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cher and De Wette, being a Third Letter to Mr. Andrews Norton (in the Controversy on the " Latest Form of Infidelity,") by George Ripley, Bost., 1840. Bretschneider's View of Schleiermacher's Theology, translated in Bibliotheca Sacra., Andover, 1853, pp. 596-617. H. Davis, Schleiermacher, in Christ. Exam. (Boston), July, 1852. Schleiermacher in Kirchenfreund, 1854, a series of articles. Schleiermacher's Life and Times, National Rev. (Lond.), April, 1859. G. Baur on S. (in Studien und Kritiken) trans
) lated in Presb. Qu. Rev. (Phil.), Jan., 1860. Schleiermacher's Leben in Briefen, 2, Berl., 1858, transl. by Rowan, 2 vols., Lond., 1859; comp. Westminster Rev., July, 1861.-The theology of Schleiermacher made an epoch, in consequence of its peculiar relation to the two opposite systems of rationalism and supernaturalism, in the midst of whose conflicts it appeared. It “ combines the elements of both, in representing the essence of Christianity to be the immediate utterance of the religious consciousness, which in its inmost spirit, it says, is Christian." This Christian consciousness “ has, on the one hand, whatever is essential in Christianity; while, on the other hand, it is viewed as only the more definite explication and concrete expression of what is inherent in man's religious nature.” The same general tendency of thought represented by Kant is also developed in Schleiermacher's system; but this is only one of its aspects. The other aspect is " that what makes the substance of the Christian consciousness is not something which it produces, by and of itself, but something imparted and received. The Christian consciousness is the reflex and expression of the Christian fellowship." See Baur, Dogmengeschichte, p. 353.]
ATTEMPTS AT RESTORATION. PRACTICAL PIETY AND MODERN
But this reconciliation, which could be appreciated only by the educated classes of society, did not meet the wants of Christians at large. Though the conflict between Rationalism and Supernaturalism at first appeared to be confined to the schools, a general desire after more substantial spiritual food soon manifested itself among the people, for a long time indifferent to their religious interests, but now aroused by the signs of the times. Instead of the timid Supernaturalism of the schools, itself not unaffected by Rationalism, the ancient faith boldly raised its voice against modern culture. Claus Harms, on the occasion of the centenary of the German Reformation, published a number of theses, in which he proclaimed the necessity of returning to the old Lutheran faith, and proved that the religion of reason is worthless.' Sartorius pointed out the close relation existing between Rationalism and Romanism.' The controversy raged with violence, both parties denouncing each other.' But the prevailing practical tendency of the age,
which manifested itself in the spread of the Scriptures and of religion, and in the founding of religious societies, prevented some of the evils which have been expected from these contests. Nor was the progress of scientific theology neglected ; on the contrary, it is grateful to see that the nobler interests of science were elevated ab ve these struggles. Commentators, as well as the writers on ecclesiastical history, obtained a clearer perception of the necessity of guarding against dogmatical prejudices on the one hand, and, on the other, of entering into more profound researches as to the real nature of their topics, and of handling these subjects as living forms, in contrast with the setting up of dead schemes.' The distinguishing principles of the various denominations, the consideration of which had long been neglected from want of interest, were now more fully and scientifically discussed in the works on Symbolism.' Christian Ethics was brought into closer connection with systematic theology,' the whole of theological science was regarded in a new light, and the way was prepared for a total reformation in practical theology
Claus Harms, born 1778, was professor of theology in the university of Kiel, died 1855 (Comp. Rheinwald, Repertorium, xxx. p. 54; his Autobiography, Kiel, 1851; Baumgarten, Denkmal für Claus Harms, Braunschweig, 1855; Pelt, in Herzog's Realencyclop.). The title of the work refered to is : Das sind die 95 Theses oder Streitsätze Dr. Luthers, zum besondern Abdrucke besorgt, und mit andern 95 Sätzen vermehrt, Keil, 1817. On the controversy to which it gave rise, see the Evangelische Kirchenzeitung, 1829, No. 45-48, 58–60, 80, ss., 88, ss. (Both Ammon and Schleiermacher took part in it.) Afterwards he wrote : “ Dass es mit der Vernunftreligion nichts ist,” Leipz., 1819, to which Krug replied in his treatise : "Dass es mit der Vernunftreligion doch etwas ist.” (Among these keen Theses of Harms are the following: 2. A progressive Reformation, as now understood, reforms Lutheranism into heathenism, and Christianity out of the world. 5. The Pope of our times, our Antichrist, in respect to faith is Reason ; in respect to action is Conscience. 11. Conscience cannot forgive sins. 21. In the sixteenth century, forgiveness of sins cost-money ; in the nineteenth we have it for nothing; we do it ourselves. 24. The old hymn book says: “ Thou hast two places before thee, O man!" Now-a-days, the devil is killed, and hell walled up. 32. The so-called rational religion is either without religion, or without reason, or without both. 33. It says, the moon is the sun. 42. The relation of the so-called natural religion to revealed, is like the relation of nothing to something, or else like the relation of revealed religion to revealed religion.-- Baumgarten-Crusius wrote against Harms, XCV. Theses Theologiæ contra Superstitionem et Profanationem. Schrödter, Archiv. d. Harms'schen Thesen, oder Charakteristik der Schriften, die für oder gegen dieselben erschienen sind, Altona, 1818.]
