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Rélig., 1860. Réville, Les Controverses en Hollande, in Rev. des deux Mondes, 1860, translated in Christ. Exam., Boston, 1861.)

Thus the principles of Arianism propounded by Samuel Clarke, (died 1729) at the commencement of the present period, were adopted by some. [See above $ 234, p. 213, and 8 262, p. 332.] Howe [Sherlock !) was accused of tritheism.- Among the English divines in North America, Edwards is the most distinguished. His chief works are on the Freedom of the Will, and on Original sin. [Comp. & 285, 6.]

• The rise of new sects both in England and the United States of America is of no importance for the history of doctrines [!]. The greatest sensation was made by Irving (1792–1834), whose views gained some adherents even on the continent. See Hohl, Bruchstücke aus dem Leben und den Schriften Ed. Irvings, St. Gallen, 1839. [Edward Irving, b. 1792, d. 1834. Works : Oracles of God, 3d ed., 1834; Coming of Messiah, 2 vols., 1827; Babylon and Infidelity foredoomed, 1826 ; The Last Days, 1850 ; Sermons, 3 vols., 1828; Homilies on Sacraments, i., 1828; Exposition of Book of Revelation, 4 vol., 1831 ; Orthodox and Catholic Doctrine of our Lord's Human Nature, 1831. Proceedings of London Presb. in his Case, 1831. Irving and his adversaries in Fraser's Magaz., 14; Death of Irving, by Thos. Carlyle, ibid., vol. 11; Trial of Irving, Niles's Register, vol. 44. See also Ecl. Mag., 14; Meth. Quar., 9; Christ. Exam. (by Lamson), 3; Christ. Month. Spec., 6; English Review, 1848; Studien und Kritiken, 1849; Schaff's Kirchenfreund, 1850. Jacobi, Lehre d. Irvingiten, 1853. Geo. Pilkington, The Tongues proved to be English, Spanish, Latin, 1831. The First and Last Days of the Church of Christ, from the French of C. M. Carre, by M. N. M. Hume, Lond.-Liturgy and Litany, Lond. and New York, 1856. On the revival of the apostolate in the United States, and the church as it is here, compare : W. W. Andrews, True Constitution of Church, 1854. Apostles Given, Lost and Restored, 1855. [J. S. Davenport] The Permanency of the Apostolic Office, 1853. See also Chronicle of Certain Events, 1826-52. Lond., 1852.]

'The first traces of this tendency date from about 1820; the British Magazine, 1832; the Tracts for the Times, 1833 sq. The Catholic tendency advanced till 1841. Chief representatives, Dr. Pusey in Oxford, (b. 1800), T. Keble, J. H. Newman, who went over to the Catholic church. Comp. Weaver, Der Puseyismus in seinen Lehren und Tendenzen, from the English, by Amthor, Leipz., 1845. Fock in Schwegler's Jahrbücher der Gegenwart, Aug., 1841. Bruns and Häfner's Repertorium, May and July, 1846. Allg. Berlin. Kirchenzeitung, 1846. (Niedner, Kirchengeschichte, p. 867.) Allg. Augsburg, Zeitung, 1847, No. 46, Beilage. (See next section.]

• See Der Evangel Bund, von K. Mann and Theod. Platt, Basel, 1847. [Annual Reports of the Alliance, particularly that of the Berlin Meeting, 1857, by Ed. Steane.]

Blessig, Hafner, Emmerich, Kienlen, Bruch, Reuss, Redslob, C. Schmid.

Benj. Constant, Cousin, Guizot. Among the theologians we mention : Vincent of Nismes (Méditations et Discours, 1830, ss.), Vinet, died 1847, Merle d'Aubigné, Gaussen, Sardinoux. Periodicals : Ami de la Religion,

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Semeur; Lien (organ of a moderate liberalism); Espérance (moderate church orthodoxy); Archives du Christianisme (organ of Dissenters); Avenir (organ of the Free Church). See Ullmann, Polenische Erörterungen, in Stud. und Kritiken, 1852. H. Reuchlin, Das Christenthum in Frankreich, Hamb., 1837.

