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character (hinted at by Hopkins, and developed by Emmons). But in the exercises, the will was not yet distinguished from the affections.]

[Jonathan Edwards, the younger, b. 1745, d. 1801, Prest. Union College, N. Y.: Salvation of All Men examined (reply to Chauncy); Liberty and Necessity; Three Sermons on the Atonement, 1785, etc. Works, with Memoir by Tryon Edwards, 2, Andov., 1842. He represents the atonement . as a satisfaction to the general or public, not to the distributive, justice of God. See The Atoneinent; Discourses and Treatises by Edwards, Smalley, Maxcy, Emmons, Griffin, Burge, and Weeks. With an Introd. Essay by E. A. Park, Boston, 1859, who attempts to find hints of the same view in the earlier New Eng. divines.]

" [Nathaniel Emmons, of Franklin, Mass., b. 1745, d. 1840. Works, with Life, by Ide, 6 vols., 1842; enlarged, with Memoir by E. A. Park, 6 vols., 1858-60. See Bib. Sacra, vii., Theology of Emmons, by Smalley ; Am. Qu. Reg. xv.; New Englander (Fitch); Am. Bibl. Repos. 2d s. viii.

. x.; Christ. Rev. vii. viii.; Princeton Rev. xiv. ; Christ. Examiner, xxxiii.; New Englander (Fisher), 1861; Am. Theol. Review, 1861.- Among the peculiarities of his divine efficiency and exercise scheme were the following: God is the universal cause—the efficient cause of sinful as well as holy acts, yet he creates them free; sin is not merely permitted but produced by divine agency, yet man has natural power to thwart the divine decrees; each man is consituted a sinner in consequence of Adam's first sin; all sin consists in sinning—there is no original sin ; true holiness demands unconditional submission, a willingness even to be cast away ; every moral act is either perfectly holy or perfectly sinful ; justification is simply pardon; Christians are rewarded in heaven for their own holiness. In respect to the nature of the soul, he was understood as affirming that it is a series of exercises. In his system there is a singular commingling of the idealism of Berkeley, supralapsiarian Calvinism, and natural ability. The scheme of absolute predestination has nowhere been more consistently developed, nor the responsibility of the sinner, and the claims of disinterested benevolence more earnestly enforced. His system contained sharply defined, yet contradictory elements, which must lead to a division.-Samuel Spring, Newburyport, Mass., d. 1819 : on Immediate Coming of Christ; United Agency of God and Map (in the sense of Emmons). On the question of Divine Efficiency, see Christ. Spect., March, 1836; E. D. Griffin, The Div. Efficiency, 1833,the Causal Power in Regeneration Direct; the latter reviewed in Evang. Mag., Dec., 1835.]

[Asa Burton, of Thetford, Vt., b. 1762, d. 1836; Essays on some of the First Principles of Metaphysicks, Ethicks and Theology, Portland, 1824. Dr. B, advocated the Taste Scheme—that the essence of virtue or vice is not in exercises, but in the antecedent taste or disposition. He, probably, among the N. E. divines, first made a sharp distinction between the affeo tions and the will. Judge Nathaniel Niles, of West Fairlee, Vt., (a student of Bellamy, d. 1828), advocated the same system; he published in 1809 an acute Letter on the Power of Sinners to make New Hearts, 1809; The leading Connecticut divines were opposed to the Emmons scheme (Bellamy, Smalley, Dwight, etc., also Dr. Woods ; see next note). A similar position has been





held, inclining in some cases more decidedly to the literal acceptance of the Westminster Confession, by Nathan Lord (Prest. Dartmouth, on Justification, Faith, etc.); John Woodbridge (Hadley); Heman Humphrey, Prest. Amherst Coll., d. 1859; Parsons Cooke (Lynn, Mass.); Neh. Adams (Boston, Evenings with Doctrines, 1860.)]

