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Tübinger Zeitschrift, 1840, part 4: in reply, Swedenborg's Lehre, mit Rücksicht auf die Einwürfe gegen sie (in Swedenborg und seine Gegner, 3 Thl.) Stuttg., 1844. For the Literature, see Niedner, Kirchengeschichte, p. 766. [Tafel, Leben Swedenborgs, and Urkunden, 3 Thle., 1839–42. Ibid., Vergleichende Darstellung der Lehrgegensätze d. Katholiken und Protest., mit den Unterscheidungslehren Swedenborgs, Tubing., 1845, in reply to Möhler (transl. by I. H. Sinithson, Lond., 1841.) Ed. Paxten Hood, Swed., a Biography and Exposition, 1854. Aug. Clissold, Practical Nature of the Theol. writings of S., & Letter to the Abp. of Dublin, 1859 (he has also written many other works). Robert Hindmarsh, Rise and Progress of New Jerusalem Church, ed. by E. Madely, Lond., 1861. Hobart, Life of S., Boston, 1831. J.J. G. Wilkinson, Biog. of S., 1849 : Popular Sketch of S.'s Phil. Works, 1847. Swedendorg's Arcana Apocalypse, Doctrine of N. T. Church, Divine Law and Wisdom, Christian Religion, etc., transl. and published in Boston. Minutes of General Conference, 1789, 89. Geo. Bush, New Church Repository, New York, 1847, 89., and numerous works on Swedenborg.]

One aspect of Swedenborgianism (the spirit-seeing), was advocated by Jung Stilling (1740–1817), who, together with J. Casper Lavater (1741-1801) exerted himself for the preservation and promotion of the higher interests of religion among many of his contemporaries, even the educated classes of society. But this mystico-theosophic tendency is not to be confounded with the mysticism of Tauler and others; the former, floating in the prose of the 18th century, and having passed through all its reflective processes, is very different from the mediæval theosophic mysticism, nurtured by the poetry of the earlier periods. Comp. Baumgarten-Crusius, Compendium, i. § 185.

$ 279.

THE PHILOSOPHY OF KANT. RATIONALISM AND SUPERNATURALISM.

Rosenkranz, Gesch. der Kantischen Philosophie, Lpz., 1840. Erdmann, Die Entwick.

lung der deutschen Speculation seit Kant, i., Lpz., 1848; comp. the next section. [Kuno Fischer, Gesch. d. neueren Phil., Bde., iii., iv., 1860, and Kant's Leben und Lehre, 1860. J. Willm, Histoire de la Philos. allemande, 4 vols., Paris, 1847. Article Kant, in New American Cyclopedia; by Wirgman in Encyclop. Londineusis ; Stapfer in Princeton Rev., iv. Cousin, Lectures on Kant, 1832, in English by Henderson, 1854. H. L. Mansel, Lecture on the Philosophy of Kant, 1860. Amand Saintes, La Vie et la Philos. de Kant, Paris, 1844.)

After the indefinite philosophy of the eighteenth century had, for a long time, attempted to reduce religion to mere ethics, or at least to resolve all that is specifically Christian into general and abstract ideas of God, liberty, and immortality, with occasional reference to the current biblical doctrines, a new state of things was brought about by the rise of Kantianism, or the critical philosophy. This system gave a more definite expression to the previous desultory efforts, and, at the same time, circumscribed them in a wholesome way within the limits of a strictly scientific form. Im

manuel Kant,' after the example of Hume, subjected the human intellect to a more searching examination, and found that this faculty, bound, to time and space, is unable to fathom the depths of the Deity, can only apprehend the finite, and is therefore competent to supply an adequate rule only for our moral life. While Kant, on the one hand, thus denied to pure reason the power of making any certain statements concerning what is divine,' on the other he vindicated belief in the existence of God, liberty and immortality, by representing them as postulates of the practical reason. That serious and wise man spoke of the Bible and Christianity in terms indicative of the highest reverence, and admitted that they were designed to be the medium by which the knowledge of these practical ideas was to be generally diffused among the people. Though the number of theologians was small who embraced the results of this new philosophy in a strictly scientific form,“ such as Tieftrunk,' Stäudlin,' (at least for a time), and Ammon,' it may nevertheless be said, that what is now called Rationalism, as opposed to Supernaturalism, had its origin in the results of the critical philosophy of Kant. The representatives of that formal belief in revelation, termed Supernaturalism, which differs from the earlier forms of orthodoxy, were chiefly Storr,'' and Reinhard;" the representatives of Rationalism, were Wegscheider," Paulus,' and Röhr." And lastly, there were some, such as Schott," Bretschneider, and Tzschirner, who, by propounding what is called rational Supernaturalism, endeavored to reconcile these two extremes with each other, or, at least, to facilitate such a reconciliation.

