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51, Controversy on his edition of the 2d vol. of Horne's Introduction, new ed. S. T. Bloom field : Recensio Synoptica, 8, 1826 ; Greek Test., 2, 184150. Chs. Wordsworth, Apocalypse, 1848–9; ed. of N. Test, and Comm., etc.-C. J. Ellicott, on Epistles.-Conybeare and Howson, on St. Paul.Alford, New Test., 4 vols. Jowett, on Gal., Cor., etc.]

[On Gill, see Note 13 of previous section. Abraham Booth, b. 1734, d. 1806: Works, 3 vols., 1813; The Reign of Grace; Death of Legal Hope the Life of Evangelical Obedience, etc.)

" [John Ryland (the father), b. 1723, d. 1792 : Scheme of Infidelity, 1770; Contemplation on Creation, 3, 1779–82. John Ryland (the son), b. 1753, d. 1825.-Andrew Fuller, b. 1754, d. 1815. Works, 1853, and often: Gospel Worthy of all Acceptation ; Calvinism and Socinianism compared ; Letters on Controversy with Rev. A. Booth ; Antinomianism contrasted with the Religion of the Scriptures, etc. He adopted in the main the principles of Jonathan Edwards.—Samuel Stennett, d. 1795 : Works, 3, 1824.—John Foster, b. 1768, d. 1843 : Essays ; Popular Ignorance; Contributions to Eclectic Rev., 2, 1844. Life by J. E. Ryland, 2d ed., 2, 1848.-Robert Hall, b. 1764, d. 1831 : Works, with Life by Gregory, 6, 1839; Reminisoences, by John Greene, 1832.-Alex. Carson, Baptism in its Modes and Subjects, 1844, etc.)

[John Pye Smith, Principal of Homerton, b. 1775, d. 1851. The Sacrifice of Christ, 1813; Script. Test. to Messiah, 1847; Script. and Geology, 4th ed., 1848; First Lines of Christ. Theol. (posthumous), 2d ed., 1860; Memoirs by Medway.-George Payne, d. 1848: Mental and Moral Science, 3d ed., 1845; Divine Sovereignty, 3d ed., 1846 ; Original Sin, 1845; Lect., on Theol., 2 vols., 1850.John Harris, Principal of New College, d. 1857: Great Teacher; Man Primeval, 1849; Præ-Adamite Earth,

E. Henderson, Divine Inspiration (Cong. Lect.), 1836 ; Isaiah, 1840; Minor Prophets, 1845 (repr. Andov., 1859); Jeremiah, 1851. William Jay, d. 1859: Works, 12 vols.Robert Vaughan, ed. of Brit. Quart. Rev., Causes of Corruption of Christ., 1852 ; Essays, 2, 1849; John de Wycliffe, 1832, 1853 ; Congregationalism and Modern Society ; Revolutions in Eng. Hist., 1859-61. John Kelly: The Divine Covenants, 1861.)

" [Among these are the Bridgewater Treatises ; the prize (Burnet) essays of Thompson and Tulloch ; Pearson, on Infidelity; Hampden's Phil. Evidences; Smyth, Lect. on Evid.; Faber's Difficulties of Infidelity; E. Dove, Logic of Christianity; W. H. Mill, Christian Advocate (against Strauss); T. Young, Christ in History; Isaac Taylor, Restoration of Belief; Birks, Difficulties of Belief; Henry Rogers, The Eclipse of Faith, etc. ; Ed. Miall, Bases of Belief, 3d ed., 1861.]

* [Essays and Reviews, 1859, 9th ed., 1861, reprinted Boston, ed. by F. H. Hedge, under the title, Recent Inquiries in Theology. They are under examination by a Committee of Convocation. In these Essays, Dr. Rowland Williams reproduces the critical hypotheses of Bunsen; Baden Powell (d. 1860, author of Essays Nat. Phil., Inductive Science, etc.), discredits the argument from miracles ; Mr. Goodwin shows the inconsistency between science and the Mosaic Cosmogony; Prof. Jowett advocates such an interpretation of Scripture as would annul every creed in Christendom. Numer

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ous articles and works (over 50) have already been written in reply ; Westminster Rev., Oct., 1860; Quart. Review, Jan., 1861 ; British Quart. Jan.; North Brit. Review, Aug. (Isaac Taylor); Christ. Rembr., Oct., 1860; Edinb. Rev., April, '61 (Stanley ?); Journal Sac. Lit., April; North Am. Rev., Jan; Am. Theol. Rev., April; Am. Quart. Church Rev., July. See also Jas. Buchanan, Essays and Reviews Examined, Edb., 1861; Jelf, Specific Evidence of Unsoundness, etc.; Lord Lindsay, Scepticism, its Retrogressive Character.

