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quitted : see Wilson's Plea, 1837, and Beecher's Views of Theol. (Works, iii., 1853), as developed in his Trials, with Remarks on the Princeton Review (on sin, ability, imputation, etc.)-Geo. Du field on trial before Presb. of Carlisle, 1832-3, for his work on Regeneration ; complaint dismissed in the Assembly.]

• A Memorial to the Assembly, 1834, specified nine doctrinal errors current in the church. The Act and Testimony of the Minority (O. S.), 1834. The Old School had a majority, 1835, and recommended the abrogation of the Plan of Union. New School majority in 1836 ; Mr. Barnes acquitted. In the Assembly of 1837, the Plan of Union was abolished : 4 synods cut off without further trial (comprising 500 ministers and 57,724 communicants.). The reasons were, 1. Opposition to the new divinity; 2. to voluntary societies; 3. Demand for rigid subscription; 4. In part, the question of slavery. The Auburn Convention (N. S.), 1837, adopted the Protest against the act of exclusion, which also gives a clear statement of the views of the New School. See G. N. Judd, Hist. of Division of the Presb. Church, 1852; 2. Crocker, Catastrophe of Presb. Church, 1838.—Among the doctrinal affirmations contained in the above protest of the New School (in reply to charges of heresy on the particular points—sixteen being enumerated in all)—the following are the most important: “God permitted the introduction of sin, not because he was unable to prevent it, but for wise and benevolent reasons, which he has not revealed"...." By a divine constitution, Adam was so the head and representative of the race, that, as a conseqnence of his transgression, all mankind became morally corrupt, and liable to death, temporal and eternal".... The " sufferings and death” of infants,

are to be accounted for, on the ground of their being involved in the gen. eral moral ruin of the race induced by the apostacy". .“

" Original sin is a natural bias to evil, resulting from the first apostacy, leading invariably and certainly to actual transgression. And all infants, as well as adults, in order to be saved, need redemption by the blood of Christ, and regeneration by the Holy Ghost"...." The sin of Adam is not imputed to his posterity in the sense of a literal transfer of personal qualities, acts, and demerit; but by reason of the sin of Adam, in his peculiar relation, the race are treated as if they had sinned. Nor is the righteousness of Christ imputed to his people in the sense of a literal transfer of personal qualities, acts and merit; but by reason of his righteousness, in his peculiar relation, they are treated as if they were righteous"...." The sufferings and death of Christ were not symbolical, governmental, and instructive only, but were truly vicarious, i, e., a substitute for the punishment due to sinners. And while Christ did not suffer the literal penalty of the law, involving remorse of conscience and the pains of hell, he did offer a sacrifice, which infinite wisdom saw to be a full equivalent. And by virtue of this atonement, overtures of mercy are sincerely made to the race, and salvation secured to all who believe".... “ All believers are justified, not on the ground of personal merit, but solely on the ground of the obedience and death, or, in other words, the righteousness of Christ”. “ While all such as reject the Gospel of Christ do it, not by coercion, but freely-and all who embrace it, do it, not by coercion, but freely—the reason why some differ from others is, that God has made them to differ.”

. [On Ely and Wilson, see note 18. Edw. D. Griffin, Prest. Williams Coll., b. 1770, d. 1837: Life by W. B. Sprague, 1839; see also Durfee's Hist. Williams Coll. ; Sermons; on Div. Efficiency, see note 10; Humble Attempt to Reconcile Differences on the Atonement, 1819 (rep. by Cong., Bd., 1859); Park-street (Boston) Lectures, 1813.-James Richards, Prof. Theol., Auburn, d. 1843. Lectures, with Life, by Gridley, 1843.-George Duffield, Detroit : Regeneration, 1832 ; on Prophecy and Millennium.N. S. s. Beman, Troy : Episcopal Contro.; Discourses; Atonement (see Princeton Essays, i.)—Samuel H. Cox, Quakerism not Christ.; ed. Bower's Popes; Remarkable Interviews.—Thos. H. Skinner : Aids to Preaching; Sermons ; transl. of Vinet, etc.]