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· Immanuel Kant was born 1724, and died 1804 (in the year 1740 he studied theology). His complete works were edited by Rosenkranz and Schubert, Lpz., 1837 ss., xii. vols. [Hartenstein, x. vols., 1838–9.]

• In his work: Kritik der reinen Vernunft, Riga, 1781 ; 2nd ed., 1787. All later editions were merely reprinted from the second. [The variations in Schubert's and Hartenstein's edition. The Pure Reason was translated into English, Lond., 1841; Analysis of it, 1844; a new version by Meiklejohn, 1855; French, by Tissot, 2d ed., 1845.]

" See his works : Kritik der praktischen Vernunft, Riga, 1788: Kritik der Urtheilskraft, 1790. Of special importance for theology is his work Die Religion innerhalb der Grenzen der blossen Vernunft, Königsb., 1793. 2nd improved edit., 1794. [Kant's Criticism of the Practical Reason was translated into French, by Barni, 1848; his Religion within the Bounds, etc., by Trullard, 1841; Criticism of Judgment, by Barni, 1846 ; other works by Tissot, etc. The first English work on Kant was a general and Introductory view, by Nitzsch, Lond., 1796: J. S. Beek, Principles of Critical Philos., 1798: Willich's Elements of Critical Philos., 1798 : Kant's Essays and Treatises, 2 vols. 1798: Wirgman's Principles of the Kantesian Philosophy, 1824 : Semple, Kant's Metaphysics of Ethics, 1837: John Richardson, Metaphysical works of Kant, 1836. Noack, Kant's Auferstehung aus

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dem Grabe, 186. Comp. E. A. Thilo on Kant in Zeitschrift f. exacte Philo. sophie, 1860, s. 7-25, 298–321.]

• Comp. Flügge, Versuch einer historisch-kritischen Darstellung des bisherigen Einflusses der Kantischen Philosophie auf alle Zweige der wissenschaftl. und praktischen Theologie, Hanover, 1796, 1800, ii. 8. Reinhard, the preface to the third edition of his System der christlichen Moral, 1797. J. F. Flatt, Obss. ad comparandam doctr. Kant cum christiana, 1792. (Opusc. Nr. 7.) Kessler, Darstellung und Prüfung des Kantischen Rationalismus in der Religion, besonders in der Exegese, Würzb., 1818. Ulrici on Kant (and Jacobi, Fries and Fichte) in Herzog's Realencyclop. [Also his article on Religions-Philosophie.]

* John Henry Teiftrunk lived towards the close of the eighteenth century, and was private lecturer on philosophy in the university of Halle. He wrote : Versuch einer Kritik der Religion, 1790.--Censur des christlich-protestantischen Lehrbegriffs, mit besonderer Hinsicht auft die Lehrbücher von Döderlein und Morus, Berlin, 1791–95, 2nd edit., 1796. Dilucidationes ad Theoret. Christ. Rel., part 1793, ii.—Religion der Mündigen, 1800.

· K. F. Stäudlin was born 1761, and died 1826, as professor of theology in the university of Göttingen. He wrote Ideen zur Kritik der christlichen Religion, Gött., 1791. Lehrb. der Dogmatik und Dogmengeschichte, ibid., 1800. 3d edit., 1809 : 4th edit., 1822.

C. F. Ammon, born 1766, died 1850, was formerly professor of theology in the university of Erlangen, and first chaplain to the King of Saxony. He wrote: Entwurf einer wissenschaftlich praktischen Theologie, nach Grundsätzen der Vernunft und des Christenthums, 1797.-Abhandlungen zur Er läuterung einer wissenschaftlich-praktischen Theologie, 1798. Summa Theol. Christ., 1803, translated into German, 1805, ed. 4, 1830. Aufsahrlicher Unterricht in der christlichen Glaubenslehre, für Freunde der evangelischen Wahrheit, 1807, 8.

