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1790.— William Paley, Archd. of Carlisle, see ante, p.

384. His Natural Theology illustrated by Brougham and Bell, 5 vols., 1835–39. His selfish theory of morals opposed by Mackintosh, Stewart, Coleridge, Whewell, and most of the later English moralists.-John Taylor, of Norwich, a Unitarian divine, b. 1694, d. 1761 ; Scripture Doctrine of Original Sin, 1738, 4th ed., with Reply to Wesley, 1767; Paraphrase to Epistle to Romans, 3d ed., 1754; Script. Doctrine of Atonement, 1753; Hebrew Concordance, after Buxtorf, 2 fol. Norwich, 1754-7.]

[William Law, & non-juror and mystic, b. 1686, d. 1761: Works, 9 vols., 1762. His Three Letters to the Bishop of Bangor (Hoadly) are famed in controversial literature for wit and argument. Remarks on Mandeville's Fable of Bees, 3d, 1762; Case of Reason (against Tindal); Practical Treatise on Christ. Perfection, 5th ed., 1759 ; Grounds and Reasons of Christ. Regeneration, 7th ed., 1773; Serious Call, 1st ed., 1729, often republished; in the deistic controversy, reply to Dr. Trapp, 4th ed., 1772, etc. ; he prepared in part an edition of Behmerf's works, 1764–81, and published on them, The Way to Divine Knowledge, 2d ed., 1762.-Edmund Law, Bp. Carlisle, b. 1703, d. 1787 : Considerations on the Theory of Religion, 1745, new ed. by G. H. Law, Lond., 1820; Inquiry into the Ideas of Space, Time, etc., in Answer to Jackson, 1734; he also transl. King on Origin of Evil. William Jones, of Nayland, b. 1726, d. 1800 (“had the talent of writing upon the deepest subjects to the plainest understandings ;" Horsley); Theol. and Miscel. Works, 6 vols., 1810, 1826 ; The Catholic Doctrine of the Trinity; Figurative Language of Scriptures ; Essay on the Church.]

[William Newcome, Abp. Armagh, b. 1729, d. 1800 : Harmony of Gospels, 1798, 1802, ed. by M. Stuart, Andover, 1814; Ezekiel and Minor Prophets, 1836; Eng. Bible Translations, 1792.-Samuel Parker, Bibl. Biblica, 5 fol. on Pent., Oxf., 1720, 89.-Richard Pococke, Bp. of Meath, b. 1704, d. 1765: Description of the East, 2 fol., 1743-5; Inscript. Antiq. liber., 1752.-William Romaine, Calasio's Concordance, 4 vols., 1747 (Hutchinsonian).-Robert Lowth, Bp. London, b. 1710, d. 1787 : Isaiah, new transl., 13th ed., 1842 ; De Sacri Poesi Hebræorum Prælectiones, with Notes of Michaelis and Rosenmüller, Oxt., 1821, transl. hy G. Gregory, 2 vols. 1787, Boston, 1815, new ed., with notes of C. E. Stowe, Andov., 1829; Sermons; Letter to Warburton, 2d ed., 1766.-Benj. Kennicott, b. 1718, d. 1783 : State of Hebrew Text, 2, Oxf., 1753-9; Two Diss. on Tree of Life, etc., 2d ed., 1747; Collection of Hebr. MS., 1770; Diss. in Vet. Test. Hebr., 1780, etc.-George Horne, Bp. Norwich, b. 1730, d. 1792. Works, 4 vols., ed. by Wm. Jones, Lond., 1809; Comm. on Psalms, frequent editions ; Letter on Behmen, and Cautions to Law (Works, i. 216, 89.); Discourses. He favored the views of Hutchinson (see next note).

) Benj. Boothroyd (Independent), minister at Huddersfield, d. 1836: Family Bible and Improved Version, 3, 4to, 1824; Biblia Hebraica.-Critical Comm. and Paraphrase on Old and New Test. and Apocrypha. by Patrick, Lowth, Arnold, Whitby, and Laeman; new ed. by Pitman, 6 vols., 1822.–Geo. D'Oyly and R. Mant, Notes, etc., Lond., 1845, 3 vols., 8v0.John Parkhurst (Hutchinsonian), b. 1728, d. 1797 : Greek and English Lexicon, 1798, often repr., 1851; Hebr. and Eng. Lex., 1792, ed. Rose, 1829, Major, 1843.



-Herbert Marsh, Bp. Petersborough, b. 1757, d. 1839 : Authenticity of the First Books of Moses, 1792 ; Lects. on Criticism and Interpretation, 1838; on Authenticity of N. Test., 1840 ; Comp. View of the Churches of England and Rome, 1814, 1816; translation of Michaelis, Introd., 4 vols. in 6, 1802.—On Thos. Scott, see note 11, on Doddridge and Gill, note 12.]