(J. B. Romeyn, New York, d. 1825 : Sermons, 2 vols.—John M. Mason, d. 1829 (distinguished as a preacher); Works, 4 vols., on Episcopacy; the Church ; Communion, etc.— Ashbel Green, d. 1848: ed. Christ. Advocate; Hist. N. J. College; Lects. on Cat. 2, 1841; Discourses.-S. Stanhope Smith, Prest. N. J. Coll., d. 1812: Human Species, 1788; Evidences, 1809; Moral Phil.; Nat, and Rev. Religion.-Saml. Miller, Princeton, d. 1850 : Retrospect 18th Cent., 1801 ; Order of Ministry, 1807; Unitarianism (Sparks), 1821 ; Sonship of Christ (Stuart), 1823.- Archibald Alexander, Princeton, d. 1851: Evidences; Justif.; Canon ; Moral Phil.; Hist. Israelites.—John H. Rice, Va., d. 1831 : Pamphleteer, 1820; ed. Va. Evang. Mag.Thos. Smyth, S. C., on Presb. and Prelacy; the Trinity.--Jas. W. Alexander, New York, d. 1859: Discourses and essays.-N. L. Rice, Divine Sovereignty ; R. C. Controv., etc.-J. H. Thornwell, S. C., Apocrypha ; theological essays and reviews.—R. J. Breckinridge, Ky., Knowledge of God, Objective and Subjective, 2, N. Y., 1858-9.- Charles Hodge, Princeton : Essays and Reviews, 1857; Commentaries ; ed. Princeton Review.-A. A. Hodge, Outlines of Theol., 1860.-Saml. J. Baird, The First Adam and the . Second: the Elohim Revealed, 1860; against immediate and antecedent imputation; see Princeton Rev., April, 1860 ; So. Presb. Quart. (Thornwell), 1860; Baird's Rejoinder to Princeton, 1860.-Griffin, Geo., a lawyer of N. Y., d. 1860, in a work on the Sufferings of Christ, 2d ed., 1846, advocated the view that the divine nature suffered.]

[Asa Mahan, Oberlin : Christ. Perfection ; Woods' Reply, see above, and Am. Bib. Rep., 2d s. i. ii. iv.; Princeton Rev. xiii. xiv. C. G. Finney, Oberlin : Lectures on Revivals, 13th ed., 1840; Sermons, 1839 ; Lects. on Syst. Theol., new ed. by Bedford, 1851. See Princeton Rev. (Hodge), 1847; Rand, in Volunteer, and New Divinity Tried, and Vindication, 1832.)

[Edwards A. Park: The Theology of the Intellect and of the Feelings; a Discourse before the Convention of Cong. Ministers of Mass., 1850 (Bib. Sacra, vii.); Remarks on Bibl. Repert. (Bib. Sac. viii.); Unity amid Diversities of Belief (Bib. Sac. viii.); New England Theol. (ix.). Chas. Hodge, three articles in Princeton Rev., reprinted in his Essays and Reviews, p. 529, sq.- Review of Prof. Park's Disc. in Lit, and Theol. Rev., 1850.Daniel Dana, Remonstrance to the Trustees of Phillips Acad., 1853.Review of Dr. Dana's Remonstrance by a Layman, 1853.—Views in New

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Eng. Theology, Nos. 1, 2, Boston, 1859.—The three main points of New England theology, in Professor Park's view, are “ that sin consists in choice, that our natural power equals, and that it also limits our duty." The opposing position was, that the older New England divines did not hold these three principles in this unlimited, and abstract form; and that they cannot properly be exalted to the rank of essential points in a system of Christian theology.]

. [Berkeley's (see § 285, a, note 16) speculations were a frequent theme of discussion. His theory was adopted by Samuel West, of New Bedford, and by Samuel Johnson (who became an Episcopalian, see note 17, below); and his influence can be distinctly traced in the works of Stephen West and of Emmons.]