• The term Rationalism was employed previous to the rise of the Kantian philosophy, and frequently used in the same sense as Naturalism and Deism. Comp. the sect of the Rationalists in England, $ 238, note 2, and Sucro, Disputatio de Estimatione Rationis humanæ theologica, præside Paulo Antinio, 1706, p. 8: Hinc tantus undique numerus Rationalistarum, Naturalistarum, Libertinorum, Scepticorum, quinimo Atheorum; and p. 32: His Rationalistio totus mundus refertus est (quoted by Tholuck, ii, 25, 26). Nevertheless

still confound these terms, some intentionally, others unintentionally. They were separated by Kant himself (Religion innerhalb der Grenzen der blossen Vernunft, pp. 216, 217). It may also be said that we have a historical right to make a distinction between that Rationalism, which has been systematically developed in Germany, and for more than half a century bas exerted, and still exerts, upon the church an influence more or less considerable, though not always for good, and between that daring and frivolous Naturalism, which has its advocates not so much in the church as in the world. German Rationalism has, at least, retained an historical and Scriptural Christianity, and by making use of ecclesiastical institutions, e. g. by preaching, endeavored to promote the spread of moral and religious principles, especially in opposition to pantheistic tendencies, which threaten

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to destroy the sense of true morality. Thus we may be permitted, in due acknowledgment of its merits, to speak of a Christian Rationalism. Some writers have employed the phrase rationalismus vulgaris, to distinguish it from its modern forms of development, which have not been recognized by its adherents. Comp. Bretschneider, Historische Bemerkungen über den Gebrauch der Ausdrücke Rationalismus und Supernaturalismus (Oppositionsschriften, vii, 1, 1829). A. Hahn, De Rationalismi qui dicitur vera Indole, Lips., 1827. K. Hase, Die Leipzigerdisputation, Lips., 182.-By the same: Streitschriften, i., p. 28; Dogmatik, p. 16, 36.—Some very appropriate remarks may also be found in Baumgarten-Crusius Compendium, i., p. 476. [L. J. Rückert, Der Rationalismus, Leipz., 1859.]

. In one aspect the supernaturalistic theologians themselves might adopt the principles of Kant, inasmuch as he had demonstrated the insufficiency of reason to fathom what is Divine. This was done by Storr in his Bemerkungen über Kant's philosophische Religionslehre, translated from the Latin by Süsskind, Tub., 1794 ; see Baumgarten-Crusius, i., p. 466. But Kant did not draw the inference that a revelation is necessary on account of the insufficiency of reason; on the contrary, he set it aside by denying to reason the power of setting up any other than a moral criterion by which to ascertain whether anything has been revealed. Revelation was to him problematical, and positive religion was merely the medium by which the practical truths of reason are communicated. Compare the special history of doctrines.

10 Gottl. Chr. Stort was born 1746, and died 1805, as professor in the university of Tübingen. Among his works were : Doctrinæ Christianæ Pars Theoretica, 1793. Lehrbuch der christlichen Dogmatik, ins Deutsche übersetzt mit Erläuterungen von C. Ch. Flatt, 1803. On the conservative tendency of the school of Tübingen, see Tholuck, ii., p. 145–47. [Storr and Flatt, Bibl. Theology, by S. S. Schmucker, Andor., 2d ed., 1836.]