The formal aspect of the controversy respecting revelation was not at all mentioned.. The opponents of the so-called Momiers (Chenevière, and others) may be said to hold Supernaturalistic principles, inasmuch as, proceeding from the doctrine of inspiration and the integrity of the canon, they found their dogmas upon Scripture (like the Socinians). That Arianism (!) could issue from this shows the difference of French and German Rationalism. Comp. the works of Chenevière, Bost, Malan. Histoire véritable des Momiers, Par., 1824. Basle, 1825. With this work compare: De Wette, Einige Bemerkungen über die kirchlichen Bewegungen in Genf (Basler wissenschatiche Zeitschrift, iii. part 2, p. 33 ss.); and “Genfs Kirchliche und Christliche Zustände,” by a theologian of French Switzerland, in the Zeitschrift für christl. Wissenschaft, 1850, No. 30–34.- The Darbyites and Irvingites have also made disciples in Switzerland. On the former see J. Herzog, Les Frères de Plymouth et John Darby, Lausanne, 1845 : on the latter, see 8 302, Note 4. A controversy on the inspiration of the Scripture was started by Scherer, in Geneva: a new French school on this basis, has its organ in Colani's Revue de Théologie et de Philosophie, Strasb., since 1850.

[The power of the materialistic school of philosophy in France was broken by the Lectures of Laroniguière, 1811-12; of Royer-Collard, on the basis of Reid; by Maine de Biran, d. 1824; and especially by Victor Cousin, 1828 sq., in his System of Eclecticism, followed by Jouffroy (d. 1848), and others. A philosophical deism is inculcated by Jules Simon. Auguste Comte's (d. 1857) Positive Philosophy makes induction the only philosophical process. The Eclectic school was opposed by Ledru Rollin, and by the Catholic traditionalists : it is represented in the Dictionnaire des Sciences philosophiques, 4 vols. Cousin's Psychology, by C. S. Henry, 4th ed., New York, 1856 ; on the True, Beautiful and Good, by 0. W. Wight, 1852; Lectures on Kant, by Henderson, Lond., 1854. Hamilton on Cousin in Edinb. Rev., 50 (and in his Discussions). Comp. North Am. Rev., 29; President Day, in Christ. Spec., 1835; Princeton Review, 1856. Fuchs, Kritik, Berlin, 1848. H. Taine, in Philos. Françaises, 1857. Rosenkranz, in Zeitschrift f. Philos., 23.—Jouffroy's Introd. to Ethics, transl. by W. H. Channing, 2 vols., Bost., 1840.-Jules Simon, Le Devoir, 2me. ed., 1854. La Religion Naturelle, 1857, transl. Lond. On Maine de Biran, see Astié, in Am. Theol. Rev., 1859.-On Comte, see Harriet Martineau's exposition, 2 vols., 1854; Lewes', 1853; Christ. Examiner (by Thos. Hill), 1854; Princeton Rev., 1856, 1858; Methodist Quarte, a series of articles, 1852 sq. ; British Quart., 1854, 1858. Robinet, Notice sur la Vie de Comte, Paris, 1860.]

[Madame de Krudener, 1814, in Pays de Vaud, helped to revive religious belief; the party called Momiers. The Haldanes in Geneva. The Société

. Evangelique, 1831. Malan on Justification : tracts and hymns. Merle

d'Aubigné, Hist. of Reformation. Gaussen, Theopneustia, transl. by Kirk, new ed., Bost., 1860. A more liberal tendency was represented by Aler. Vinet, Essai sur les manifestations des convictions religieuses, 2d ed., 1859, (on separation of Church and State) transl. by C. T. Jones, 1843 : Essais de Philosophie morale, 1837; Pastoral Theol. and Homiletics, transl. by T. H. Skinner, N. Y., 1854 : Moralistes des xvie. et xvije. Siècles, 1859; Histoire de la Prédication, etc., 1861. Comp. Astie's Esprit de Vinet, 1860. Agénor de Gasparin, School of Doubt, and School of Faith, etc.— The Revue Chrétienne, published in Paris since 1853, edited by Ed. de Pressensé, represents substantially the school of Vinet.—Besides his work on Inspiration, Scherer has also written on the Church, and Mélanges de critique réligieuses, 1861; he represents an extreme rationalistic tendency. Ed. de Pressensé, Histoire des trois premiers Siècles de l'Eglise, 2 Tomes, 1858.-French Protestantism has of late years shown an increased zoal in rescuing its early history from neglect ; see the Bulletin de la Société de l'histoire du Protestantisme Franç., 1852 sq. : the histories of De Félice, Soldan, and Puaux ; the republication of Calvin's works in French, etc.)

$ 285, a.

THEOLOGY IN ENGLAND IN THE EIGHTEENTH CENTURY.