[Witherspoon and S. Stanhope Smith, wrote on Moral Philosophy. All the leading New England divines elaborated the theory of ethics (Edwards, Hopkins, Emmons, Burton, Dwight, Taylor). J. Macpherson, Moral Phil., Phila., d. 1791.-F. Beasley, d. '48, Search after Truth, '22.Jasper Adams, d. '41, Moral Phil., '37.-Chs. J. C. Follen, d. 1840 (a German), Works, 5, '41, on Moral Phil. and Psychology.-T. C. Upham, Bowd. Coll., Mental Phil., The Will, etc.—Jas. Richards, Mental and Moral Phil.-R. H. Bishop, d. 255, Logic, '33; Science of God, '39.—Jeremiah Day, Prest. Yale, on Edwards on Will, '41 ; on Self-Determining Power, '49.- Francis Wayland, Moral Phil. (numerous editions); Intel. Phil., '44; Pol. Econ.Archibald Alexander, Moral Science, '52.-S. A. Sawyer, Mental Phil., '39.

- Francis Bowen, Cambr., Critical Essays, '42; Ethical and Metaph. Science, '47.-Jas. Walker, Prest. Cambr., ed. Reid and Stewart.-F. E. Brewster, Phil. Hum. Nature, Phila., 1851.-R. Hildreth, Morals, '44.— Jos. Haven, Chicago, Mental Phil., '57 ; Moral Phil., '59.-H. Winslow, Moral Phil., '56.-J. L. Dagg, Elements of Moral Science, 1860.—Henry Carleton, Liberty and Necessity, Phil., 1857.-W. D. Wilson, Logic, 1856. -J. T. Champlin, Intel. Phil., 1859.-Samuel Tyler, Baconian Phil., '46; Essays, '56.-Coppee, Logic, 1857.]

" [Coleridge's Friend and Aids to Reflection were republished 1831-40 with an able Preliminary Essay, by Prest. Jas. Marsh, Burlington, Vt. (b. 1794, d. 1842: Remains. ed. by Torrey, 2d ed., 1845: Systematic Arrangement of Knowledge; Remarks on Psychology, on the Will of the Spiritual Principle in Man). Coleridge's Works, ed. by W. G. T. Shedd (Andover), who has also published Lects. on Phil. of Hist., 1850; Discourses and Essays, 1856. [J. Tracy] Essay on Christ. Philos., Andov., 1848.]

[Cousin, Introd. to Hist. of Phil., transl. by Linberg, Bost, 1832; Course of Mod. Phil., by 0. W. Wight, 2, 1852–4; Philos. of Beautiful, by J. C. Daniel, 1849 ; Psychology, by C. S. Henry, 4th ed.: Selections, by Geo. Ripley (in Phil. Miscl.), 1838. See North Am. 53 (Bowen), 85; Brownson, in Christ. Exam., 21; Am. Qu. Rev., 10. Day on Cousin's Psy. chology in Christ. Qu. Spect., 7.-C. S. Henry has also publ. Comp. Christ. Antiq., '37; Moral Phil. Essays, '39; Epitome of Hist., Phil., from French, 2, 1845.-Asa Mahan, Intel. Phil., new ed., '54; Logic, '57; Moral Phil., '48; The Will.]

[The transcendental philosophy led to a controversy between Andrews






Norton and Geo. Ripley; Ripley, Disc. on Phil. of Religion, 1836; Norton, The Latest Form of Infidelity, 1839; Ripley, Letter on the same (including a View of the Opinions of Spinoza, Schleiermacher, and De Wette), 1840; Norton, Remarks on the same.-Comp. on Transcendentalism, Princeton Rev. xi. xii.; Am. Bib. Rep., 3d s. i.; Christ. Exam., xxi. xxii. (Bowen); Brownson's Quart., ii. ; New Englander, i.-A. Kaufmann, transl. Bockshammer, on the Will, 1835.- Stallo, General Principles of Philos. of Nature (Schelling, Oken, Hegel), Bost., 1848.--F. A. Rauch (Mercersburg), Psychology, 1835.-E. V. Gerhart, Philos. and Logic, 1858.—This general transcendental movement became deistic in Theodore Parker (d. 1859 : Sermons on Theism ; Miscellanies; of Religion; Popular Theology; Addresses) ;

1; and pantheistic in Ralph Waldo Emerson (Essays, two series; Addresses ; Poems; Representative Men; Conduct of Life).-J. W. Miles, Philosophic Theology, '49; Ground of Morals, '52.- Henry James, Nature of Evil, '55; Christianity the Logic of Creation, '57.)