" Francis Volkmar Reinhard, was born 1753, and died 1812, as first chaplain to the King of Saxony. See his :-Geständnisse, Sulzb., 1810. Epitome Theol. Christ. e S. V. Reinhardi acroasibus academ. descript. atque observat. auct. (ed. Hæpfner) 1805. Vorlesungen über Dogmatik, mit lit

) terarischen Zusätzen herausgegeben von F. B. Berger, 1801, and H. A. Schott, Sulzb., 1811. The supernaturalism of Reinhard is ethical and intellectual, and had its origin partly in a fine conscientiousness, partly in strictly. logical inferences which he drew from certain philosophical premises. Its fundamental principle was not very different from that of Rationalism ; and the sermons of Reinhard, which are distinguished by a prevailing moralising treatment of Scripture, have served as models for many rationalistic dis

Pure biblical Supernaturalism unmixed with ecclesiastical tradition, or philosophical principles, is represented in the following works : A, Hahn, Lehrbuch des christlichen Glaubens, Leipz., 1828 [new edition, improved, 2 vols., Leipz., 1857–8]; G. Ch. Knapp, Vorlesungen über die christliche Glaubenslehre, nach dem Lehrbegriff der evangelischen Kirche, herausgegeben von G. Thilo, Halle, 1827 [translated by Leonard Woods, Andover, 2 vols. 1831, and frequently republished], (see vol. i., p. 30.); and Biblische Glau

courses,

benslehre, vornehmlich für den praktischen Gebrauch, herausgegeben von Guericke, Halle, 1840.

" J. A. L. Wegscheider, born 1771, d. 1848, from the year 1810 professor of theology in the university of Halle. He wrote : Institutiones Theologiæ Christianæ dogmaticæ, 1813, edit. 8, 1844. He was opposed by W. Steiger, Kritik des Rationalismus in Wegscheiders Dogmatik, Berlin, 1844.

1 H. E. G. Paulus, born 1761, d. 1851, in Heidelberg (formerly in Jena), as a professor and ecclesiastical counsellor. He endeavored to promote Rationalism by exegetical works (e. g. Commentar über das Neue Testament.Leben Jesu), and by advocating liberal principles in some of his writings e. g. Sophronizon, 1818, ss. Der Denkgläubige, 1825, '29.

" J. F. Röhr, born 1777, died 1848 as General Superintendent in Weimar. He wrote: Briefe über den Rationalismus, zur Berichtigung der schwankenden und zweideutigen Urtheile, die in den neuesten dogmatischen Consequenzstreitigkeiten über denselben gefällt worden sind, Sondershausen, 1813.-From the year 1820 he edited the “ Kritische Predigerbibliothek" (Critical Journal for Ministers). He further published: Grund- und Glau. benssätze der evangelisch-protestantischen Kirche, Neust., 1732, '34, and Sermons.

· H. A. Schott, born 1780, died 1835, as professor of theology in the university of Jena. He wrote: Epitome Theol. Dogmaticæ, Lipz., 1811, '22.

16 K. G. Bretschneider, born 1776, died 1848, as General Superintendent in Gotha. He wrote: Handbuch der Dogmatik der lutherisch-evangelischen Kirche, Leipz, 1814, 18, ii., edit. 4th, 1838. Systematische Entwicklung aller in der Dogmatik vorkommenden Begriffe, nach den symb. Büchern der prot. luth. Kirche, ibid., 1805, latest edit., 1841. (His tendency is chiefly historical.)

" H. G. Tzschirner, born 1778, died 1828 as professor of theology and superintendent in Leipsic. He wrote: Vorlesungen über die christl. Glaubenslehre, nach dem Lehrbegriffe der evang, protest. Kirche, edited by K. Hase, Leipz., 1829. (In this work the two systems of Rationalism and Supernaturalism are coordinately developed.)

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A striking parallel may be drawn between the rationalistic system of Kant (as well as the earlier system of Wolf) on the one hand, and the development of literature on the other. The period of Schiller (his poem: Worte des Glaubens), compared with the poem of Urania by Tiedge (1801). The same tendency manifested itself in works of a popular character in homiletical writings, in religious books, and in works designed for the young), 0. g. in the works entitled: Stunden der Andacht (i, e. Hours of Devotion), and its effect in Ninters Schullehrerbibel (i. e. the Schoolmaster's Bible, edit. by Dinter.)

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MODERN SPECULATIVE PHILOSOPHY. FICHTE. SCHELLING.

O. M. Michelet, Geschichte der Philosophie von Kant bis Hegel. Berlin, 1837, 2 vols

Chalybæus, H. M., historische Entwicklung der speculativen Philosophie von Kant bis Hegel. Dresd., 1837, 3d edit. 1843, [5th ed. 1860. Translated and published in

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