of a principle which must carry him still further onward :" Baur, p. 345.]


This edict was issued (July 9th) by Frederic William II., at the instiga tion of Wöllner, one of the king's counsellors; see Acten, Urkunden und Nachrichten zur neuesten Kirchengeschichte, vol. i. p. 461, ss. By another edict theological works were subjected to the censorship of persons appointed by the king. In addition, a committee (consisting of Hermes, Hillmer, and Woltersdorf), were appointed to visit and examine the clergy. The proceedings of this committee, the trial of pastor Schulz, in Gielsdorf (1791), and the titles of all the works published for and against the edict, are given in Henke, Beurtheilung aller Schriften, welche durch das preussische Religions-Edict veranlasst sind, Kiel, 1793. Respecting the ill success of those measures Hermes (in Halle) expressed himself as follows: “ We are looked upon as persons of consequence, nevertheless we have not yet succeeded in removing one single neological village pastor from office; so all works against us." See Tholuck, ii. p. 126, ss.

• See Semler's Biography, i. p. 48, ss.—“Many pious and otherwise respectable men who belonged to the school of Halle in the second generation, displayed a weak-minded and painful timidity.Tholuck, ii. p. 8. The conduct of the Halle pietists in the Wolfian controversy also brought the whole tendency into disrepute.

Bengel was born 1687, was at first tutor in a monastery, then pastor, and died 1752 as a prelate and doctor of theology in Stuttgart. See J. Ch.

. F. Burk, Dr. J. A. Bengel's Leben und Wirken, Stuttgart, 1832.-His labors for the promotion of the critical knowledge of the Bible are deserving of special notice. He is well known as an advocate of Millennarianism. Concerning his doctrinal opinions, which were founded on his exegetical studies, see Burk, p. 353, ss. Comp. the article by Hartmann, in Herzog's Realencyclopädie. [Burk’s Life of Bengel, transl. by R. F. Walker, Lond., 1837. His Gnomon of New Test., transl. by A. R. Fausset, and others, 8 vols., Edinb., 4th ed., 1860; by C. T. Lewis and M. R. Vincent, vol. i. Phil., 1860. In his work on the Apocalypse, his Ordo Temporum (1741), and his Age of the World, 1746, he assigned A. D. 1837 as the probable date of Christ's second coming.]

Oetinger was born 1702, and died 1782, as prelate of the monastery Murrhard. He wrote: Theologia ex Idea Vitæ deducta, in 6 locos redacta, quorum quilibet 1. secundum sensum communem, 2. sec. mysteria scripturæ, 3. sec. formulas theticas nova et experimentali methodo pertractatur. Francof. et Lips., 1765, 8. In this work he endeavored to develop the entire system of faith in a dynamic and genetic method from the idea of life. In opposition to the mathematical method of Wolf he observes in the preface, p. 3: Ordo geometricus incipit ab una aliqua idea abstracta; ordo generativus, ut in seminibus patet, incipit a toto idque per minima explicat æquabiliter, quod nos nonnisi simulacris imperfectis imitari possumus. He therefore advises theologians to ascertain first of all the sensus communis, cujus præceptor est ipse Deus (Ps. xciv. 10); then to examine the doctrine of Seripture, and to rest on it the doctrine of the church. He finds fault with the


philosophy of Wolf principally because it has converted the terms, life, kingdom, spirit, etc., to which Scripture attaches a definite meaning, into mere abstract ideas, and thus originated a system of false idealism which resolves everything into mere symbolical phraseology. But at the same time he introduces much that is cabalistic, and refers to his work: Oeffentliches Denkmahl der Lehrtafel der Princessin Antonia, etc., Tub., 1763, which is of an entirely cabalistic character. There is in his writings a mixture of the mystical and speculative tendenøy of J. Böhme with the pietistic and practical of Spener. As regards the relation in which he stood to Swedenborg, compare the following §. Comp. the translation of his Theologia ex Idea Vitæ into German (Theologie aus der Idee des Lebens, etc.), by Jul. Hamberger, Stuttg., 1852; and *C. A. Auberlen, Die Theosophie Fr. Chr. Oetinger's nach ihren Grundlagen, ein Beitrag zur Dogmengesch, und zur Gesch. der Philos., mit Vorwort von Richard Rothe, Tübing., 1848 [1859. Oetinger's Leben und Briefe, von K. C. E. Ehmann, 1859, who also published the first complete edition of O.'s Sermons, 1852. His Biblisches Wörterbuch was reviewed by Auberlen in the Studien und Kritiken, 1850. Oetinger's Sämmtliche Schriften, ed. Ehmann, 3 Bde. to 1860.)