[Leonard Woods, b. 1774, d. 1846, Prof. in Andover from 1808. Works, 5 vols., Bost., 1849. Lectures on Theol., 3 vols. ; Letters to Unita. rians, 1820: Reply to Dr. Ware, 1821 ; Letters to N. W. Taylor, 1830 (on divine prevention of sin, and sin the necessary means of the greatest good); Essay on Native Depravity, 1835 (comp. Evang. Mag., Nov. 1835); on the Doctrine of Perfection (against Mahan). Comp. Bib. Sacra, viii. (Humphrey).—In the latter part of his life, Dr. Woods insisted more upon the points of agreement between the Hopkinsian thcology and the generally received Calvinism. See his Theology of the Puritans.]

1 [Timothy Dwight, Prest. of Yale, b. 1752, d. 1817: Theology explained and defended in a Series of Sermons, 5 vols., 1818 ; frequent editions in this country and in England. He inculcated the utilitarian theory of ethics; wrote against the position, that the soul is a series of exercises (Emmons ? or Jonathan Edwards the younger ?); and gave a temperate and judicious exposition of the New England theology.-Nathan Strong, Hartford, Ct., b. 1748, d. 1816; ed. Conn. Theol. Mag.; on Eternal Misery, in reply to Huntington; Sermons, 2 vols. See Sprague's Annals.-Jos. Lothrop, West Springfield, Mass., 1731–1820; Sermons, 7 vols. - Jesse Appleton, Prest. Bowd. Coll., d. 1818 : Theol. and Acad. Lect., 2, 1837.-Jas. Catlin, d. 1836: Comp. of Theology, 1828.-Enoch Pond, Bangor; Baptism; The Church; essays and reviews.]

16 Nathaniel W. Taylor, Prof. Theol. New Haven, b. 1786, d. 1858 : Sermons, Lects. on Moral Government; Essays in Revealed Theology, 1858–9.-Dr. Taylor opposed Hopkinsianism on the points above stated, and advocated the positions—that self-love is the spring of all moral action; that the sinner has natural ability (as power to the contrary) to repent; that the reason of the divine permission of sin may be, that God could not (from the nature of free agency) prevent all sin in a moral system. The atonement was vindicated as a governmental scheme.—The main works in this controversy were: E. T. Fitch (Prof. New Haven), Disc, on Nature of Sin, 1826 ; ibid., Ing. into Nature of Sin, 1827. N. W. Taylor, Concio ad Clerum, 1823—by nature we became, not are, sinners (Review by Jos. Harvey, '29); ibid., Review of Spring on Means of Regeneration (Christ. Spect., 1829)-self-love theory, and “suspension of the evil principle,” in regeneration. This called out the Strictures of Bennet Tyler (b. 1783, d. 1858, Memoirs and Lects., ed. Gale, 1859); Review of Strictures by Taylor (Christ. Spect., '30); Vindication of Strictures, by Tyler. Woods' Letters to Taylor, '30; Review by Taylor (Christ. Spect., '30). Various Articles by Taylor and Tyler, in Spirit of Pilgrims, and Christ. Spect., 1832–3.- Wilbur Fisk (Methodist), on Predestination and Election (criticising the New Haven views), was replied to by Fitch, Christ. Spect., 1831 (see Fisk, Calv. Controversy, 1853.)—Spring, on Native Depravity, 1833 ; reviewed by Taylor, Christ. Spect., 1833. D. N. Lord, Views in Theology.-Chauncey


Lee, Letters from Aristarchus to Philemon, 1833; review of the same in the Evang. Mag., 1833.Harvey, on Theol. Speculations in Conn., 1832.—See (Tyler) Letters on Origin and Progress of New Haven Theology, N. Y., 1837. Pigeon, in Lit. and Theol. Rev., v. vi. Leonard Bacon, Appeal to Cong. Ministers in Conn., 1840, Seven Letters to G. A. Calhoun, 1840. - Edward Beecher : Conflict of Ages, '53, and Concord of Ages, '59. In these two works, the theory of preexistence is applied to settle the conflicts of the schools, and vindicate the honor of God.]