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[The moderate theology of the divines of Queen Anne's reign, the ethical tendencies of the Latudinarians (see $ 225, b), and the general disposition, in the contest with infidelity, to reduce Christianity to its lowest terms, perpetuated, through the larger part of the eighteenth century, an indifference to thorough theological discussion. High Church principles were still inculcated by the Non-jurors', who however were excluded from any general influence. As the result of the Bangor controversy,' the powers of the church in Convocation were annulled. The succession of Anglican divinity was kept up through the century, by the archbishops,' Potter, Secker, and Laurence; Thos. Burnet, master of the Charter-House ;- the bishops Tomline, Thos. Newton, and Thos. Wilson ; Stackhouse, Skelton and Worthington ; bishops Halifax, Horsley, Hurd and Watson ; and carried into the next century by bishops Burgess, Van

; Mildert, and Mant. Warburton was the most learned and vigor

" ous polemic of the period. The theological system of Hey, the ethics and evidences of Paley, and to some extent the Arminianism of John Taylor, gave the tone to the popular religious discourse.' In William Law, Bishop Edmund Law, and Jones of Nayland, were found a more earnest religious spirit.' Biblical learning was represented by Abp. Newcome, Pococke, Robert Lowth, Kennicett, Horne, Boothroyd, Parkhurst and Herbert Marsh.' Hutchinsonianism' was a peculiar and transient attempt to show that all natura is symbolical of divine truth. Calvinism" was still defended

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in the established church by Toplady and Scott; but its chief advocates were found among the non-conformists," Ridgley, Watts, Doddridge, Gill and Williams. The Unitarian controversy in this and the next century was continued between Priestley and Horsley, Belsham, and Pye Smith, and others." Subscription to the ThirtyNine Articles and the Athanasian Creed was defended on grounds of expediency."]

[Metaphysics were discarded, and mental philosophy was taught on the law of association by Hartley ; on the principles of common sense by Tucker ; on the basis of materialism by Priestley." The idealism of Berkeley' is an isolated phenomenon. Bishop Butler'? established the ethical system on a purer basis, and Price vindicated an independent morality.'']

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' [Abp. Sancroft and two other bishops refused the oath of allegiance, 1688.-Scottish bishops joined them. The Non-jurors were divided, 1720, on the question of prayers for the dead, and the eucharistic sacrifice. Their Liturgy was revised, 1765. After the death of the Pretender, Charles Edward, they acknowledged George III., and in 1792 were released from the penal laws. The last of the non-juring bishops was Boothe, who died in Ireland, 1805. Among their divines were Nathl. Spinckes (d. 1727), Hickes, Kettlewell, Leslie, John Johnson, Ken, Dodwell, Francis Lee, Wm. Law, Thos. Brett. See Thos. Lathbury's Hist. of Non-jurors, Lond., 1845; Bowles, Life of Bp. Ken, 2 vols., 1830; another Life by a Layman, 1851; comp. Dublin Rev., July, 1853. On their consecration, see Appendix to Percival's Apology for Apostol. Succession. Comp. Macaulay's Hist., vol. iv. and Notes and Queries, 2d s. xi. 232.]

[The Bangor Controversy, 1717 sq., was called forth by a sermon of the Latitudinarian Hoadly, Bp. of Bangor (1715-1761: Works, 3 vols., 1763), maintaining that the established church is a human institution; opposed by Drs. Snape, Sherlock, and others; the Convocation was prorogued, and has had, until within the past few years, merely a formal being. On Law's Letter to Hoadly, see below, note 7. Works on Convocation, see ante, p. 295. P. Skelton, Vindication of Hoadly, Works, v. 211-251.]

. [John Potter, Abp. Canterb., b. 1674, d. 1747. Theol. Works, 3 vols., Oxf., 1753 ; on Church Government, reprinted in Tracts of Angl. Fathers, vol. iii. ; Archæologia Græca, 2 vols., 1797–99; editions of Lycophron and Clemens Alexandrinus.—Thos. Seeker, Abp. Cant., from 1758 to 1768. Works, 12 vols., Lond., 1770; Life by Bp. Porteus : Lectures on Catechism (Works, vols. 10, 11).—Richard Laurence, Abp. of Cashel, b. 1760, d. 1839 ; Bampton Lectures, 1804 (3d ed., 1838), on the Articles termed Calvinistic; on Baptisınal Regeneration, 3d ed., 1838 ; Documents on Predestination Coutroversy, 1819, Ascensio Isaiæ, 1819; Book of Enoch, transl., 1821 ; on Griesbuch’s Classification of MS., 1814.]

