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the Mind inductively investigated, 1860. P. G. Dove, Theory of Human Progression, 1851 ; Logic of Christianity, 1856.—Jas. Douglas, Philos. of Mind, 1839. Geo. Jamieson, Essentials of Philos., Edbg., 1859. A. C. Fraser, Rational Philosophy, 1858. J. G. Macvicar, Ing. into Human Nature. Chalmers and Wardlaw, see below.]

18 [Thos. Chalmers, b. 1780, Glasgow, 1814 ; Prof. St. Andrew's 1824; Edinb., 1828 ; Prof. Theol. Free Church College, 1843; d. 1847; Works, 25 vols. : Posthumous, ed. Hanna, 9 vols.; Memoirs, 4 vols.- Among his works are Natural Theology; Internal Evidences ; Sketches of Moral and Mental Phil. ; Discourses on Astronomy, 1817; Christian and Economic Polity, 1821-6; Political Economy, 1832 ; Lectures on Romans; Bridgewater Treatise ; Horæ Biblicæ ; Institutes of Theology, 2; Prælections on Butler, Paley and Hill. He adopted, in the main, the theology of Edwards, according with him in his Lects. on Romans) in respect to the imputation of Adam's sin, though afterwards modifying his statements on this point.]

[The Free Church movement was on the question of State patronage and intrusion, raised by the Auchterarder case, 1837. The Assembly, 241 to 110, in 1842, passed the Protest anent Encroachments. The House of Lords decided against it. In 1843, Solemn Protest against State Encroachments, and withdrawal of 474. Dr. Welch, moderator; Chalmers, Gordon, McFarlane and others. Five hundred new churches were built in a year. Comp. Candlish, Summary of the Quest. respecting the Church of Scotland, 1841.]

" [John Brown (United Presb.), d. 1857: Civil Obedience, 3d ed., 1839, First Epistle of Peter, 2d ed., 1849 (New York); Discourses and Sayings of Christ, 3, 1852 (N. Y.); Our Lord's Intercessory Prayer, 1850; Resurrection of Life, 1852, etc.; Sufferings and Glories of Messiah ; Galatians, 1853,Thos. Dick, b. 1774, d. 1857; Christian Philosopher, 1823, and often; Philos. of Religion ; Philos, of Future State. Works, 10 vols., Phil.Aler. Crombie, b. 1760, d. 1842 : Philos. Necessity, 1793; Natural Theol., 2, 1829, etc.Daniel Dewar, Design of Christ., 1818; Holy Spirit, 1847; The Church, 1845; Elements of Moral Phil., 2, 1826 ; Nature of Atones ment, new ed., 1860.Thos. McCrie, b. 1772, d. 1835: Life of Melville; Ref. in Spain (1829), Italy (1833); Sketches Eccles. Hist. ; Life by his Son, 1840.–Jas. Buchanan, Office of Holy Spirit, 4th ed., 1843; on Modern Infidelity and Atheism, 2, 1858. William Symington, Atonement and Intercession of Christ, 1834, New York, 1856, on Justification ; Elements of Divine Truth.-Geo. Stevenson, The Offices of Christ.—Gordon (Rob.) Christ in Old Test., 2 vols.Hugh Miller, d. 1856, Footprints of Creation ; Old Red Sandstone, 4th ed., 1850.- Robert S. Candlish, Expos. of Genesis, 2, 1852 ; Cross of Christ; the Atonement, 1835, new ed., 1861 (the act of atonement postponed to the end of the world—so as to reconcile the universal offer with the limited redemption); Reply to Maurice, 1856; The Two Great Commandments, 1860. Principal Cunningham, articles in the Brit. and For. Evangelical Review, of which he is editor. The North British Review, 1844, sq., is in the interest of the Free Church.]

" [John Eadie (United Presb.), Bibl. Cyclop., 6th ed., 1857; Ephesians, 1853, 1859 ; Colossians, 1856; Philippians, 1859.- Patrick Fairbairn, St.

Peter, 2, 1836 ; Typology of Script., 2, 1845, 3d ed., 1857, Phila. 1853 ; Prophecy, 1850 ; Hermeneutical Manual, 1858; Ezekiel.-Donald Hacdonald, Creation and Fall, 1856 ; Introd. to Pentateuch, 1860.-J. A. Haldane, d. 1851, on Romans. Thos. Guthrie, The Gospel in Ezekiel.--The works of Brown, Chalmers, and Candlish, see above. Some of the best works of German theology have been reproduced in the valuable Foreign Library of the Clarks, Edinburgh.]