10 (John Hutchinson, b. 1674, d. 1737 : Philosophical and Theol. Works, 12 vols., Lond., 1749; Moses' Principia; Glory or Gravity, etc.) He opposed the Newtonian system. Among his followers were Bishop Horne, Parkhurst, Romaine, and Jones of Nayland. See Horne, Works, vol. 6, p. 113, 89., on the State of the Case between Sir Isaac Newtoa and Mr. Hutchinson; and Jones of Nayland, in Preface to Life of Bp. Horne. Their leading principle was, that ideas in divinity are formed from the ideas in nature; the Trinity is to be conveyed to the understanding by ideas of sense ; the Cherubim represent humanity united to Deity, etc. Robert Spearman, publ. an Abstract of Hutchinson's Works, Edinb., 1755; and a Supplement, 1765. Julius Bate, Defence of H., 1751.]

[Augustus Montague Toplady, b. 1740, d. 1778: Works, 6 vols., 1794, 1825; in one vol. 1853 (a strenuous Calvinist); Historic Proof of Doctrinal Calvinism of Church of England (vol. i. ii.); Church of Eng. vindicated from the Charge of Arminianism; Doctrine of Predestination (vol. v.), Scheme of Necessity against Wesley (vol. vi.)—Thos. Scott, b. 1747, d. 1821; Holy Bible with Notes, frequent editions ; Works, ed. John Scott, 10 vols., 1823; Force of Truth ; Essays; Sermons ; Synod of Dort, etc.; Evangelical Doctrines stated and defended in Remarks on Bp. of Winchester's (Tomline) Refutation of Calvinism (Works, vol. vii. viii.) His son, John Scott (d. 1834) published, Inquiry into Effect of Baptism, against Bp. Mant, 2d ed., 1817, and against Laurence, 1817. (See above $ 225, 6, note 2, p. 184. See on this subject the works of Tomline and Laurenee, and Ed. Williams (note 12). Bp. Herbert Marsh was also a strenuous opponent of Calvinism. Thos. Edwards (Arminian), b. 1729, d. 1785, vicar of Nuneaton, on Irresistible Grace, Cambr., 1759.John H. Hinton, Moderate Calvinism reexamined, Lond. 1861. Whately's Difficulties in the Writings of St. Paul (Essays, 2d series, 5th ed., 1845). Copleston on Predestination and Necessity, 1821.]

· [Thos. Ridgeley, see above $ 225, 6, p. 191. Isaac Watts, b. 1674, d. 1748: Works, 9 vols., Lond., 1812. Sermons ; Rational Order of Christ. Church ; Doctrines of Trinity ; Glory of God as Christ-Man (he held the preexistence of Christ's human soul, as did Fleming and T. Goodwin); Improvement of the Mind, etc.Philip Doddridge, b. 1702, d. 1751. Family Expositor, numerous editions; Works, 10 vols., 1802 ; Course of Lectures on Pneumatology, Ethics and Divinity (Works iv.); Sermons ; Life and Corresp., 5 vols., Lond., 1831.John Gill (Baptist), b. 1697, d. 1771 : Expos. O. and New Test., 9 vols., 4to, Lond., 1810; Solomon's Song, fol., 1728; Complete Body of Divinity, 2, 1839; Cause of God and Truth, new ed., 1838, etc.- Edward Williams, b. 1730, taught in Indep. Academy of Rotheram from 1795, d. 1813: Defence of Modern Calvinism (against Tomline) 1812 ; Essay on Divine Government, 2d ed., 1813, omitting the exam

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ination of Whitby and Fletcher; Christian Preacher, 5th ed., 1843; edited Doddridge and Jonathan Edwards, and abridged Owen on Hebrews.]

" [Joseph Priestley, b. 1733, in America 1794, d. 1804, a voluminous writer on political, philosophical and religious topics. Correspondence with Price on Materialism, 1778; Examination of Reid's Inquiry, 1775; Institutes of Natural and Revealed Religion, 2 vols., 2d ed., 1782 ; Letters to a Phil. Unbeliever (on Hume and Gibbon), 1747; Hist. of Church, 6 vols., 1790–1803. His History of Corruption of Christ, 2 vols., 1782, and Hist. of Early Opinions concerning Jesus Christ, 4, 1786, led to Horsley's Charge, etc. (see note 5); Tracts in Controversy with Horsley, 1783–6, reprinted 1815. Memoirs to 1795 written by himself, 2 vols., Lond., 1806-7.-Nathaniel Lardner, b. 1684, d. 1768: Works, 11 vols., Credibility of Gospel Hist. (17 vols., Lond., 1727–57); Collection of Ancient Jewish and Heathen Testimonies (4 vols., 1764-7); Hist. of Heretics froin MS. (1780); Two Schemes of a Trinity considered (Works, x.) ; on the Logos in Place of the Human Soul of Christ (vol. xi.)-Theophilus Lindsey, b. 1723, d. 1808 : Apology, 1774, Sequel, 1776 ; Histl. View of State of Unit. Doctrine from Reformation, 1783 ; Vindiciæ Priestlieanæ, 1788; Memoirs by Belsham, 1812.-Thos. Belsham, b. 1730, d. 1809 : Calm Inquiry into Script. Doctrine Concerning the Person of Christ (and review of Priestley and Horsley), 1811; Epistles of Paul, 2 vols., 4to, 1822; Appendix of Extracts from divines of Church of England, 1824.—Memoirs by John Williams, 1833. New Version of New Test. chiefly by Belsham. (Comp. Magee on Sacrifice, ed. of 1842, vol. 2, pp. 74-311 on this Version; Abp. Laurence, Critical Reflections, 1811 ; Edward Nares, Prof. Hist. Oxf., d. 1811, Remarks on the Version, 2d ed., 1814.-Lant Carpenter, b. 1780, d. 1840 : Exainination of the charges against Unitarians, and the Improved Version by Bp. Magee, with Strictures on Bp. Burgess, Drs. Hales, Graves, Nares, Pye Smith, Rennel, etc., Bristol, 1820; he also wrote on the Atonement, 1843; Harmony of Gospels, 2d ed., 1838, etc.—John Jebb, M. D., b. 1736, d. 1786. Works by Disney, 3 vols., 1787.--Caleb Fleming, 1698, d. 1779: a Socinian, he wrote against Bolingbroke and Chubb, and in favor of pædo-baptism. -Jos. Bretland, Unit., b. 1742, d. 1819 : Sermons, 2 vols., 1820.- Abraham Rees, d. 1825, Sermons, 4, 1809.-John Disney, b. 1746, d. 1816 : Letters to Dr. V. Knox, on Unit. Christians; Remarks on [Tomline's] Charge, 1812 ; Sermons, 4, 1793–1818.–Richard Price, b. 1723, d. 1791 : Four Diss. on Provid., Christianity, etc., 3d ed., 1772 ; on Civil Liberty, 9th ed., 1776; Sermons on Christ. Doctrine, 1787.-(On the controversy as to 1 John v. 7, see the treatise of Sir Is. Newton, 1754; Bp. Burgess, Tracts on Div. of Christ, 1820, and Selection of Tracts on 1 John, v. 7, 1824; G. Travis, Letters to Gibbon, in defence, 3d ed., 1794 ; R. Porson, Letters to Archd. Travis, 1795; Bp. Marsh, Letters to Travis, 1795; W. Hales, in his Faith in the Trinity, 2, 133, 89.; Cardinal Wiseman, in his Essays, vol. 1.For the literature of the controversy, see Darling's Cyclop. Bibl. Subjects; Holy Scriptures, pp. 1718–23.)-On John Pye Smith's works in reply to Belsham and others, see the next section, note 24. William Magee, Abp. of Dublin (b. 1763, d. 1831), Dissertation on Atonement and Sacrifice (with Appendix on Mr. Belsham), new ed. 2, 1842.-During the present


century, the controversy has been continued between Wardlaw and Yates : Yates, Vindication of Unitarianism, 4th ed., 1850; Sequel to Vind., 2d ed., 1822: Wardlaw, Discourses on Principal Points of the Socinian Controversy, 2d ed., 1815; Unitarianism Incapable of Vindication, 1816 (Andover, 1817).- Edward Burton, of Oxford : Testimonies of Anti-Nicene Fathers to the Divinity of Christ, 2d ed., 1829; ibid., Testimony to Trinity and Divinity of Holy Ghost, 1831.- William Hales, Faith in the Holy Trinity, 2d ed., 2, 1818.-G. S. Faber, Apostolicity of Trinitarianism, 2 vols., 1832.John Oxlee, Trinity and Incarnation (Jewish sources), 3 vols., 1817–30.—The leading English Unitarians of the present century are James Martineau (Essays and Reviews, Miscellanies, etc.); J. R. Beard (Voices of the Church, in reply to Strauss, 1845; Rationalism in Germany; Historic and Artistic Illustrations of the Trinity, 1846 ; Unitarianism in its Actual Condition, 1849); J. H. Thom, Commentaries, etc.)

