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Edinb. and Andover, 1857). C. Fortlage, Genetische Geschichte der Philosophie seit Kant. Leipz, 1852. (J. D. Morell, Historical and Critical View of the Speculative Philosophy of the Nineteenth Century, 2 vols., repr., New York, 1856. Amand Saintes, Histoire critique du Rationalisme en Allemagne, 2me. éd., Paris, 1843. f Oischin. ger, Speculative Entwicklung d. Philos. von Descartes bis Hegel, 2 Bde., 1854. Bartholmess, Les Doctrines religieuses de la Philosophie Allemande, 2 Tom., 1856. Hermann Ulrici, Geschichte und Kritik der Principien der neueren Philosophie. 2 Thle., Leipz., 1845.)

During the period in which the philosophy of Kant prevailed, both Rationalism and Supernaturalism occupied common ground in this, that the mode of thinking adopted by their adherents was abstract, and circumscribed by the categories of the understanding. It was not until the rise of the modern system of speculative philosophy, in the Idealism of Fichte,' and afterwards in the more developed form of Schelling's Philosophy of the Absolute,' that attention was again directed to that which was most profound and significant in the doctrines of Christianity, i. e. in the first place, to their speculative import ; thus leading thinking minds from the mere periphery of religious life back to its centre. The Rationalists and Supernaturalists, attaching too much importance to the empirical and practical aspect of religion, had lost sight of its more profound and speculative aspect. The opposite tendency now showed itself. The founders of this new esoteric Gnosis introduced an enigmatic phraseology, which appeared to their contemporaries as a sort of hieroglyphic language. To formulas, orthodox in sound, they attached a sense different from that contained in the doctrines of the church, and sometimes even incompatible with practical religious truth. Not only was history converted into a mere mythical garb for speculative ideas, but Kant's Trias of God, Liberty, and Immortality, in which the Rationalists had hitherto believed with a certain honest sobriety, must needs vanish in the presence of that Pantheism, which annuls the personality of God and of man, and confounds the Divine Being with the world. So that while some were rejoicing at the return of what they considered a Christian philosophy, others questioned the advantage of this exchange of Rationalism for the speculative philosophy.'

'J. C. Fichte, born 1762, died 1814, as professor of philosophy in the university of Berlin. In the development of his system, different periods may be pointed out. In his Versuch einer Kritik aller Offenbarung, 1792, which was published anonymously, and for a time ascribed to Kant, he took the same ground which had long been occapied by the latter. But his Wissenschaftslehre, 1794, ss., is altogether speculative-idealistic; it is a question, whether the principles set forth in it are only apparently or really atheistic. On account of its purely speculative shape, it was unfitted to be directly applied to theology. In his later writings (composed in a more popular style)


Fichte endeavored to express himself in a more Christian manner, and to show the agreement existing between his own principles and those of Christianity. This is the case especially in his Anweisung zum seligen Leben, oder die Religionslehre, Berlin, 1806. In this work he attaches, in opposition to a moralising Rationalism, the greatest importance to the Gospel of John, and founds his system on the unity of the Father with the Son (whom he regards as God attaining unto a consciousness of himself in man).Compare John Bapt. Schad (a Benedictine monk), Gemeinfassliche Darstellung des Fichte’schen Systems und der daraus hervorgehenden Religionstheorie, Erf., 1800-1802, iii. voll. ; and Baumgarten-Crusius, i. p. 455-457.

p K. Hase, Jenaisches Fichtebüchlein, Lpz., 1856. (Fichte's Characteristics of the Present Age, Nature of the Scholar, Vocation of Men, and Vocation of the Scholar, with other works, transl. into English by Smith, with a Memoir, London. His son, I. H., published his father's memoir and remains. Works, 8 vols. : Remains, 3 vols.]