[The position taken in these Lectures is, that the ideas of the Infinite, Absolute, Cause, etc., are negative in the view of reason), the result of an impotence of the mind. This is on the basis of Hamilton's theory of knowledge. Comp. North British, Feb., 1859 ; Brownson's Quart., Jan., 1860; Am. Theol. Rev., Feb., 1860; Bibliotheca Sacra (Hickok), Jan., 1860; Brit. Quart., July, 1860; Dorner, in Jahrb. f. deutsche Theologie, 1860 ; Maurice, What is Revelation and Mansel's Reply, 1859–60; John Young, Province of Reason, 1860.]

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§ 285, C.

THEOLOGY AND PHILOSOPHY IN SCOTLAND.

[The discussions and divisions in Scotland during the first half of the eighteenth century, were chiefly ecclesiastical,' though theological differences came to light in the Marrow Controversy,' and Sandemanianism.' The Moderates' ruled under the Robertson administration (1758–82) : the tone of their theology was moral, mitigating the strictness of the old Confessions. (Leechman, Blair, Beattie, Macknight, Campbell).' The theological writings of the Erskines, Maclaurin, John Dick and Principal Hill, upheld the Scotch orthodoxy.']

[Philosophical investigations were most rife in Scotland, when England was indifferent to speculation. The scepticism of David Hume' was supplanted by the vigorous common sense of Thomas Reid. On the same general basis Dugald Stewart,' wrote his eloquent Disquisitions. Dr. Thos. Brown,' in his fervid Lectures criticised details of the system with great ingenuity, without effecting permanent results. Sir William Hamilton, with unusual learning and subtility, commented on Reid, defined clearly the province of Logic, and tried to overthrow transcendental speculations by a denial of all positive knowledge of the Infinite and the Absolute." Other Scotch philosophers' have rendered good service in different branches. of speculation.]

[The revival of evangelical theology was stimulated by the preaching and teaching of Thos. Chalmers." The Free Church, 1843, (the most remarkable religious movement of the century) doubled the efficiency of the church. The recent representatives of Scotch theology (John Brown, Dick, Crombie, Dewar, Symington, McCrie, Buchanan, Candlish, Cunningham and others)," and of Biblical learning (Eadie, Fairbairn, etc.)'* unite adherence to the older confessions with a liberal and earnest scholarship. The Independents'? are represented by Wardlaw and W. L. Alexander. The Unitarian controversy divided for a time the Irish Presbyterians."]

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[The Associate Presbytery (Ralph and Eben Erskine, with six others) was formed in 1733 (Synod 1746) because the Assembly yielded on the question of civil patronage. This was again divided, 1747, into Burghers and Anti-Burghers, on the question of the oath administered to freemen in the Royal Burghs, (The Burghers, 1786, divided into New and Old Light). The Reformed Presbyterians (Covenanters, Cameronians), separated in 1743 (opposed to the Revolution settlement); the Relief Secession (Thos. Gillespie, Thos. Boston), 1761, in opposition to patronage.]

* [The Assembly in 1710, passed an act for the Preservation of the Purity of Doctrine, bearing against the stricter adherents to the Covenants. Prof. Simpson of Glasgow, was mildly censured for Arminian views, while the Auchterarder Creed (interpreted as Antinomian) was condemned. In 1718 Fisher's Marrow of Modern Divinity (published in 1646 : Edward Fisher, b. 1597, d. in Ireland), was republished by Hog; and the Neonomians (moderates) of the Assembly, 1720, condemned five propositions said to be drawn from it; 1. That assurance is of the essence of faith. 2. Unlimited offer of Christ to all men, a warrant to each one to receive Christ. 3. Holiness not necessary to salvation. 4. Punishment and reward not motives to obedience. 5. The law is not a rule of life to believers. The book was prohibited—and ran through numerous editions ; 19th ed., by Boston, 1803. The Associate Secession (above) was involved in this controversy.]

. (John Glas, b. 1638, d. 1773; Works, 2d ed., 5, 1782; in 1727, he published a treatise to show that civil establishments are unchristian (The Testimony of the King of Martyrs concerning his Kingdom): he was deposed and formed a sect. In 1775 Robert Sandeman, an elder in one of these churches (b. 1723, d. in America 1771), wrote Letters on (Hervey's] Theron and Aspasia, maintaining that faith is the simple assent of the understanding to the truth (opposing Flavel, Boston and the Erskines); and that the death of Christ, without man's act, is sufficient to justify. Sandeman came to America in 1764. These churches maintained unanimity by expelling the min. ority. See Andrew Fuller's Twelve Letters (Works, 256–294); Bellamy's Nature and Glory of the Gospel.]