Crusius was a disciple of Bengel, and opposed to the philosophy of Wolf; he was born 1715, and died 1775 as professor of theology and philosophy in the university of Leipsic. He wrote : Opuscula philosophicotheologica, Lips., 1750. Die wahre Gestalt der Religion, 1754. HypomDemoneumata ad Theol. propheticam, Lips., 1764–71, ii. 8. Vorstellung von dem eigentlichen schriftmäfsigen Plan des Reichs Gottes, Lpz., 1768, 8. Moral-theol., Lpz., 1772, 73. Comp. Schröckh, vi. p. 106, ss., vii. p. 647, viii. p. 41, and p. 108. Buhle, vol. v. p. 589, ss. Reinhard, Geständnisse, p. 68, ss. Würtemann, Einleitung in das Lehrbände des Herrn Dr. Crusius, Wbg., 1757. Herzog's Realencyclopädie, iii. 192, sq.

• Such societies were formed in Stockholm (1771), and the Hague (1785.) The Deutsche Christenthumsgesellschaft, ohne Rücksicht auf Confessionśunterschied (i. e. irrespective of denominational differences) was founded (1779) by J. A. Urlsperger, a Lutheran theologian. As its chief seats are named Basle, London, and Berlin ; see J. A. Urlsperger, Beschaffenheit und Zweck einer zu errichtenden deutschen Gesellschaft thätiger Beförderer reiner Lehre und wahrer Gottseligkeit, Basle, 1781.

See Bretschneider, die Grundlage des evangelischen Pietismus, Lpz., 1833. Binder, der Pietismus und die moderne Bildung, Stuttg., 1839. Märklin, Darstellung und Kritik des modernen Pietismus, Stuttg., 1839. Comp. Dorner, in the Studien und Kritiken, 1840, part i.


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In the course of the eighteenth century a new sect took its rise, which exerted a considerable influence upon the mind of the age,


and the development of Christian life in general. It was founded in Herrnhut by Count Zinzendorf,' and is known with its branches by the name of the Society of the United Brethren.' Though owing its origin for the most part to Pietism,' it differed from it on several points, its object being, not so much a general reform of the church and its doctrines, as the organization of a particular Christian community. Count Zinzendorf for himself adopted the Confessio Augustana as his creed, but without excluding the members of other Christian denominations. Nevertheless, by attaching great importance to certain doctrines, and by his mode of treating them, he imparted a novel and somewhat sentimental aspect to the old Lutheran theology. The theology of Herrnhut is characterized by a spirit of ardent love to the person of the Saviour, and a hearty reliance upon his merits, but it is at the same time deeply tinged with a sensuous tendency. The theologians of his school, conscious of a higher vocation, endured with calmness the scorn of the world, and the censures passed upon them by learned and pious divines. John Wesley, the founder of Methodism, in his strict preaching of repentance was animated by a practical rather than a strict theological spirit, and exerted in his time a far greater influence upon England than upon Germany.' More sympathy was there felt (in addition to the pietist and mystic tendencies) with the theosophic doctrines of Immanuel Swedenborg, the founder of the Church of the New Jerusalem. These consisted chiefly in a peculiar mixture of rationalistic and mystical ideas, and made progress in wide circles.

'Zinzendorf, was born 1700, and died 1760. See the accounts of his life given by Spangenberg, Schrautenbach, Varnhagen von Ense (Biographische Denkmale, vol. v.), and Tholuck, vermischte Schriften, i. p. 433. G. Müller, Selbstbekenntnisse merkwürdiger Männer, vol. iii. Herder's Adrastea (Werke zur Philosophie, x. p. 61). Knapp in the Preface to his ed. of Zi's hymns (1845.) [Schrautenbach, Graf, von Zinz. herausg. von F. W. Kölbing, 1851. 0. Glaubrecht, Z. in der Wetterau, 1852-3. J. F. Schröder, Z, und Herrnhut, Nordhausen, 1857. L. Bovet, Le Comte de Zinzendorf, 2 Tom. Par. 1857.]