[As early as 1756, Emlyn's works were republished in Boston. Samuel Clarke's works were also much read. In 1785, King's Chapel, Boston (Jas. Freeman) altered its Liturgy on the Trinity. Mayhew, of Boston, and Gay, of Hingham, were Unitarians. The election of Henry Ware (b. 1764, d. 1845), to the Hollis professorship, Harvard College, 1805, was opposed on account of his Unitarian views (by Jed. Morse, b. 1761, d. 1826, in his True Reasons, 1805, and Appeal to the Public, 1814). Hosea Ballou (Uni. versalist), in his work on the Atonement, 1805, denied the essential divinity of the Son. Noah Worcester (b. 1758, d. 1838), in his Review of Testimonies in Favor of Div. of Son, and his Bible News, 1810, 5th ed., 1844, and Address to Trinit. Clergy, 1814, maintained the Arian hypothesis (like Clarke). T. Lindsey's Memoirs, 1812, were republ. in part by Morse, and reviewed by Worcester in the Panoplist, 1815. (The work described the silent progress of Unitarianism in N. E.-Belsham, Review of Am. Unitarianism, 2d ed., Lond., 1815.)-The controversy became more decided upon the publication of W. E. Channing's sermon at the ordination of Jared Sparks, in Baltimore. Stuart's Letters to C., 1819; Woods' Letters to Unit., 1819; Henry Ware, Letters to Trin, and Calv., 1820; Woods reply to Ware, and Ware's Answer, 1822; Andrews Norton, True and False Religion, and Views of Calvinism, in Christ. Disciple (1820–2); N. W. Taylor in reply, in Christ. Spect., 1823-4; Norton, Statement of Reasons for not Believing the Doctrines of Trinit., in Christ. Disciple, 1819, 1833, new ed. by Abbot, 1855. Saml. Miller, Letters on Unitarianism; reply by Sparks, 1821. See Ellis, Half-Cent. of Unit. Controv., 1857. De Remusat, transl. from Rev. d. deux Mondes in Christ. Exam., May, 1857.In their views on the person of Christ, the Am. Unitarians range from Sabellianism to Humanitarianism.]

[William Ellery Channing, b. 1780, d. 1842. Works, 5, 1841; 6, 1846 ; repr. Lond., and several transl. into French and German. From Hopkins he received the principle of disinterested benevolence, without its Hopkinsian inferences. Memoir by W. H. Channing, 3, 1843. Comp. Westminster Rev., '50 (Martineau); Christ. Exam. xiv. (Dewey), xlv. (Furness); Lit. and Theol. Rev., i. (Withington); Democ. Rev., xii. (Bancroft); New Englander, viii.-Jos. Buckminster, d. 1810, Sermons; ed. Griesbach's N. Test-Andrew Norton, b. 1786, d. 1853, Prof. at Cambridge (see above), Genuineness of Gospels, 3, 1837–44, 2d ed., '52 ; New transl. Gospels, '55; Internal Evid., '55.–Orville Dewey, Discourses, Controv. Theol. etc., 3, 1846-7.-G. W. Burnap, Unitarianism, 1835; Trinity, 1845 ; Evid., 1855. J. G. Palfrey, Evid. ; 1843; Jewish Scriptures; Hist. N. E., 1858.-A. P. Peabody, Christ. Doctrives, 1844.—Sam. Osgood, Christ. Biog., etc.



W. H. Furness, Jesus and his Biographers, 1838; Hist. Jesus, 1850.H. W. Bellows, Re-statements of Christ. Doctrine, 1860. Alv. Lamson, Church of First Three Cent, 1860.]

[Horace Bushnell, Hartford, Ct.: on Christ. Nurture, 1847, new ed., 1860 (see Princeton Rev., 1847; Christ. Exam., xliii.; New Englander, v.; Letters to Dr. B. by Dr. Tyler, 1848; What does Dr. B. mean? 1849 ; Contributions of C. C., 1849); God in Christ, 1849; Christ in Theol., 1851. Princeton Rev., 1853 ; Reports to Hartford Central, and Fairfield West Assoc., 1850–3; Christ. Exam., xlvi. xlvii.); Nature and the Supernatural, 1858.—Dr. B.'s position is, that the Trinity is in and for the sphere of a revelation, though there may be an eternal ground for it in the Godhead.See also, A Biblical Trinity, by Theophilus, Hartf., 1850.]