" [Ralph Wardlaw, d. 1853, Socinian Controversy, 1815–16; Ecclesiastes, 2, 1821 ; Christian Ethics, 3d ed., 1837 (repr. in Boston); Congregational Independency, 1848 ; Atonement, 3d ed., 1845 ; Infant Baptism, 1846 ; Miracles, 1852 (N. Y., 1857); posthumous, Lects. on Theol. 3, and . Expository Lectures on Proverbs, etc.-W. L. Alexander, Connexion and Harmony of Old and New Test., 1841; Anglo-Catholicism not Apostolical, 1843; Swiss Churches, 1846 ; Christ and Christianity; Life and Corresp. of Wardlaw.]

" [In 1827 a division on the Trinity in the Ulster Synod; W. Bruce led the Unitarians ; Dr. Geo. Cooke, the Trinitarians. Theological College of Belfast: W. Gibson, McCosh, W. D. Killen (the Ancient Church, 2d ed., 1861.)]

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§ 285, d.

THEOLOGY IN THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA

New England : Edwards and his School.

[Christian Theology in America has received some peculiar modifications adapting it to the new position and relations of the church. Its most marked and original growth has been in the line of the Reformed or Calvinistic system. The separation of the church from the state, the unexampled immigration, and the rapid growth of the country, made the pressure to come upon the practical rather than the theoretical aspects of Christian truth. Hence, the most thorough discussions and controversies have been chiefly upon questions of anthropology and soteriology. Systems of theology have all been preached. Controversy too, has been sharpened by the fact, that in the new world are representatives of all the ecclesiastical divisions of the old world, with many sectarian subdivisions. The minor sects of Europe have had the sway in America.]

[The starting-point in this new development of the Reformed faith is with Jonathan Edwards,' who fortified the Calvinistic theology against Arminian objections, in his works, on the Will and on Original Sin. The central idea of his system is that of spiritual life (holy love) as the gift of divine grace. Extensive revivals of religion attended his preaching (Whitefield).' Bellamy,' Smalley,' Backus, and Stephen West,taught in the main in his spirit. Other New England divines (Prince, Mayhew, Prests. Clap and Stiles, Samuel

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West, Chs. Chauncy, S. Mather),' and their Presbyterian cotemporaries (Tennent, Davies, Prests. Dickinson, Burr and Witherspoon), were but partially inclined to, in some cases opposing, the views of Edwards.]"

[Samuel Hopkins' gave to Edwards's theory of virtue (love to being), the form of disinterested benevolence; held that sin (overruled) was an advantage to the universe ; and equally enforced the divine sovereignty and the obligation of immediate repentance (Hopkinsianism). The younger Edwards' modified the theory of the atonement. Nathaniel Emmons' pressed the doctrine of divine efficiency, and the necessity of unconditional submission, to their sharpest statement, and matured the Exercise Scheme, denying all original sin, and making justification to consist in pardon. Other Hopkinsians, Asa Burton," Leonard Woods, ' advocated the Taste Scheme. The Connecticut theologians (Smalley, Dwight, Strong), and other New England divines, preferred a less extreme statement of the inain points of the Calvinistic system.]"

[The New Haven theology" (Nathl. W. Taylor, Fitch, Goodrich) planted itself in direct opposition to the old Hopkinsian theories on three points, viz., divine efficiency, sin as the necessary means of the greatest good, and the nature of virtue, while agreeing with Emmons in the position, that all that is moral is in exercises interpreted as acts of the will). Unitarianism' was an offshoot from the lingering Arminianism of New England, and also in part a reaction from extreme Calvinistic principles, and a further, onesided, development of some of the ethical principles of the prevalent theology (William Ellery Channing, Buckminster, Norton, Dewey and others.)" The speculations of Horace Bushnellie revived the controversy as to the person of Christ.]