• The first congregation was founded A. D. 1722. Concerning the history of the society of the United Brethren, see Cranz, alte und neue Bruderhistorie, Barby, 1772, continued by Hegner, 1794–1804. Schaaf, die evangelischen Brüdergemeinden Leipz., 1825. See the literature in Niedner's Kirchengesch. p. 763. [John Holmes, Hist. of Unit. Brethren, 2, Lond., 1825. B. Latrobe, Hist. Account of the Moravians, transl. from the German, 1775; transl. by Crantz, 1780. E. W. Cröger, Gesch. d. erneuerten Brüdergemeinde, iï. Bde., 1852–4. A. Bost, Histoire ancienne et moderno de l'église des Frères de Bohème et Moravie, 2, Paris, 1844. Benham, Mem. of Jas. Hutton, (founder of English branch), 8vo., Lond., 1857.- Against them, see J. A. Bengel, Abriss der Brüdergemeinde, 1751, reprinted, 1859. -James Henry, Sketches of Moravian Life and Character, Phil., 1855. E. de Schweinetz, Moravian Manual, Phil., 1859.-Articles in Meth. Quarterly (N. Y.), 1859; Christ. Examiner (Bost.), 1859; Qu. Church Review, 1860.]

* Pietism at the beginning of the eighteenth century, had either degenerated into a dead formalism, or it was in part corrupted by all sorts of fanatical tendencies which attached themselves to it. It belongs to the History of the Church, rather than the History of Doctrines to give an estimate of these. See F. W. Krug, Kritische Geschichte der protest. Schwärmerei, Secterei, und der gesammten un-und widerkirchlichen Neuerungen im Grossherzogthum Berg, Elberfeld, 1851. W. Barthold, Die Erweckten im protest. Deutschland während des Ausgangs des 17n. und der ersten Hälfte des 18n. Jahrhunderte (in Raumer's Taschenbuch, 1852). Göbel, Geschichte des christ). Lebens, etc., 3 Bde., 1860.

• This (relative) indifference as regards denominational differences gave offence to many. Zinzendorf himself adopted the Confessio Augustana ; his church was also recognised (1748) by the ecclesiastical anthorities of Saxony as one whose creed was allied to that of the Augsburg Confession. But some Calvinistic congregations, in the diaotropā (e.g. that of Basle) did not hesitate to join the Society of the United Brethren.

Terms such as Bluttheologie (i. e. the theology of Christ's Blood), Wunden-Litanei (i. e. the litany of Cbrist's wounds), Wunden-Homilien (i. e. the homilies on Christ's wounds), etc., were introduced by Zinzendorf and his followers. In their sacred hymns reference was frequently made to Christ's blood, wounds, his pierced side, etc.; compare the work entitled : Die altlutherische Bluttheologie in einem Auszuge aus des sel. Dr. Ahasveri Fritzschens sogenannten Himmelslust und Weltunlust, with the motto: Pasce me vulneribus, mens dulcescet. Leipzig und Görlitz, 1750; from which it is evident, that similar phraseology had been employed by others previous to the time of Zinzendorf. (Ahasv. Fritzsche died A. D., 1701.) — More moderate expressions were used by Bishop A. G. Spangenberg (born 1704, died 1792); see his Idea Fidei Fratrum, oder kurzer Begriff der christlichen Lehre, Barby, 1779-83. [An Exposition of Christian Doctrine, etc., written by Spangenberg, with Preface by Benj. La Trobe, Lond., 1784.) With the exception of that part of his work in which he treats of their ecclesiastical constitution, there is nothing in it which had not been propounded by other evangelical theologians.

• Among these we may mention Carpzov, in Dresden, Siegmund Jacob Baumgarten, in Halle, John Philip Fresenius, in Frankfort on the Main (1747-49), J. A. Bengel (1751), Steinmetz, abbot in the monastery of Bergen, J. G. Walch, and others.