" [Henry P. Tappan, Chancellor of Univ. Michigan, Review of Edwards, 3; Logic, 1844 and 1857.Laurens P. Hickok, Union Coll., Rational Psychology, 1849, 2d ed., 1860; Science of the Mind in Consciousness, 1854; Moral Philos.; Christian Cosmology, 1858– The general method of Kant, with positive and Christian results. See Lewis, in Bib. Sacra, 1850, 1851; Christian Remembrancer, July, 1853; New Englander, Feb., 1857; Princeton Rev., 1859; Am. Theol. Rev., 1860.)

[Conn. Evang. Mag. (Backus), 1806–7; Panoplist (Morse), 1806, 89.; Christian Disciple, 1813–24 (Ware), since 1824, the Christ. Examiner (Unit.), now ed. by Hedge.—Christ. Spect., Monthly, 1819-28 ; quarterly to 1834, New Haven; Spirit of Pilgrims (Cong.), 1829–33; Mag. of Ref. Dutch Church, 1826–30; Princeton Repository, Presb. (Hodge), since 1849; Am. Qu. Obs. (B. B. Edwards), 1833–4; Christ. Rev. (Bapt.), since 1836; Lit. and Theol. Rev. (L. Woods), 1834-9; Meth. Qu., 4 series, since 1819; Universalist Qu., since 1844 ; So. Meth. Qu., since 1847; Church Rev. (Episc.), since 1848; Evangel. Rev. (Lutheran), since 1849; Deutsche Kirchenfreund, monthly, since 1847; Theol. and Lit. Journal (Lord), since 1840; Biblical Repository (Robinson and Edwards), Andov., 1831-7, New York (Peters, Agnew, Sherwood), 1837 to 1850; Bibliotheca Sacra, i. 1843 (Robinson), 1844, sq. (Park, Taylor); New Englander (New Haven) since 1843; Brownson's Quart., since 1844 Rom. Cath.; Southern Presb. (Columbia, S. C.), since 1848; Presb. Quart. (Wallace), Phil., since 1852; Prot. Episc. Quart., N. Y, since 1854 ; Free Will Baptist Quart., since 1857; Cong. Quart., 1859; Am. Theol. Rev., 1859; Danville Quart. (Presb.), 1861; Evang. Rev. (Ref. Dutch, Berg), 1860; United Presb. Quart., 1860; Boston Review (Cong.), 1861.]

[Moses Stuart, Prof. Andover, 1810–1852; Heb. Gram., 1821, 6 editions; Chrestomathy; Ep. to Hebr, 27, 3d ed., Robbins, '59; Romans, '32, 3d ed., Robbins; Notes to Hug, '36 ; New Test. Gram.; Apocalypse, 2, '45; 0. Test. Canon, '45; Miscel., '46; Daniel, '50; Eccles., '51; Proverbs, '52; Letters to Channing and Miller (on Eternal Generation, '22); Diss. on Original Lang. of Bible, 2d ed., '27; Transl. of Gesenius' Hebr. Gram., and Defence of the same, '47.-Edward Robinson, Prof. in Andov.,