F. W. Jos. von Schelling, born 1775, in 1841 called from Munich to be professor of philosophy in the university of Berlin, d. 1854. He endeavored to bring about a reconciliation between the Idealism of Fichte and the theory of Realism (subject and object) by the philosophy of identity (like Spinoza). Comp. his Vorlesungen über die Methode des akademischen Studiums, Stuttg. und Tub., 1803, 13, especially Lecture 8th (Concerning the historical construction of Christianity), and Lecture 9th (On the study of theology). He there states, in opposition to the Rationalism of Kant (p. 180), that the doctrines “ of the incarnate God," and (p. 184) of “the reconciliation of the finite (beings) which had fallen from God," are the first elements of Christianity, completed and perfected in the doctrine of the Trinity; this doctrine, however," is absurd, unless it be considered in its speculative aspect" (p. 192). In Lecture 9th he combats empirical Supernaturalism, the Rationalism of Kant, and lastly the historical reception of Christianity. He further wrote Philosophie und Religion, Tüb., 1804. Denkmal der Schrift von den göttlichen Dingen des Herrn F. J. Jacobi (comp. § 281), Tüb., 1812.—In the later period of his life, Schelling manifested a stronger leaning towards positive Christianity and theistic views; see his preface to Victor Cousin, translated from the French by Beckers, Stutt., 1634. Comp. A. Planck, Schelling's Nachgelassene Werke und ihre Bedentung für die Theologie (in the Deutsche Zeitschrift für Christliche Wissenschaft, viii., März., 1857).—The disciples of Schelling at first cultivated the science of natural philosophy, rather than the philosophy of religion and of theology. His philosophy was applied to theology by Heinrich Blasche (died 1832): Das Böse, im Einklange mit der Weltordnung dargestellt, Leipz., 1827, and Philosophie der Offenbarung, Gotha, 1829. As regards the relation in

. which Eschenmayer stands to the philosophy of Schelling, see Reinhold, Geschichte der Philosophie, ii: 2, p. 388. It must also be admitted that the philosophical tendencies of Schleiermacher were connected with those of Schelling, though he applied them to religion and theology in a very different manner, more like to Jacobi (see 8 281). [Schelling's Sämmtliche Werke; the second division, 4 vols., contains his Lectures, viz., vol. i., Introduction to Mythology; ii, Philosophy of Mythology; iii. iv., Philosophy of Revelation. Comp. Schelling und Theologie, Berl., 1846. Dorner, Schelling's Potenzlehre, in Jahrb. f. deutsche Theologie, 1860, s. 101-156; Ehrenfeuchter on Schelling's Philosophie d. Mythologie und Offenbarung, ibid., 1859. E. A. Weber, Examen critique de la Philos. religieuse de Schelling, Strasb., 1860. Southern Quarterly Review, Feb., 1857.]

Comp. his controversy with Jacobi. F. Köppen, Schellings Lehre, oder das Ganze der Lehre vom absoluten Nichts, Hamb., 1803.-G. F. Süsskind, Prüfung der Schellingschen Lehre von Gott, Weltschöpfung, moralischer Freiheit, etc., Tub., 1812. [H. E. G. Paulus, Die endlich offenbar gewordene positive Philosophie der Offenbarung, Darmstadt, 1843. [Kapp,] Friedrich Wilhelm Jos. von Schelling, von einem vieljährigen Beobachter, Lpz., 1843. Alexis Schmidt, Belenchtung der neuen Schellingschen Lehre, Berl., 1843. Rosenkrans, on Schelling, 1844. Noack, Schelling und die Philos. der Romantik, 2 Thle., 1860.]

Here again is a parallel in literature and art, viz., the Romantic tendency (the brothers Schlegel, Tieck, Novalis), Göthe (viewed in contrast with Schiller); Creuzer and Voss, Symbolik und Antisymbolik.

