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Mayhew, on the Plans of the Propag. Society ; Mayhew, on Conduct of the Society, and two Defences, 1763–5. The Abp. of Canterb. (Secker) replied to Mayhew. T. B. Chandler (d. 1790): Appeal on behalf of Chh. of Eng., '67; Defence, '69, '71. Chauncy of Boston, Remarks on Bp. of Llandaff's Sermon, '67; Answer to Chandler, '68, '70; Complete View of Episcopacy, '71. After the Revolution, episcopal ordination was obtained in Scotland, 1781, by Samuel Seabury (d. 1796), in England by Bp. White (d. 1836). On the proposed alteration in the Liturgy, see 8 222, note 6. In 1811, Bp. Hobart of N. Y. (d. 1830), advocated High Church claims in his Companion for the Altar; J. M. Mason, replied in Christ. Mag. ; Hobart, Apology for Apostolic Order. John Bowden (d. 1817), advocated Episcopacy against Stiles, 1778; against Miller, 1806-10 (Miller's Order of Ministry, 1807; reply to Bowden, 1810.) Bp. H. U. Onderdonk (Phil., d. 1858), Episcopacy tested by Script., 1830; reply by Albert Barnes, 1844. Wainwright and Potts' discussion on the theme; a Church without a Bishop. (Comp. Woods on Episc. '44; Smyth, Prelacy ; Coleman's Prim. Church ; Jos. A. Alexander, Prim. Church Officers, '51). The Oxford Controversy had its echoes in America. Between 1815 and 1858, 38 of the Episcopal Clergy went to Rome (Bp. Ives, 1852). Bp. Hopkins of Vt., wrote on Church of Rome, '37, and Novelties, '44; Confessional

, '50; End of Controversy, '54. Bp. McIlvaine, on Justif., '40; Oxf. Div., '41; Apostolic Office, '55 (see Princeton Rev., '56). Other Episcopal Divines, S. F. Jarvis (d. '51), Regen., '21 ; Prophecy, '43; Introd. to Chh. Hist., '45 ; Reply to Milner, '47; Chh. of Redeemed, '50. Bp. Ravenscroft, d. 1730 : Disc. and Controv. with J. H. Rice. Samuel Seabury, Continuity of Chh. of Eng., '55; Am.

. Slavery Justified, '60. J. O. Ogilby (Prof. N. Y., d. '51), on the Chh, and Lay Baptism, '44. F. L. Hawks, N. Y., Eccl. Hist. of Md. and Va.; Egypt; Chris. Antiq. Murray Hoffman (jurist) Canon Law, '51. John S. Stone, The Mysteries opened (on Baptismal Regeneration and the Real Presence), 1844; The Church Universal, '46. Stephen H. Tyng, Law and Gospel, '48; Israel of God; Christ is all, 1849.]

· [The Baptist Controversy is perpetually renewed. Among the leading divines of this denomination are: Isaac Backus, b. 1724, d. 1806, Hist. of Baptists, 3 vols., to 1801; Mem. by A. Hovey, 1858. David Benedict, Hist. Bapt., new ed., '48; Compend. Eccies. Hist.; Fifty Years among Baptists, '60. Jas. Maxcy (Prest. Brown Univ., d. '20), Disc. and Remains (Elton). Francis Wayland (Prest. of Brown), b. 1796 ; Sermons; Moral and Intel. Phil.; Pol. Econ.; on Slavery (Fuller); Principles of Baptists, '56, etc. Wm. R. Williams (N. Y.), Miscel. ; Rel. Progress; Lord's Prayer, etc. Barnas Sears (Prest. Brown), on Education; Addresses and Reviews. R. Fuller on Baptism, Slavery (Wayland), Close Communion, 249. T. F. Curtis, Progress of Baptist Principles, '57. S. S. Cutting, Hist. Vindication, '59.—The Campbellites are named from Alex. Campbell, editor, of Christ. Bapt., '23–29, of Millennial Harbinger, since '30; Christ. System; Baptism; Infidelity refuted by Infidels; Public Debates with Walker, McAlla, Purcell and Rice; Debate with Owen on Socialism. See J. B. Jeter, Campbellism Examined, 1858.]

[In 1784 the First Methodist Conference was organized under Wesley's

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rules. In 1860, the total of Methodists in America, was 1,880,269. Fran. cis Asbury, d. 1816, preached 17,000 Sermons; Journals, 3 vols.; Life by Strickland, '59. Bp. Emory, Defence of Fathers ; Episc. Controversy; Hist. Discipline. N. Bangs, on Meth. Ep. Church; Original Church of Christ; Sanctif. Chs. Elliott, Delineation of Rom. Catholicism, 2, N. Y. (3d ed., Lond., '51); Bible and Slavery; Baptism, '34 ; Hist. of Secession of Southern Chh. G. Peck, Christ. Perfection; Rule of Faith. W. Fisk, d. 1830; Predest. and Elect. (against Fitch). Stephen Olin, d. '51, Sermons and Addresses, J. McClintock, Temporal Power of Pope, '55; ed. Classical Works, Abel Stevens, