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George Payne, John Harris, R. Vaughan and others.”—The con. flict of Christianity with Infidelity has called forth a series of works upon the Evidences, and on Natural Religion. In the recent (Oxford) Essays and Reviews, the arguments for the Evidences of Christianity, and for the inspiration and authority of the Scriptures, are seriously impugned. In Mansel's Bampton Lectures (1858), on the Limits of Religious Thought," all positive thought is excluded from the sphere of the supernatural.]



[See Sedgwick's Discourse, 5th ed., pp. 162 sq., criticising Paley's definition of Virtue, viz., “ the doing good to mankind in obedience to the will of God, for the sake of everlasting happiness," and especially his statement, that "pleasures differ in nothing but in continuance and in intensity." See also Mackintosh's Preliminary Dissertation, and Whewell's History of Moral

Philosophy. On Locke see Cousin's Psychology, trans. by C. S. Henry, 4th | ed., 1856.]

. (Jeremy Bentham, b. 1841, d. 1832: Fragment on Government, 1776; Morale and Legislation, (1780) 1789; Theory of Legisl. (from French of Dumont, transl. by R. Hildreth, 2 vols., Brist., 1840); Deontology by Bowring, 1834 (see Edb. Rev., 61); Chrestomathia, 1817 ; Works, 11 vols., Edinb., 1843. In his Church of England and its Catechism, 1818, and his Not Paul but Jesus, he made an open attack on Christianity. (See Quart. Rev., 1818, and Rose's Critical Exam., 1819.) Comp. the articles of Mill on Bantham, in Westminster Rev., July, 1838, and Oct., 1852.)

[James Mill, Analysis of the Phenomena of Human Mind, 1829 (see Morell's History of Phil., p. 237 sq.). John Stuart Mill, Diss. and Discuss., 2 vols.; Pol. Econ.; System of Logic, 2 vols., 1842 (New York, one vol.); new ed., 1858. Comp. Whewell in Philos. of Inductive Sciences; North Am. Rev., Oct., 1845; Christ. Examiner, May, 1846 ; New Englander, May, 1850 ; Princeton Review, Jan., 1856. The Westminster Review, since 1834, is the organ of this school. G. H. Lewes, in his Biog. Hist. of Philos. (repr. New York, 1857), represents the same tendency.]

[Auguste Comte, a French philosopher, b. 1798, d. 1857: Cours de Philosophie Positive, 6 Tom., 1830–42 ; Système de Politique Positive, 4, 1851-2. Positive Philos. of Comte, by Harriet Martineau, New York, 1854; Philos. of Sciences, ed. Lewes, 1853. Comp. Meth. Quart. Rev., 1852 sq. ; Brit. Quart., April, 1854, and Oct., 1858; North British, May, 1854; Morth Am. Rev., July, 1854; Presb. Quart., Septı, 1857; Christ. Exam., July, 1857. Comte's inductive and materialistic theory is also at the basis of Buckle's Hist. of Civilization, vols., 1, 2, 1859–61. See § 285, note 11.]

[Samuel Taylor Coleridge, b. 1772, d. 1834: The Friend, 1812 ; Statesman's Manual, 1816; Biographia Literaria, 2 vols., 1817 (Schelling); Aids to Reflection, 1825 ; Constitution of Church and State, 1830 ; Life by Gillman, vol. 1, 1838. New edition of his works, edited by H. N. and Sara Coleridge, 1844-9; Literary Remains, 4 vols., 1836-9; Prof. Shedd's edition, 7 vols., New York, 1854. Comp. Bibliotheca Sacra, iv.; Princeton

, Rev., 1848; Church Rev., 1854; Brit. Quart., Jan., 1854; Christ. Rev.,


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July, 1854; Remusat in Revue d. deux Mondes, Oct., 1856 ; Eclectic Rev., (Lond.) 4th s., vol. 29, reprinted separately. His Friend, and Aids to Reflection were republished by Pres. Marsh, Burlington, 1831 sq., with a preliminary Essay. His Theory of the Reason, and of the Will, are the main points in Coleridge's system.]

• [W. Whewell, Hist. and Philos. of Inductive Sciences, 5 vols., 1837-40; new edition, 1857; Elements of Morality, 1845-8, repr. New York. Lect. on Systematic Morality, 1846 ; Moral Phil. in England, 1852. Herbert Spencer (of the inductive school); Psychology, 1855; Essays, 1857; proposed series on the philosophical sciences.-J. D. Morell (eclectic), History of Modern Philosophy; Philos. of Religion, 1849 ; Psychology, Part 1, 1853. - Alexander Bain, The Emotions and Will, 1859; Senses and Intellect, 1855.— Isaac Taylor, World of Mind, 1855.Henry L. Mansel, Prolegomena Logica, 2d ed., 1859, Bost., 1860; Metaphysics, or the Philos, of Consciousness, from the Encycl. Britan., Edinb, 1860.John H. Macmahon, A Treatise on Metaphysics, chiefly in reference to Revealed Religion, Lond., 1860.- Wm. Archer Butler, b. 1814, d. 1848; Lects. on Development of Christ. Doctrine, ed. Woodward, 1850; on Ancient Philos., 2 vols., repr. Phil., 1858; Sermons.]

' [On the Wesleyan movement, see above, 8 278. On the division between Whitefield and Wesley, see Stevens' History of Methodism, ubi

On the Wesleyan controversy as to Antinomianism and justification (1770), ibid. Charles Wesley, b. 1708, d. 1778; Sermons; Life and Times by T. Jackson, 2 vols., Lond., 1841. Among the Calvinistic Methodists was Wm. Huntington, S. S. (i. e. Sinner Saved), b. 1744, d. 1813; Works, 2 vols., 1820, 6 vols., 1856; comp. Southey, in Quart. Rev., xiv. The Lady Huntingdon Connection (England and Wales, in 1795 numbered about 100,000), grew up in this movement; see Mem. of Selina Huntingdon, (b. 1707, d. 1791), 2, 1840. Representatives of the Evangelical Party; Charles Simeon, b. 1759, d. 1836; Hora Homiletice, 21 vols., 1840, Memoirs by Carus, 1847. Henry Venn, b. 1725, d. 1797, Sermons, Complete Duty of Man, etc. William Wilberforce, the Statesman, b. 1759, d. 1833 ; Practical View (frequent editions); Life, 5 vols., 1839. Hannah More, b. 1745, d. 1833; Works, 11 vols., 1830 (repr. New York). Richard Cecil, b. 1748, d. 1810; Works and Mem., 4 vols., 1811. John Newton, of Olney, b. 1725, d. 1807; Works, 2d ed., 1816. Willian Romaine, b. 1714, d. 1795; Life of Faith ; Works, 8 vols., 1796. William Cowper, the poet, b. 1731, d. 1800; Life and Works by-Southey, 15 vols., 1836, '7. John Jebb, Bp. Limerick, b. 1775, d. 1833; Practical Theol., 2d ed., 2 vols., 1837; Sacred Lit., new ed., 1831. Reginald Heber, Bp. Calcutta, b. 1783, d. 1826 ; Hymns, Sermons, Narrative, etc. ; Life, 2, 1830. Daniel Wilson, Bp. Cal.

2 cutta, d. 1858 ; Evidences of Christ. 4th ed., 1841 (repr. Bost., 1830); Lect. on Colossians, Sermons, etc. Edw. Bickersteth, b. 1786, d. 1850; on Prayer, Baptism, Restoration of the Jews, etc. John Cumming, (Scotch Church, Lond.); Apocalyptic Sketches, Prophetic Studies, etc. Jas. Hamilton (Scotch Church, Lond.); Royal Preacher, etc.

[Tracts for the Times, by Members of the University of Oxford, 6 vols., 1833-40, 90 in number. They declared that the Church of England was

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not Protestant, and advocated (1.) Apostolical Succession ; (2.) Sacramental Grace (baptismal regeneration and the eucharistic sacrifice); (3.) Independence of Church upon State ; (4.) Episcopal and Church authority ; tradition with the Scriptures; (5.) Revival of certain ecclesiastical usages, e. g., altars of stone, lights, private confession, etc. No. 90 by J. H. Newman, advocated subscription to the Article in a non-natural sense; condemned by the Hebdomadal Board. Comp. F. Oakley, Tract No. 90 examined, 1841; J. H. Newman, Letter to Bp. of Oxf. on No. 90; E. B. Pusey, Articles in Tract 90 reconsidered, in a Letter to R. W. Jelf. Among the most significant of these Tracts, were Pusey on Baptism (No. 67); Apostol. Succession (74); Reserve in communicating religious knowledge (80, 87). The Library of Anglo Catholic Theology, containing reprints of works illustrating Anglican theology; and the Library of Fathers of the Holy Cath. Church (ed. by Pusey, Keble and Marriott), aided in this movement.]

. [E. B. Pusey, Regius Prof. of Hebr., Oxf.; Letter to Bp. of Oxf., on "Tendency to Romanism, 4th ed., with Preface on Justification, 1840 ; To Abp. of Canterbury, on Present Crisis, 3d ed., 1842 ; Sermons, 1845; Parochial Serm., 1848–53 ; Royal Supremacy, 1850 ; Sermon on Holy Eucharist, 1843 (proceedings against him for this); The Church of Eng. leaves her Children Free to open their Griefs, 1850, with a Vindication: Hist. of Councils, 1858 ; Minor Prophets, Pt. 1, 1860.]

[John Henry Newman ; Arians of Fourth Cent., 1833 ; Parochial Sermons, 6 vols., 1835 sq. ; Prophetical Office of Church, 2d ed., 1838; Justification, 2d ed., 1840; Chh. of Fathers, 2d ed., 1842; Sermons, 1843; Essays on Miracles, 1843; Essay on Development of Christ. Doctrine, 1845 (comp. Milman on this, in Quart. Rev., vol. 77; William Archer Butler, ubi supra; Maurice in Preface to his Lect. on Hebrews, 1846 ; Archd. Hare, in his Charge, 1852: Palmer's Doctrine of Development and Conscience, 1846 ; W.J. Goode, on Theory of Development, 1846). Mr. Newman submitted to the Roman Catholic Church in 1845.]

" [Richd. H. Fronde, b. 1803, d. 1836. Remains, 4 vols., 1838 (he gave an impulse to this whole movement). John Keble ; Primitive Tradition, 1839; Christian Year, and Lyra Innocentium ; Psalter in English verse; Sermons, 1847 ; Prælect. Academ., 2, Oxf., 1844; ed. Hooker's Eccl. Polity. Samuel Wilberforce, Bp. of Oxf. ; Charges, Sermons, etc. Henry Wm. and Robert Isaac Wilberforce, became Roman Catholics, the latter wrote: Doctrine of Baptism, 2d ed., 1849; Incarnation, 3d ed., 1850; Eucharist, 1853; Sermons on New Birth, 1850. Wm. G. Ward, (Rom. Cath.); Ideal of Christ. Church, 1844; Nature and Grace, 1860. Fred. Oakeley (R. C.); On Submitting to Cath. Church, Sermons, etc. F. W. Faber (R. C.); Tracts on Church and Prayer Book. Henry Ed. Manning, Archd. Chichester (became R. C.); Unity of Church, 1842; Sermons, 5 vols.; Holy Baptism, 1844; Grounds of Faith, 1852. William Maskell (Rom. Cath.); Monu

; menta Ritualia Eccles. Anglic., 3, 1846-7; Holy Baptism, 1848 ; Absolution, 1849; Royal Supremacy, 1850. W. E. Gladstone ; The State in its Relations with the Church, 2 vols., 4th ed., 1841. Robert Owen, Introd. to Dogmatic Theol., Lond., 1858.]