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Though the speculative philosophy of Fichte and Schelling seemed to have brought about a certain reconciliation between the two extremes above mentioned, it was still to be seen whether that reconciliation was a real one. Herder, in the spirit of a poet,' pointed out the historical nature of the Christian doctrines, as well as the distinction between religion and doctrinal opinions, and opened the way, in connection with modern culture, to a new and living treatment of Scriptural subjects, founded on more accurate views of oriental and biblical modes of thought. On the other hand, the philosophy of the Absolute was combated by Frederic Jacobi,' with pious wisdom. In opposition to this philosopby, he endeavoured to show that faith, which he distinguished from knowledge, must have its quiet home in the human heart. Though he did not mean by faith either the orthodox faith of the church, or strict Scriptural faith (in the supernaturalistic sense), his more profound and prophetic theory was welcomed, even by those who felt the necessity of a more positive system. The philosophical system of Jacobi, designed to meet the religious feelings of men, served as the basis of a new school, the adherents of which are also disposed to adopt the principles of modern philosophy in general.' They endeavoured to bring about a reconciliation between the extremes, by historico-critical, as well as philosophical researches, by psychologico-anthropological rather than by speculative investigations. As its founders, we may regard De Wette," and Schleiermacher, though each in a different aspect. The former labored to show, in a psychological and synthetic way, the symbolical religious value of the doctrines of Christianity, in their relation to the souls of believers; the latter endeavoured, in an analytical and dialectic manner, to apprehend, in Christianity, that which is peculiar to itself, and to represent the doctrines of the church as the perpetual expression of the feelings common to all believers.

· Johann Gottfried von Herder, born 1744, died 1803, as General Superintendent in Weimar. Among his numerous works are: Werke zur Religion und Theologie, Stuttg. and Tub., 1827–30, 18 vols. Though Herder did not publish a system of theology, he exerted by his enlightened views (misunderstood by many) the highest influence upon theology. Among bis theological works, the following have a special reference to the subject in question; Briefe über das Studium der Theologie, Brief 29 ss.; Christliche Schriften (vom Erlöser der Menschen; von Gottes Sohn, der Welt Heiland; vom Geist des Christhenthums; von Religion, Lehrmeinungen und Gebräuchen).—The theological views of Herder are given in a collective form in J. G. von Herder's Dogmatik, aus dessen Schriften dargestellt und mit litteris. chen und kritischen Anmerkungen versehn von einem Freunde der Herder’schen Gnosis (Augusti ?), Jena, 1805, 8. Comp. the Herder-Album, Jena, 1845: Herder's Lebensbild, von seinem Sohne, Erlangen, 1846, ii.; and Hagenbach in Herzog's Realencyclopädie. [On Herder, see George Bancroft, in North Am. Rev., vol. xx.; For. Rev. xxxvii.; Christian Disciple (H's Letters on Study of Divinity, vols. ii. iii.) His Spirit of Heb. Poetry, transl. by Jas. Marsh, 2 vols., Burlington, Vt., 1833. Comm. on Revel., trapsl. by Sir George Duckett, Lond., 1821. Outlines and Philosophy of History, transl. by T. Churchill, Lond., 1800, 4to., 2d. ed., 2 vols. 1803. Oriental Dialogues, Lond., 1801.]

Friedrich Jacobi, born 1743, was, from the year 1804, President of the Academy of Sciences in Munich, died 1819. His entire works were published, Leipz., 1812, 6 voll., his correspondence, Leipz., 1825–27, 2 voll. Compare his Von den göttlichen Dingen und ihrer Offenbarung, Leipz., 1811, and J. Kuhn, Jacobi und die Philosophie seiner Zeit, Mainz, 1824. Fricker, Philos. Jacobi, Augsb., 1854.

Schleiermacher acknowledged that he derived his first impulse from Jacobi (Baumgarten-Crusius, i. p. 468); Schelling also exerted some influence upon him. On the other hand, De Wette adhered to the principles of Fries, who endeavored to complete the philosophy of Kant on the princiciples of Jacobi; the three terms he uses are, knowledge, faith, longing (Ahnung).

W. M. Leberecht de Wette, born 1780, professor of theology in the university of Berlin from the year 1810 to 1819, from 1821 professor of theol. ogy in the university of Basle, d. 1849. His theological opinions are developed in his : Erläuterungen zum Lehrbuch der Dogmatik, über Religiou und Theologie, Berlin, 1821.-Lehrbuch der christlichen Dogmatik in ihrer historischen Entwicklung, Berl., 1821, 2 voll., Edit. 3d, 1820.-Christliche Sittenlehre, ibid., 1819–24, 3 voll., 8vo. The following are written in a popular style: Ueber die religion, ihr Wesen, ihre Erscheinungsformen