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[Jonathan Edwards, b. 1703, at Northampton, 1727, dismissed, 1750; missionary at Stockbridge, d. 1758, Prest. of N. J. College. He opposed the views of his predecessor and grandfather, John Stoddard, on the Lord's Supper as a converting ordinance. Sermons on Justif., 1738; Religious Affections, 1748 ; Freedom of the Will, 1754-philosophical necessity; Original Sin, 1758–identity with Adam in his transgression ("the guilt a man has upon his soul at his first existence is one and simple, viz., the guilt of the original apostacy, the guilt of the sin by which the species first rebelled against God.") His chief posthumous works (by Hopkins), were Hist. of Redemption, 1774; Nature of Virtue, 1788; the End of God in Creation (his declarative glory). Works : Worcester, Mass., 8, 1809; Lond. ed., Williams, 8, 1817; vols. 9, 10, Edinb., 1847; Lond., 2, by Hickman, 1839; 10 vols., with Life by S. Dwight, 1830; 4, N. Y., 1844; Worcester ed., rep. in N. Y. 4, 1855. On Charity and its Fruits, N. Y., 1852. Life by Hopkins, by Saml. Miller (in Sparks' Am. Biog., 1st. s. viii. Article by Geo. Bancroft, in New Am. Cyclop.—" I consider Jonathan Edwards

“ His power

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the greatest of the sons of men :" Robert Hall. “ He in fact commenced a new and higher school in divinity, to which many subsequent writers, Erskine, Fuller, Newton, Scott, Ryland, the Milner's [Chalmers, John Pye Smith, Wardlaw], Dwight and indeed the great body of evangelical authors, who have since lived, have been indebted :” E. Bickersteth. of subtile argument, perhaps unmatched, certainly unsurpassed among men, was joined, as in some of the ancient mystics, with a character which raised his piety to fervor :" Sir James Mackintosh.—On his work on the Will, see Dugald Stewart; Isauc Taylor, Introductory Essay, repr. Bost., 1831 ; Prest. Day, Examination of Edwards, 1841; H. P. Tappan, Rev. of Edwards, 3 vols., repr. in London in one vol.; Bledsoe's Exam. of Edwards, 1843; Martin, in New Englander, v.; Bibl. Repos., 1839, 1841.-Samuel West, of New Bedford (b. 1730, d. 1807), wrote Essays on Liberty and Necessity, 1793–5, against Edwards, to which the younger Edwards replied. Stephen West, of Stockbridge, vindicated Edwards in his Essay on Moral Agency, 1772. On Edwards on the Nature of Virtue, see Bellamy, Works, i. p. xxix. ; the criticism of Mackintosh in Diss. on Ethical Philos., section 5; Robert Hall, in Works, i. 43, a note to his Sermon on Modern Infidelity; Princeton Review, 1853 (where it is incorrectly represented as Utilitarian); E. A, Park, in Bib. Sacra, 1853; Ed. Beecher, in Bib. Sac:, 1853. On his work on Original Sin, see Christ. Mo. Spect. (Taylor) vi. x., and Beecher's Conflict of Ages.]

[On Whitefield, see above, $ 275; and Tracy's Great Awakening.)

[Joseph Bellamy, b. 1719, d. 1790, at Bethlem, Ct.: True Religion delineated, against Antinomians, 1750; Wisdom of God in Permission of Sin (as means of greatest good) : Div. of Christ; Letters between Theron and Aspasio, 1759; Half-Way Covenant, 1769. Works, 3, 1811; 2 by. Cong. Bd., 1850. Comp. J. Woodbridge, in Lit. and Theol. Rev. ii. His True Religion, Letters, etc., rep. in London.]

[John Smalley, Berlin, Ct., 1784–1820, Natural and Moral Inability, 1760 (one of the best treatises on the subject); against Universalism (Murray), 1785; Sermons, 2 vols. Memoir by T. H. Skinner, Christ. Mo. Spect. vii.]

[Charles Backus, Norwich, Ct., 1749–1803. He educated nearly 50 theol, students, and refused the divinity chairs in Dartmouth and Yale; various Sermons; Truth of the Bible, 1797, on Regeneration.]

Stephen West, Stockbridge, Mass., 1736-1819: Moral Agency, 1772; Atonement, 1785; Life of Hopkins, 1805; Sermons. Volition, he says, is a direct effect of the divine agency; sin the necessary means of the greatest good; in these propositions he went beyond the elder Edwards.]