[Ward, Oakley, Dulgairns and Faber, became Rom. Cath. in 1845

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with Mr. Newman. After the Gorham Case and the papal aggression (1851), Manning, Dodsworth, the two Wilberforces, Scott, Allies and Maskell, also seceded; the Christ. Remembrancer, 1860, says, all of these but Scott and Maskell were originally Low Church. In 1850–1, the secessions to Rome were over 100 clergymen; in 1852, 000 clergymen and as many laity; from Oxford, 118 clergymen and laymen. Comp. B. Price, The Anglo Catholic

. Theory, from Edinb. Rev., Oct., 1851, Lond., 1852 ; Cardinal Wiscman, Essays, vol. 2 ; ibid., on High Church Claims, 1842; Christ. Remb., Jan., 1860; Archd. Hare, on Contest with Rome, 1852; Church Eng. Quart., 1854; Bp. C. P. McIlvaine, Oxford Divinity, Phila., 1841; Isaac Taylor, Ancient Christianity, 2 vols., 4th ed., 1844; Goode, on Baptism and the Divine Rule, 2 vols., 1842; Palmer, on Church, 2 vols., 1841.]

1 [Renn Dickson Hampden (Bp. Hereford, 1847), Phil. Evid. of Christ., 1827; Parochial Serm., 2d ed., Lond., 1836; Oxford Serm., 1848 ; Lects. on Moral Philos. ; Tradition, 4th ed., 1841 ; Thos. Aquinas, etc., from Encycl. Metrop., 1832, 3d ed., 1848. His Lectures (Bampton) on the Scholastic Philos. in Relation to Christ provoked the chief controversy. Comp. British Critic, xiv. ; Henry Christmas, Hist. of Hampden Controv., 1848 (with documents); Corresp. between D. H. and Dr. Howley, Abp. Cant., 2d ed., 1838; Julius Chs. Hare, Letter to Dean of Chichester, 1848 ; Dr. H.'s Theol. Statements and the Thirty-Nine Articles, 1836; Edb. Rev. lxii.; North British, viii.; Frazer's Mag., Xxxvii.; Church Rev. (New Haven) i.]

" [The Gorham Case, 1847, sq. Mr. Gorham denied unconditional baptismal regeneration ; was prosecuted by Bp. Philpotts, of Exeter, who was sustained in the Court of Arches; but this decision was reversed before the Queen in Council, 1850. Comp. W. E. Gladstone, on Royal Supremacy, 1850; Julius Chs. Hare, Letter to Cavendish, 2d ed., 1850. Letters to the Primate by a Layman; W. J. Irons, The Present Crisis, and Sequel; Keble, Church Matters in 1850; Edinb. Rev., xcii. xcv.]

15 [Denison Case, 1853–8, on Presence of Body and Blood of Christ in the eucharist ; Arch. Denison, removed by of Bp. of Bath ; Appeal of Ditcher vs. Denison dismissed by Privy Council, 1858.)

[Alex. Forbes, Bishop of Brechin, 1847 (Scotland), Explanation of Nicene Creed, etc., 1852. The controversy in his case is upon the adoration of Christ in the Eucharist, in his Charge,' 1857. Documents collected, 1860. Mr. Cheyne, who advocated the real presence, was condemned by the Scottish bishops, 1859.]

" (Edward Copleston, Bp. Llandaff, b. 1776, d. 1849 : on Necessity and Predestination, 1821 (comp. Quart. Rev. xxvi.) ; Prælectiones Academicæ, 1813, 1838; Sermons and Essays; Replies to Edinb. Rev. against Oxford, 1810–11; Memoirs, 1851. He was the head of the Oriel School (Whately, Arnold, etc.)]

* (Richard Whately, Abp. Dublin, Bampton Lect. on Party Feeling, 1822 ; Logic; Rhetoric; Essays; (1) Some Peculiarities of Christ. Revel., 4th ed., 1837, (2) Difficulties in St. Paul, 5th ed., 1845, (3) Errors of Romanism traced to their Origin in Human Nature, 4th ed., 1830 ; The Kingdom of Christ delineated, 1841; Hist. of Relig. Worship, 2d ed., 1849; Good and Evil Angels, 1851; Future State, 1854, etc.]