· E. W. Ch. Sartorius, born 1797, professor of theology in the univer sity of Königsberg, then in Dorpat, d. 1859. He wrote: die Religion ausserhalb der Grensen der blossen Vernunft, nach den Grundsätzen des wahren Protestantismus gegen die eines falschen Rationalismus, Marb., 1822. [Defence of Augsburg Confession, 2d ed., 1853; Christ's Person and Work, transl. by 0. S. Stearns, Bost., 1850; Doctrine of Holy Love, 3 vols, 1840-56 ; on Worship, 1852 ; Soli Deo Gloria, 1859.) Comp. also Heinr. Steffens, von der falschen Theologie und dem wahren Glauben, eine Stimme aus der Gemeinde, Breslau, 1823.
The Rationalists charged the Supernaturalists (Pietists, mystics), with holding Antiprotestant principles ; the Supernaturalists demanded in their turn, that their opponents should secede from the church, and sometimes in. sisted upon their expulsion.—The Disputation of Leipsic, 1827.—The Evangelische Kirchenzeitung, edited by Hengstenberg, took a prominent part in this controversy.-Respecting the denunciations of Halle, and other events, see Hase, Church Hist., p. 562. [Hase, Die Leipz. Disputation, 1827. Rudelbuch, Das Wesen des Rationalism., 1830. Gesenius and Wegscheider were the special objects of attack in Hengstenberg's Journal. Comp. Urkunden betreffend die neuesten Ereignisse, etc., Lpz., 1830; Fortgesetzte Urkunden, 1830. Bretschneider, Schreiben an einen Staatsmann, 1830; Zweites Schreiben, 1830. Baumgarten-Crusius,« Gewissensfreiheit, etc., Berl., 1830.]
* These were the Bible Societies and Missionary Societies which, after the example given by England, were established on the continent, e. 9, in Basle, 1816, Berlin, 1823.—They are the most eloquent apologists The advocates of mere negative principles only criticise, but do not produce anything.
After exegesis, subsequently to the time of Ernesti (though often in an arbitrary method) had again become the servant of theological opinions (thus in the case of Storr and Paulus), Winer advocated the claims of the grammaticohistorical interpretation, while Lücke (in his commentaries on the writings of John), prepared the way for a dynamic and penetrating system of interpretation. Ecclesiastical history, which formerly had often been regarded as the history of buman follies, was treated with laudable impartiality by Gieseler, and proved by Neander [David Mendel], to indicate the development of the kingdom of God on earth. It is worthy of observation, that the newly awakened historical tendency also manifested itself in many mono graphs on historical subjects. These and other circumstances contributed to a more scientific treatment of systematic theology, and helped to frighten away the ghosts on both sides.
Marheineke and Winer, etc., see Vol. i. p. 42.
De Wette pointed out many defects in the treatment of Christian ethics in his Kritische Uebersicht der Ausbildung der theologischen Sittenlebre seit Calixt (Theologische Zeitschrift, Berlin, 1819, p. 247, ss.)—Christian ethics were treated in connection with systematic theology by C. J. Nitzsch, System der christlichen Lehre, Bonn, 1829, edit. 5th, 1844 [transl. in Clark's Library, Edinb.), and J. T. Beck, die christliche Lehrwissenschaft nach den biblischen Urkunden, Stuttg., 1840, i. 1, 1841, i. 2.
• From the time of Schleiermacher, Theological Encyclopædia was made
a separate branch of theological science, which had its effect also on doctrinal theology.
Schleiermacher, and after him Nitzsch, Marheineke, Alex. Schweizer, Vinet, Gaup (Palmer, Ehrenfeuchter,) and others, applied scientific treatment to practical theology. This involved a gain for the practical interests of dogmatic theology.
THE PHILOSOPHY OF HEGEL, AND THE YOUNG HEGELIANS.
Fichte, J. H., über Gesensatz, Wendepunct und Ziel der heutigen Philosophie, Heidelb.,
1832. Leo, Die Hegelingen, Halle, 1838. Zeller's Theologische Jahrbücher (since 1849.) C. A. Thilo, Die Wissenschaftlichkeit der modernen speculativen Theologie in ihren Principien beleuchtet, Leipz., 1851.