1830, in New York, '37; Winer's Gram.; Wahl's Clavis, '25; Buttmann's Gram., '33; N. Test. Lex., '36 and '50; Hebr. Lex. ; Bibl. Res, in Palest. 3, '43, new ed., '55; Harmony of Gospels, '45; Eng. Harm., '46.- Isaac Nordheimer, Hebr. Gram., '42.-George Bush, d. 1859 : Script. Illustrat. ; Millennium, '32; Hebrew Gr., '35; Anastasis, '44 ; Pent. Josh., '40 to '58; ed. New Jerusl. Mag.--Saml. H. Turner (Prot. Episc.), Jahn and Planck's Introd.; Jewish Rabbies, '47; Prophecy, '52; Rom., Hebr., new ed., '59.Elias Riggs (Constple.), Manual of Chaldee, '24, new ed., '56.--H. B. Hackett, ed. Winer's Chaldee Gram.; Acts, 2d ed., '52.- Albert Barnes, Comm. on New Test.; Job; Isaiah, etc. - Charles Hodge, Ep. to Romans, '35, abridged, '36; 15th ed. Phil., '56; Ephes., '56; 1 Cor., '57; Hist. Presb. Church, 2, '40; Way of Life, 30th ed., '56, etc.Jos. Addison Alexander, Princeton, b. 1809, d. 1860 (Princeton) : Isaiah, 2, '46–7; Psalms, 3, '50 ; Essays on Prim. Church.-H. J. Ripley (Bapt.), Gospels; Rom. ; Acts.-J. J. Owen (N. Y.), Gospels, 1858–60.-D. D. Whedon, Gospels Matth., Mk., 1860.-F. G. Hibbard, Psalms.—Justin Edwards, d. 1853, New Test.–Jas. Strong, Harm. and Expos. of Gospels.-G. R. Noyes (Cambr.), Job, Psalms, Prophets.— Andrews Norton (Cambr.), New transl. Gospels, Genuineness of Gospels, '52–55.-M. Jacobus, Gospels.-F. S. Sampson, Hebr., '56.T. V. Moore, Haggai, etc., 56.—On Apocalypse, D. N. Lord, '47; Macdonald; Weeks, '51.-Abp. Kenrick, New Test, transl. from Vulgate, '47–51.-T.J. Conant, Rochester, Rödiger's Gesenius; transl. of Job and New Test. (in progress). 4. C. Kendrick, Olshausen's Comm. revised, 6 vols., 1858.]

" [Neander, transl. by Prof. Torrey, 5 vols., 1840–54. Hase by Blumenthal and Wing, '55.- Mosheim's Institutes, 3, 1832, frequent editions, and Commentaries on First Three Cent., '51, by Jas. Murdock (d. 1856); also transl. Münscher's Dogmat. Hist., '30, and the Syriac N. Test., '61.Guericke, i. by G. W. T. Shedd.Kurtz, Sacred Hist. by Schaeffer, '57.Gieseler, Hist. to Ref. by F. Cunningham, 3, '42; revision of Davidson's Edinb. Version, by H. B. Smith, continued to 1648, 4 vols., New York, 1857–61.-P. Schaf, Apostol. Church, '53, Hist. of Church, i., '58.Coleman's Ancient Christ., '52.-M. Mahan, Church Hist. of First Three Cent., 1860.]

"[The Charch of England was established in the southern colonies; in Maryland after the decline of the Roman Catholic influence (1692); and in New York after its cession by the Dutch, (1693). Frequent projects of appointing bishops in the other colonies failed. The first controversy in New England was (1720) between John Checkley (d. 1753), and Ed. Wigglesworth (Prof. Cambr., d. 1765). In 1722 Tim. Cutler (d. 1756), S. Johnson and others in Ct. became Episcopalians. The latter wrote in defence of the Epis. Church (1733); A Syst. of Morality, '46; Hebr. Gram., '67; d. Pres. King's Coll., '72. Noah Hobart (Fairfield, Ct., d. 1773), wrote: Serious Address to the Episcopal Separation, '48; Second Address, '51. J. Wetmore, (d. '60): Vindication of Professors of Church of England, '47; and Rejoinder to Hobart. J. Beach (d. 1782): Answer to Hobart '49; Vivdication, '56. Prest. Dickinson, Reasonableness of Nonconformity, '38; Second Vindication, etc. (see Allen's Biog. Dict.) In 1763, East Apthorp, controversy with Dr.



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