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Henry Hart Milman, Dean of St. Paul's; Bampton Lect., 1827, on Character and Conduct of the Apostles; Hist. of Jews, 3 vols., 1840; Hist. of Christ. to Abolition of Paganism, 3, Lond., 1840 (New York, one vol.); Hist. of Latin Christ., 6 vols., 2d ed., 1859, 8 vols., New York, 1860. Richard Chevenix Trench, Dean of Westminster : Hulsean Lect., 1845-6 (repr. Phil.), on Fitness of Holy Scripture for unfolding Spiritual Life, and Christ the Desire of all Nations ; Notes on Parables, 1841, and Miracles, 1852, various editions, reprinted New York, 1854; on Words, Proverbs, English Version, etc.--Edward Burton, Prof. Div. Oxf., b. 1794, d. 1836 (Works 5, 1837); Heresies of Apostolic Age, 1829 ; Testimonies of AnteNicene Fathers to Trinity etc.; Eccl. Hist. of first Three Centuries, 3d ed., 1845; Hist. of Church to Constantine, 1836.-J. J. Blunt, Marg. Prof. Oxf., d. 1859: Ref. in England, 5th ed., 1840; Undesigned Coincidences, 3d ed., 1850 ; Lects. on Early Fathers ; Constitution of Early Church, etc. Christopher Wordsworth, b. 1774, d. 1846 : Christ. Institutes, 1837; Eccles. Biog., 4 vols., 1839.-Among the other Anglican divines who have written chiefly on church history or patristic literature, are Routh, Gaisford, Jacobson, Greswell, Hardwick, Faber, J. M. Neale, Stebbing, Cardwell, Hook, Chs. Maitland, S. R. Maitland, etc.-G. H. Browne on Thirty-Nine Articles, 2 vols. J. B. Mozley, Baptismal Regen.; Augustinian Predestination, 1855.]

20 [The so-called Broad Church designates, indefinitely, a class of writers, who received an impulse from the philosophy and critical method of Coleridge (see above, note 5), and from the liberal and earnest historical spirit of Arnold. It is difficult to name those that belong here, for it is rather a tendency than a school. Bunsen was affiliated with them. Thos. Arnold, Head-Master of Rugby, b. 1798, d. 1842: Hist. of Rome, 3, 1840–3; later Rom. Commonwealth, 2, 1847; Introductory Lect. on Mod. Hist., 2d ed., 1843; Fragment on the Church, 1844; on Prophecy, 1844; Sermons; Miscellaneous Works : Life, by A. P. Stanley. (Most of his works republ. in New York.-On his Theological Opinions, sce Tappan, in Bibliotheca Sacra, Jan., 1858.)-Julius Chs. Hare, d. 1855: Victory of Faith, etc., 1840; Unity of Church; Mission of Comforter, 2d ed., 2, 1836 (Appendix on Luther); Guesses at Truth (with his Brother), 1847, rep. Boston, 1860;

. Contest with Rome (against Newman), 1852.-F. D. Maurice, Kingdom of Christ, 1838, 1842 (repr.); Epist. to Hebrews, 1846; Religions of World (Boyle Lect.), 1847; Lord's Prayer, 1848 ; Lectures on 0. T., 1851, 89.; Theol. Essays. 1853; on Revelation against Mansel), 1859, etc.-F. W. Robertson, d. 1858: Sermons.-McLeod Campbell, on the Atonement, 1856. Chs. Kingsley : Village Sermons ; Limits of Exact Science as applied to History, etc. - Arthur P. Stanley, Apost. Age, 1847; Memorials of Canterb. ; Lectures on Eastern Church, 1861.]

" [Samuel Lee, b. 1783, d. 1853: Hebr. Gram. and Lex.; Book of Job, etc. Journal of Sacred Lit., ed. by Kitto, 1848–53, now by Burgess. Kitto published Illustrated Comm. on 0, and N. Test., 5, 1840, 89. ; Cycl. Bibl. Lit.; Bible Illustrations, etc. S. P. Tregelles : Daniel, 1852 ; Historic Evidences; History of Printed Text N. Test., etc.-Samuel Davidson : Bibl. Criticism, 2, 1852; Hermeneutics, 1843 ; Introd. to N. Test., 3, 1848


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