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[The New England theology early extended its influence into the Presbyterian churches of the Middle and Western States (Triangle Controversy).' It led to the trial of Albert Barnes and of Lyman Beecher for alleged heresy,' and finally to the disruption of the church (1837, Old and New School). The system of Edwards, in its main features had many able advocates (Ely, Griffin, Wilson, Richards, Skinner, and others). The older Calvinism was defended by Romeyn, Mason, Green, Miller, the Alexanders, Rice, Breckinridge, Thornwell, Hodge, and others.Perfectionismo was deduced from the new divinity by Finney and Mahan.-The discussion between Professors Park and Hodge brought the extreme positions of the New and Old School to a definite statement.']

[Though Locke on the Understanding, was the leading collegiate text-book in the last century, yet the idealism of Berkeley affected many theological speculations. The introduction of the Scotch philosophy contributed largely to the New Haven reaction against the old Hopkinsianism; theories of ethics and of the will shaped the theological definitions. The literature of the country has been prolific in systems of mental and moral philosophy, and of logic, of a popular character. The spiritual philosophy of Coleridge, the eclecticism of Cousin," and the transcendental (and German) speculations have had their advocates; while in opposition to the Scotch school, other systems have been framed on a more independent basis (Tappan, Hickok.")

[Most of the denominations are represented by their theological periodicals." Biblical learning' has been fostered by the labors of Stuart, Robinson, Bush, Turner, Hackett, Barnes, Hodge, Alexander, Norton, Noyes, and others. The best German works





on Church History have been translated, and this department of theology is cultivated with new interest."

[Besides the above controversies among the Congregationalists and Presbyterians (which have been the most fruitful in a doctrinal point of view), each denomination has had its theological representatives, advocating its distinctive tenets or polity, whose writings form a large part of the church literature of the country. The Episcopal Church" is represented by Johnson, Chandler, Seabury, White, Hobart, Bowden, Hopkins, Jarvis, Hawks, Tyng, and others; the Baptists' by Backus, Benedict, Wayland, Williams, Sears, Fuller, etc., (the Campbellites) ; the Methodists," by Asbury, Bangs, Elliott, Fisk, Olin, McClintock, Stevens, etc.; the Lutherans," by Muhlenburg, Hazelius, Kurtz, Mann, Schmucker, and others; the German Reformed," by Harbaugh, Nevin, and Schaf; the Dutch Reformed," by Livingston, Frelinghuysen, De Witt, Cannon, Berg, etc. ; the Universalists," by Winchester, Ballou, Chapin ; and the Annihilationists, by Hudson. The Quakers,” were divided by Elias Hicks. The more fanatical sects” (Shakers, Adventists, Spiritualists), and the Mormons” have also had free scope, and are dying out. On the Roman Catholics, see $ 287, note 15; on the Swedenborgians, $ 278; Irvingites, $ 285, note 6.)

[In the midst of all these divisions, the progress of evangelical doctrine in the United States has kept pace with the growth of the population. Christianity is here to work itself out to its full practical results, independently of the aid of the civil power. Four sources of difficulty affect its growth; the increase of Romanism, the inroads of infidelity (both of these chiefly through the foreign immigration), the institution of slavery, and the multiplicity of sects. All these practical hindrances raise questions of the highest theoretic and theological interest, which the Protestant churches are to press to their solution.]




[Gardiner Spring (see above, note 15), pastor of the Brick Church, N. Y., 1810 (Works, 12 vols., 1854, sq., Attractions of Cross ; Glory of Christ, etc., see note 14.) Ezra Styles Ely (d. 1860), Contrast of Calvinism and Hopkinsianism, 1811. Samuel Whelpley (d. 1817), The Triangle, 1816 (against limited atonement, inability, and immediate imputation). Jas. P. Wilson, Pbil. (d. 1830), on Natural Ability and Moral Inability, 1819. The progress of the New England theology in the Presb. churches was favored in the West by the Plan of Union, 1801, made with the Genl. Assoc. of Conn.]

* [Albert Barnes, the commentator, was put upon trial, 1833, for his sermon on the Way of Salvation, and his Comm. on Romans; again in 1835 by Dr. Junkin ; acquitted by the Assembly, 1836.-Lyman Beecher, Prof. in Cincin., prosecuted by. J. L. Wilson (d. 1846), 1834–5, and ac

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