. [William Robertson, the historian (b. 1721, d. 1793, minister at Edinburgh, 1759, Principal of Univ., 1762), was for a long time the recognized leader of the Assembly, and head of the moderate party. He only published one Sermon, viz., The Situation of the World at the Time of Christ's Appearance, 6th ed., 1791. Geo. Cook (minister of Laurence Kirk, author of Hist. of Ref. in Scotland, 2d ed., 3, 1819, and Hist. of Chh. of S., 3, 1815) suc

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ceeded Robertson as leader, giving a higher tone; and Principal Hill followed. As late as 1796, the Assembly rejected a proposal for foreign missions. Buckle, in his Hist. of Civilization (vol. 2, 1861), gives a caricature rather than a history of the state of religion in Scotland.)

. [Many of the moderates adopted the ethical principles of Francis Hutcheson, b. 1694, Prof. at Glasgow, 1729, d. 1747 ; Introd. to Moral Philos., 1747; Moral Sense, 3d ed., 1769 ; Origin of Ideas of Beauty and Virtue, 1725; 5th ed., 1753 ; System of Moral Phil., with his character by Leechman, ed. by bis son, 2, 4to., 1775; Letters on Virtue, 1772. Wm. Leech. man, Prof. at Glasgow, 1743, d. 1783; Sermons with Memoir by Jas, Wodrow, 2, 1789. Hugh Blair, b. 1718, d. 1800 : Sermons, Lectures on Rhetoric, 3, 1803; he defended Hume against the Assembly.-- James Beattie, b. 1735, Prof. in Aberdeen, d. 1803 : On Immutability of Truth, 1770 (for which the Univ. of Oxford made him LL. D.); Essays; Moral and Critical Dissertations, 1783; Evidences, 4th ed., 1795; Moral Sciences, 3d ed., 1817; Life by Sir Wm. Forbes, 3, 1807.-James Macknight, b. 1721, d. 1800: Harmony of Gospels, 5th ed., 2, 1819; Epistles, 4, 1795, and often since. Geo. Campbell, b. 1719, Principal of Marischall College, 1759, Prof. Div., 1771, d. 1796. The Four Gospels, 1790, 4, 3d ed., 1814; Diss. on Miracles, 1762, new ed., 1723, transl. in French, Dutch and German; Rhetoric, 1776 ; Lect. on Syst. Thcol., 1807; Eccles. Hist., 1800, and often (Bp. Skinner's Positive Truth and Order, 1803, in reply). Thos. Reid (see below). Carlyle (Autobiography, first publ., 1860, also belonged to the Moderates.]

[Evangelical Religion had a strong hold of the popular mind. Whitefield was in Scotland nine times, 1741–68. There was constant correspondence between the Scotch and American Divines. Ebenezer Erskine, b. 1680, d. 1754 (a grandson of Ralph Erskine, who had 33 children); Works, 3, 1799, 1810; Sermons and Discourses; Life, 1831. His brother Ralph, 1685-1752 : Works, 2, fol., 1764-66 ; 10, 1777–1821. John Erskine, 1721-1803 : Theol. Diss., 1765; Sketches of Church Hist. and Theol. Controv., 2, 1790-7. Thos. Gillespie (of Presb. of Relief), d. 1774.John Maclaurin of Glasgow, b. 1793, d. 1854 : Prophecies relating to Messiah ; Nature of Happiness; Sermons and Essays; Works, 2, 1860, ed. W. H. Goold ("scarcely less intellectual than Butler, he is as spiritual as Leighton" -Dr, John Brown). His sermon on Glorying in the Cross, is of high repute.John Dick (Prof. to Associate Synod), b. 1764, d. 1833; Lectures on Theol., 2d ed., 1838, repr. New York, 1856; Inspiration, 3d ed., 1813 ; on Acts, 3d ed., 1848.-George Hill, b. 1748, Principal St. Mary's, d. 1820 ; Theol. Institutes, 1803 ; Lect. on Divinity, 3, 1821 ; 5th ed., 1849, New York, 1847. Jas. Morison was condemned, 1841, for holding that Christ died equally for all men (in United Secession Synod, Dr. Brown dissenting); he afterwards also denied unconditional election; an Evangelical Union formed.]