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and ihren Einfluss auf das Leben (a course of public lectures), Berl., 1827, 8. - Theodor oder des Zweiflers Weihe, 1821–28, 2 voll.-Sermons. *Das Wesen des christl. Glaubens, vom Standpunkle des Glaubens dargestallt, Berlin, 1846. Comp. Schenkel, De Wette und die Bedentung seiner Theologie für unsere Zeit; Hagenbach, W. M. L. de Wette, eine akademische Gedächtnissrede, 1850; Lücke, W. M. L. De Wette, Hamb., 1850. [De Wette's Introd. to 0. Test., transl. and enlarged by Theodore Parker, 2 vols. 1850; Human Life, or Practical Ethics, by S. Osgood, 2 vols.; Theodore, or Sceptic's Conversion, by J. F. Clarke, 2 vols., Boston.)

Friedrich Schleiermacher, born 1768, died 1834, as professor of theology in the university of Berlin. Among his works are : Ueber Religion. Reden au die Gebildeten unter ihren Verächtern, Berlin, 1799. (This work in its first form has but slight reference to positive Christianity : it rather favors the suspicion of pantheism ; but he already views religion as essentially a feeling, in contrast with its being either knowledge or action; the later editions (4th, 1829) in the notes indicate the transition from these Orations to the standpoint of his Christian Dogmatics.—Darstellung des theologischen Studiums, Berlin, 1811, 30.—Der christliche Glaube, nach den Grundsätzen der evangelischen Kirche im Zusammenhange dargestellt, Berl., 1821, 2 vols., 1830, 2 voll.-Sermons. (An edition of his entire works was commenced 1834, in three divisions.) Comp. H. Braniss, über Schleiermachers Glaubenslehre, Leipz., 1835. K. Rosenkranz, Kritik der Schleiermacher'schen Glaubenslehre, Köningsb., 1836. Baumgarten-Crusius, Schleiermachers Denkart und Verdienst, Jena, 1834. Lücke (Studien und Kritiken, 1834, part 4.) G. Weissenborn, Darstellung und Kritik der Schleiermacher Dogmatik, Lpz., 1549 [der Schleiermacher Dialectik, 1847.] Lücke, in Studien und Kritiken, 1834. Strauss, Schleiermacher und Daub, in the Halle’sche Jahrbücher, 1834, No. 20* [reprinted in Strauss's Characteristiken und Kritiken, 1839. Comp. also, Heinrich Schmid, Schleiermacher's Glaubenslehre, 1835; J. G. Rätze, Erlänterungen zu S.'s christl. Glauben., Lpz., 1823; F. W. Gess, Uebersicht über das theol. System Dr. Fr. S. 2te Aufl. Rentling, 1837; F. Vorländer, Schleiermacher Sittenlehre (a crowned prize treatise), Marb., 1851; Hartenstein, De Ethices a S. propos. Fundamento, part. 2, Lips., 1837. Jul. Schaller, Vorlesungen über Schleiermacher, 1844. Herzog, Ueber die Anwendung des ethischen Princips der Individualität in S.'s Theologie, Stud. und Krit., 1846. Stechow, S. und die neuere Theologie in Deutsche Zeitschrift, July, 1855. Sigwart, S.'s Erkenntnisstheorie, in Jahrb. für deutsche Theol., 1857; ibid., S.'s psycholo. gische Voraussetzungen, in the same.]

[Translations of Schleiermacher's Essay on Luke, by C. Thirlwall (while still a student of law), Lond., 1825; Introd. to Plato's Dialogues, by Dodson, 1827; on Sabellius and Trinity, by Moses Stuart in Bibl. Repos. v. vi. ; Outlines of Study of Theology, by Farrar, Edinb., 1850. On Schleierma

* For the genesis of Schleiermacher's System, see his Correspondence with J. Ch. Gass, with a biographical preface by W. Gass, Berl., 1852 ; his Autobiography (in his 26th year), published by Lommatzsch, in the Zeitschrift £. d. hist. Theol, 1851; and Gelzer's Monatsblätter, vi, on Schleiermacher and the United Brethren, a contribution to the internal history of German Protestantism.

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