'John Wesley was born 1703, and died 1791. Comp. Southey, the life of John W., and the rise and progress of Methodism, ed. 2, Lond., 1820, ii.; translated into German, by F. A. Krummacher, Hamb., 1828. H. Moore, the life of J. W. Lond., 1824, ii. vol. Watson, the life of John Wesley; translated into German, with a preface by Bonnet. Frankf., 1839. Bruckhardt, vollständige Geschichte der Methodisten in England, Nürnb., 1795, 2 2 yoll. Baum, Der Methodismus, Zür., 1838. Jakoby (a preacher of

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Method. Episc. church), Handbuch des Methodismus, Bremen, 1853, 2te., Aufl., 1855. [Works of Wesley, Bristol, 1771, sq., and New York (Book Concern). T. Jackson, Hist. of Method., Lond., 1838. Isaac Taylor, Wesley and Meth., Lond. (N. Y.), 1851. J. Whitehead, Lives of J. and C. Wesley, Lond., 2 vols., 1793. J. Hampson, Mem. of Wesley, and Hist. of Meth. 3 vols., Lond., 1791. Southey's Life of Wesley, ed. by Rev. C. C.

. Southey, Am. ed. by Rev. D. Curry, 2 vols., 1847; Life by Richard Watson; by W. Nast (Leben und Wirken der J. W.), Cincin., 1852. Jackson's Centenary of Methodism. Larrabee, Wesley and his Coadjutors. Bangs' Hist. of Meth., 4 vols. Geo. Smith, Hist. of Wesleyan Methodism, 1857. Jas. Porter, Companion of Methodism, 15th thousand, 1858. * Abel Stevens, Hist. of Religious Movement of Eighteenth Century, called Methodism; vols. 1 and 2, New York, 1858-9.--Articles in British Quarterly, 1852, 1853; North British, 1852; Kitto's Journal, 3 ; Christ. Remembrancer, July, 1854; Meth. Quarterly Review in reply to Isaac Taylor's work (by Perry), 1855, and on Wesley, April, 1858, '59, '60.—The theological system of Wesleyanism is represented in the works of John Fletcher and Richard Watson. John Fletcher (Flechiere) born at Nym, Switzerland, 1729, vicar of Madely, died 1785. Works, 8 vols., 1803 : (Bible Arminianism and Bible Calvinism ; Checks to Antinomianism; Answer to Toplady, etc.) Richard Watson, Theological Institutes, 2d ed., 3 vols., Lond., 1824; frequently reprinted in the United States. Comp. also Wilbur Fisk (Prest. of Wesleyan Unio.) Calvioistic Controversy, new ed. New York, 1853. Meth. Qu. Rev., 1859, 1860.] His fellow laborer was J. G. Whitefield (died 1770). [Works of Whitefield, 6 vols., Lond., 1771; comp. Lit. and Theol. Review, 6; Christ. Review, 3; New Englander, 3 ; North American for 1848; Tracy's Great Awakening, 1845; Abel Stevens, ubi supra.] Afterwards they separated on account of their different views concerning grace; Wesley adopted the Arminian, Whitefield retained the strict Calvinistic principles. Nor did they in all points agree with the Pietists and the United Brethren. These differences may be said to be, that the United Brethren, by a onesided presentation of the reconciliation already achieved, and of the experience of grace already attained, worked in a more quiet manner, but exposed to the danger of inactivity; while Methodism, by constantly urging repentance, had a wholesome moral influence, though it was exposed to the peril of awakening undue terrors in its subjects, and of condemning those that were without. Both tendencies have their common root in pietism, which also reconciles these extreme tendencies.

' Immanuel von Swedenborg was born 1688, and died 1777; from the year 1743, he considered himself divinely inspired. Comp. Herder, Adrastea (vol. ix. p. 502.) His principal works are : Arcana coelestia, Lond., 1749, 88., 8, Tom. iv. ed. Tafel, Tub., 1833. Vera Chr. Rel. complect. univ. Theol. Novæ Eccles. Amst., 1771, ii. 4. In Germany (and especially in Würtemberg) the cause of Swedenborg was espoused first by Oetinger (1765), and afterwards by Tafel (1838.) In modern times the doctrine of Swedenborg has been revived, and has gained adherents in France (Oegger) [the United States, England, etc.] For the literature compare Rheinwald, Repertorium, 1834, vol, ix. p. 217, ss. Respecting his doctrines, see Hauber, in the


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