' [Thomas Prince, pastor of Old South Church, Boston, b. 1687, d. 1758: Chronol, Hist. of N. E., 1736-55; Sermons, ed. by John Erskine, Edbg. See Wisner's Hist. of Old South ; North Am. Rev., Oct., 1860; J. M. Manning, in Congregational Quart., 1860.-Jonathan Mayhew, Boston, b. 1720, d. 1766 : on Justification; Controversy with Apthorp about the Propag. Soc.; Various Sermons: see Allen's Biog. Dict., and Sprague's Annals.—Thos. Clap, Prest. of Yale College, b. 1703, d. 1767: Hist. and Vind. of Doctrines in N. E., with a Specimen of a New Scheine, 1755 (the

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new scheme was in the works of Hutcheson, Foster, Taylor, Campbell, etc.); Nature and Foundation of Moral Obligation, 1765, etc.—Ezra Stiles, Prest. Yale, b. 1727, d. 1795, an opponent of the new divinity. Sermons ; Life by Holmes. See Fisher's Hist. Disc.; Am. Qu. Reg. viii.; Spark's Am. Biog. xvi.-Samuel West, New Bedford, see note 1.-Chs. Chauncy, of Boston, b. 1705, d. 1788: In his Seasonable Thoughts, 1743, he opposed Whitefield ; 1767-1772, Controversy on Episcopacy with Chandler; Salvation of All Men, 1784 (answered by the younger Edwards); Fall and its Consequences, 1785.-Samuel Mather, d. 1785: Vita Franckii, 1733; Liberties of the Churches, 1738; against Chauncy's Universalism, 1781.]

• [Gilbert Tennent, b. 1703, d. 1764, the revival preacher, was in unison with Whitefield and Edwards; numerous Sermons; Trinity, 1744 ; Justification, 1745. See Alexander's Hist. of Log College, 1845; Tracy's Great Awakening; Sprague's Annals.—Jonathan Dickinson, Prest. N. J. Coll., b. 1688, d. 1747; Five Disc. on Election, Original Sin, etc., 1741 (against Whitby); Regeneration, 1743 (against Waterland); the two last reprinted Edinb., 1793 ; Controversies with John Beach on Civil Establishment of Religion, and on Free Grace (1736-46). See Sprague and Allen.-Samuel Davies, Prest. N. J. Coll., b. 1724, d. 1761. A great preacher; Sermons 3, 1765; 5,1774; Lond. 5, 1767-71 ; New York 3, 1849-51, with an Essay by Barnes on his Life and Times.—Aaron Burr, Prest. N. J. Coll., b. 1716, d. 1757 : Supreme Deity of Christ (against Emlyn), repr. 1791; Sermons. See Green's Disc. 300-313; Allen and Sprague.John Witherspoon, b. 1722, in Scotland, d. 1794, Prest. N. J. Coll. : Works, ed. Rodgers, 4, 1802 ; 9 vols., Edbg., 1815; Moral Philos.; Regeneration; Justif.; Lectures on Divinity. See Allen and Sprague ; and Edwards' Qu. Reg, 1836.] . [Samuel Hopkins, b. 1721, Great Barrington, 1740-60, d. 1803 : System of Theology, 2, 1793, 1811; Works, 3, Bost., 1853 ; Memoir by E. A. Park, 2d ed., 1854; Sin through the Divine Interposition an Advantage to the Universe, 1759 ; Promises of Gospel not made to the exercises of the Unregenerate (against Mayhew), 1765 ; Div. of Christ, 1768; True State of Unregenerate (against Mills), 1769; True Holiness (against Hemmenway), 1773–91; Slavery; the Millennium, etc. See Ely, Calvinism and Hopkinsianism, 1811; Christ. Examiner, xxxiii. ; Bibl. Sacra, x., by E. Beecher, ånd Conflict of Ages, by the same.Hopkins was opposed in respect to “ Unregenerated Doings,” by Moses Hemmenway (pastor in Wells, Me., for 51 years, 1759-1811), in two works, 1772-4; and by David Tappan, Prof. in Harvard (b. 1753, d. 1803), in a Discourse on the Character of the Unregenerate, 1782.—The points in which the old Hopkinsianism was distinguished from the older Calvinism were, 1. Divine efficiency extending to all acts (more sharply stated by Emmons); 2. Sin, the necessary means of the greatest good ; 3. The atonement unlimited, as a provision; 4. Obligation to immediate repentance; 5. Sharper distinction between natural and moral ability and inability ; 6. Disinterested benevolence involving unconditional submission, in the form of a willingness to be cast away forever, for the divine glory); 7. The theory of the covenants resolved into a divine constitution imputation, as a transfer of moral character, discredited) ; 8. Prior to moral exercises, there is only a divine constitution, and no moral

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