Nor did philosophy stand still. The theory of Schelling, first applied to the natural world, with a preponderance of the imaginative element, was transplanted by Hegel's dialectic method, in a more definite manner, to the historical and ethical sphere, and was thus brought into a closer connection with the theology of Protestant Germany. The highest place was assigned to the idea even in religion, while feelings and abstract conceptions were deferred to a lower province. Here was the principal difference between the system, of Hegel and that of Schleiermacher. During the lifetime of the founder of this new philosophical school, Daub' and Marheineke' were the only two theologians who decidedly adopted his principles. But after his death his views gained a large number of adherents in the rising generation, among whom, however, so great a difference obtained respecting some of the most important theological questions, that they soon separted into two distinct parties. The one, called the right wing of the school of Hegel,' advocates supernaturalistic, or theistic and conservative principles, while the tendency of the other (the left)' is of a critical and destructive character. In addition to these there are some others, philosophers as well as theologians, who have struck out a new and independent path for themselves, as well in the philosophical as in the theological sphere.' However much these writers differ in their tendencies (to describe which more fully belongs to doctrinal theology, in connection with the philosophy of religion), they for the most part agree in discarding the former antagonism between Rationalism and Supernaturalism, in having regard to the demands of a spirit of inquiry, as well as the wants of faith, and in investigating in a more appreciative manner the doctrines received by the church. Nor do they rest satisfied either with appealing to foreign authority, or with a superficial and partial judgment. And herein is the guarantee for the success of their further efforts.
· Georg Freidrich Wilhelm Hegel, born 1770, was, from the year 1818, professor of philosophy in the university of Berlin, and died 1831. His entire works were published Berlin, 1832–45, 18 voll. Among them are : Phänomenologie des Geistes, Bamb., 1807. Encyklopädie der philosophischen Wissenchaften, Heidelb., 1817, edit. 4th, 1845. Vorlesungen über die Philosophie der Religion, edited by Marheineke, Berlin, 1832, ii.-He also wrote a remarkable preface to Heinrichs' Religionsphilosophie, 1822 (in respect to the religious sentiment.)--Concerning the latest controversies see H. Leo, die Hegelingen, Halle, 1838, 39. Kahnis, Ruge und Hegel, Quedl., 1838. Rheinwald, Repertorium, xxxi. p. 28, ss. [On Hegel, see New American Cyclopedia, sub voce. His works and life are described in Rosenkranz, Hegel's Leben, 1844. In English have appeared his Philosophy of History, by Sibree, in Bohn's Library, 1857; his Subjective Logic, by Sloman and Wallon, 1855. In French, his Aesthetics by Bénard, 5 vols., 1840-52 ; his Logic, 2 vols., by A. Véra, 1860, who also in 1855 published an Introduction à la Philosophie de Hegel, the fullest account of his system outside of Germany. Among the chief criticisms of his theory in Germany are Schelling in his later works; H. Ulrici, Ueber Princip und Methode der Hegelschen Philosophie, 1841; A. Trendelenburg, Die logische Frage in Hegel's System, and Logische Untersuchungen, 1840; G. A. Gabler, Die Hegelsche Philosophie, 1833; K. P. Fischer, in his Grundzüge des Systems der Philosophie, 1854, 89. ; C. H. Weisse, Ueber den gegenwärtigen Standpunkt der phil. Wissenschaft, and in other works; Rosenkranz, Die logische Idee, 1859-60; Erdmann, in Gesch, d. neueren Philos.; J. H. Fichte, in his Gründzüge zum Systeme der Philosophie, 3 Bde., 1833–46, etc. C. L. Michelet, Schelling und Hegel, 1839. The Hegelian school was represented by the Jahrbücher f. wissenschafliche Kritik, 1827, 8q.; the left wing, by Ruge and the Hallische Jahrbücher, 1838. A new Journal, advocating the system has been started by C. L. Michelet, Der Gedanke, 1860. The first vol. contains a full bibliography of the school.—The Zeitschrift f. Phil. und spekul Tbeol., 1837–48, ed. I. H. Fichte, and Zeitschrift f. Phil. und phil. Kritik, ed. by Ulrici and others, since 1849, opposes the Hegelian pantheism.]
• Karl Daub, born 1765, was professor of theology and ecclesiastical counsellor in Heidelberg, and died 1836. He had passed through the entire development of modern philosophy from Kant to Hegel. His works were published by Marheineke and Dittenberger, Berl., 1838, ss. We mention: Theologumena s. doctrinæ de Relig. Christ. ex Natura Dei perspecta repetenda Capita potiora, Heidelb., 1806. Einleitung in das Studium der Dogmatik, aus dem Standpuncte der Religion, ibid., 1810.-Judas Ischariot, oder das Böse im Verhältnisse zum Guten betrachtet, 3 parts, ibid., 181619.-Die dogmatische Theologie jetziger Zeit, oder die Selbstsucht in der Wissenschaft des Glaubens, ibid., 1833.-System der christlichen Dogmatik (first part) edit. by Marheineke and Dittenburger, Berlin, 1841. Comp. (Strauss) Daub und Schleiermacher in his Charakteristiken u. Kritiken, Lpz., 1839. Rosenkranz, Erinnerungen an K. Daub, Berlin, 1837. [W. Herrmann, Die speculative Theologie in ihrer Entwicklung durch Daub dargestellt, Hamburgh, 1847.] Among the disciples of Daub (in part too,