" (Many Presbyterian churches became Unitarian (170 of the Unitarian chapels were originally orthodox). At the Salter's Kall Meeting, 57 of 110 ministers were against all creeds. The Feathers' Tavern Association, was for the abolition of subscription (particular objection to the damnatory clause in the Athanasian Creed); three hundred clergy, led by Gilbert Wakefield (d. 1801). See also Archd. Blackburne (b. 1705, d. 1787): The Confessional, 1766 (anon, reprinted in his works, vol. 5; in vols. 6 and 7, tracts on the same subject). Comp. Doubts on the Authenticity of the last Publication of the Confessional, 1768; Short View of the Controversy, 2d ed., 1775.-Complete and Faithful Account of the Papers publ. at Oxford on Subscription, 1772. Paley, Defence of the Considerations on the Propriety of requiring Subscription, in Reply to a late Answer: Works, vol. ir. 431, 89.]

[David Hartley, b. 1703, d. 1757 : Observations on Man, etc., 2 vols., 1749; 3 vols., 1791, ed. by Priestley, 1801; translated in German by Pistorius. Comp. (Priestley) Hartley's Theory, 1790 ; and Jos. Berington, Letter on Hartley, 1776. See above the works of Reid, Dugald Stewart, Cousin, and Morell.— Abraham Tucker, b. 1705, d. 1774. Light of Nature (by Edward Search); best ed. 7 vols., 1805, repr. in 2 vols., 1837. On Priestley, see note 13, above.]

" (George Berkeley (see § 285, a, note 16, and $ 276, p. 384), Bp. of Cloyne, b. 1684, d. 1733: Essay towards a new Theory of Vision, 1709; Vindication, 1733 (see Bailey's Review of same, Lond., 1842. New ed. by Cowell, 1860. Comp. Mill, in Westminster Rev., 38, 39). Comp. also Blackwood's Magazine, Oct., 1841, June, 1842, June, 1843, May and Aug., 1847.]

[See ante, p. 227. On the influence of his Sermons upon the ethical speculation of England, see Mackintosh, Diss. on Progress of Ethical Philos., Section VI.]

" (Richard Price (see note 13) Review of Principal Question in Morals, 1758, 3d ed., 1787. This was an attempt to revive the more Platonic theory of morals; the idea of right as simple and undefinable.





§ 285, 6.


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[Though England did not directly participate in the speculative movement of the German schools, yet the philosophy of Locke and the ethics of Paley gradually lost their influence.' Here as in Scotland, the scepticism of Hume, was supplanted by the philosophy of common sense (see § 285, c). Utilitarianism was also carried to its extreme positions in the system of Jeremy Bentham,' and the inductive philosophy is made supreme in the works of James and John Stuart Mill,' the latter in harmony with Comte. Samuel Taylor Coleridge,' was the prophet, rather than the systematic expounder of a more spiritual philosophy. No one system can be said to have ascendency in England ; but there are favorable representatives of various philosophical tendencies.']

[The revival of theology began rather in the sphere of practical piety, than in that of abstract speculation. Stimulated by the zeal of the Wesleys and Whitefield (see § 278), whose evangelical Arminianism was in striking contrast with the ethical Arminianism of the established Church, -the Evangelical or Low Church party rapidly increased in influence during the first quarter of the century.' It was comparatively indifferent to the sacramental theory and the apostolical succession, and devoted to spiritual piety and evangelical works. But a strong reaction commenced, nearly coeval with the passage of the Reform Bill (1832). The advocates of High Church principles rallied with new vigor in the so-called Oxford School (Tracts for the Times)' represented by Pusey, Neuman, Fronde, Keble, Wilberforce and others," many of whom at last, went over to the Roman Catholic communion." The Hampden Controversy," the Gorham Case," the Denison Case, and the Forbes Case" in Scotland, are all connected with this movement. Besides the Evangelical and the Oxford Schools, there is a large class of liberal Anglican divines, represented by Copleston," Archbishop Whately," Dean Milman, Dean Trench, Burton, Wordsworth and others ;'' still greater freedom is claimed, with a more liberal application of philosophy to theology, by the so called Broad Church.“ The progress of biblical science is exemplified in the works of Lee, Kitto, Tregelles, Davidson, Trench, Bloomfield, Wordsworth, Ellicott, Jowett, Alford and others.”—The Baptists have for the most part ceased to sympathize with their earlier Antinomianism,” and are represented in a freer spirit by Ryland, Fuller, Foster and Hall,“ The Independents have united an orthodox theology with a spirit of theologic inquiry, as is illustrated in the writings of John Pye Smith,





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