· [Thos. Burnet, Master of the Charter-House, b. 1035, d. 1715. He led the way in modern cosmogony by his Telluris Theoria Sacra, 4 Books, 1681-89, popularised in his Sacred Theory of the Earth, 7th ed., 2 vols.,

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1759 ; De Statu Mortuorum et Resurgentium, transl. (with an answer to al the Heresies therein) by M. Earbery, 2d ed., 2 vols., Lond., 1738 (advocates the Millennium and the limited duration of future punishment): Archælogiæ Philos., 1692, transl. by Foxton, 1729, etc.—Thomas Burnet, Prebend. of Salisbury, d. 1750: The Demonstration of True Religion (Bayle's Lect., 1724-5), 2 vols., Lond., 1726 ; the Argument in Christ. as old as Creation, 3 parts, 1730-2.]

* [George Pretyman, (his name changed to Tomline, 1803), Bp. Lincoln, b. 1750, d. 1827 : Elements of Christ. Theol., 2 vols., 2d ed. 1779, and often since ; Refutation of Calvinism, 1811, etc.Thos. Newton, Bp. of Bristol, b. 1704, d. 1782 ; Dissertation on Prophecies, 10th ed., 2 vols., 1804 ; dissertations on theol. topics; Works, 6 vols., 1787.-Thos. Wilson, Bp. of Sodor and Man), b. 1663, d. 1755 : Works, 4th ed., 4 vols., 1796–7; new edition by Keble, in Angl. Cath. Library ; on Lord's Supper, and Sacra Privata, frequent editions ; Life by Hugh Stowell, 3d ed., 1829.—Thos. Stockhouse, b. 1680, d. 1752 : Complete Body of Div., 3d ed. fol., 1755 ; Apostles' Creed, 1747; New Hist. of Bible, 6 vols., 1767, 3, 4to, ed. Gleig, 1817; on Woolston, 1760.-Philip Skelton, see § 276, p. 385.— Wm. Worthington, b. 1703, d. 1778; Essay on Redemption, 1743 ; Boyle Lects., 1766-8, on Evidence of Christ (as growing), 2 vols., 1769 ; Script. Theory of the Earth (anon.), 1773.-Saml. Halifax, Bp. St. Asaph, b. 1733, d. 1790, On Justification, 2d ed., 1762; on Prophecy, 1776.--John Rotheram, Rector of Houghton-le-Spring, d. 1788, Apology for Athanasian Creed ; Essay on Human Liberty, 1782; Argument for Prophecy (against Middleton), Oxf., 1753.- Samuel Horsley, Bp. St. Asaph, b. 1733, d. 1806 : Collected Works, 6 vols. 1845; Tracts in Controversy with Dr. Priestley, 3d ed., 1812 ; ed. Newton's Works, 5 vols., 1779-85; Biblical Criticisms. See Allibone's Dict. i. 894.-Richard Hurd, Bp. Worcester, b. 1720, d. 1808; Works, 8 vols., 1811, chiefly literary criticism.-Richard Watson, Bp. Llandaff, b. 1737, d. 1816 : Apology for Bible, against Paine, 2d ed., 1796 ; Collection of Theol. Tracts, 6 vols., 1791 ; Miscel. Tracts, 2 vols., 1815.- Thos. Burgess, Bp. Salisbury, b, 1756, d. 1837 : First Principles, 1804; Origin and Independence of Ancient Brit. Church, 2d ed., 1815; English Ref, and Papal Schism, 1829; Tracts on Div. of Christ (see note 13 of previous section); Life by Harford, 2d ed., 1841.- William Van Mildert, Bp. of Durham, b. 1765, d. 1836 : Theol. Works, 6 vols., Oxf., 1838 ; Boyle Lect. on Progress of Infidelity, 2 vols.; Bampton Lectures on Religious Controversy, 1814; Sermons. - Richard Mant, Bp. Down, b. 1776, d. 1849 : Appeal to Gospel (against the charges of Methodists), Bampton Lect., 1812; Churches of Rome and England, 1837; Hist. Chh. Ireland, 1840; Horæ Liturgicæ, 1845.]

. [William Warburton, Bp. of Gloucester, see ante, p. 384 ; besides the works there mentioned, he wrote Alliance between Church and State (Works, vol. 7); Doctrine of Holy Spirit (in vol. 6); Critical and Philos. Commentary on Pope's Essay on Man.]

' [John Hey, b. 1754, Norrisan Prof. Div., Camb., 1780, d. 1815 (“ acute, impartial, and judicious;" Kaye): Lectures on Divinity, 4 vols., 1796, 3d ed. Turton, 2, 1841; Essay on Redemption; Thoughts on Athanasian Creed,

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