[David Hume, (see § 275, 285.) His essay on Miracles provoked the most immediate opposition ; but the fundamental principles of his sceptical philosophy, asserting that nothing is certain (real) but sensations and ideas, aroused a profounder criticism; awaking Kant in Germany “from his dogmatic slumbers," and leading Reid to plant philosophy upon “common sense,"

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afterwards defined as the “ fundamental laws of human belief.” See Cousin, Hist. of Mod. Philos.; Hamilton's Discussions ; Christ. Exam. (Walker), Nov., 1854; Brownson's Quarterly, Oct., 1855; Christ. Rev., April, 1855; Quart. Rev., 73.]

[Thos. Reid, Prof. Moral Philosophy, in Glasgow, d. 1796 : Inquiry into the Human Mind on Principles of Common Sense, 1764; Essay on the Intellectual Powers of the Human Mind, 1764 ; 3, 1819 ; Active Powers, 1788; Hamilton's ed., Edinb., 1846–52, 5th ed., 1858, incomplete (made doubly valuable by Hamilton's notes). Stewart's Life and Writings of Reid, (Works, vii., 207–293). His works have been translated into French; Reyer-Collard adopted his views: see Cousin's Lectures. Metaphysics, as distinct from Psychology, was ignored in Scotland from the time of Reid.]

. [Dugald Stewart, b. 1753, d. 1828: Elements of Philos. of Human Mind; Moral Philos. (Walker's ed., Bost, 1850); Phil. Essays; Progress of Philos. (in Encycl. Brit.) ; Works, 7 vols., Bost., 1829, new ed., by Hamilton, 1858 89. Life and Philos., in North British, 1858. See also Mackintosh in Edinb. Rev. xxvii., and Jeffrey, ibid., xvii.; Quart. Rev. vi.; Morell's Hist. Phil. His Elem. of Phil., transl. into French, by Prévost of Geneva; 2d. vol., by Farcy; his Prelim. Disc. by Buchon ; Phil. of Active Powers, by Simon.]

[Thos. Brown, M. D., b. 1778, d. 1820. Inquiry into Relation of Cause and Effect (invariable antecedent), 1804, 4th ed., 1835; Lectures on Phil. Human Mind, ed. D. Welsh, 1820, 11th ed., 1838; abridged U.S. ed., Hedge, 2; Lect. on Moral Philos., ed. Chalmers. Comp. North Am. xix., and for July, 1829; North British, 1857. Sir Wm. Hamilton's severe article against Brown (on Perception) in Edbg. Rev., 1830, is reprinted in his Discussions. Brown's system makes mental philosophy to be essentially a generalization of states of mind ; the faculties are put under the two great laws of simple and relative suggestion.]

" [Sir William Hamilton, b. in Glasgow, 1788, Prof. Logic and Metaph. in Edinb., 1836, d. 1856. Review of Cousin, Edinb. Rev., 1829 ; on Whately's Logic, 1833 ; Discussions in Phil. Lit., etc., New York, 1853 ; Lectures on Metaphysics and Logic, ed. by Mansel and Veitch (4 vol)., Bost., 2, 1859– 60; Essays in French, by Peisse. While verbally defending, he in reality

, undermined, the fundamental principles of the Scotch system, making infinite and absolute merely negative to thought, though admitting the necessity of belief. Comp. Baynes, in Edinb. Essays, 1854. On his system see Calderwood's Philos. of Infinite, 2d ed., 1861; Philos. of Sir W. H., arranged by 0. W. Wight, New York, 1853; North British, Nov., 1858, May, 1859 ; Brit. Quart., Nov., 1852; Prosp. Rev., July, 1853; Westminster, April, 1859; Frazer's Mag., 1860; Christ. Rev., Jan., 1854, Jan., 1860, July, 1861 ; Brownson's Quart., 1855; Meth. Quart., Jan., 1857, July, 1861; South Presb., Jan., 1856 ; Presb. Quart., Oct., 1858; Princeton Rev., Oct., 1859, and July, 1860; New Englander, Feb., 1860; Bib. Sacra, Jan., 1861: North Am., Jan., 1861; Rémusat in Rev. des deux Mondes; American Theol. Rev., Jan., 1861, and McCosh, in his work on Intuitions, 1860.

[J. F. Ferrier, Institutes of Metaphysics, the Theory of Knowing and Being, 2d ed., 1856. Jas. McCosh, Method of Divine Government, Physical and Moral, repr., New York, 1851 ; Typical Forms, 1856; Intuitions of

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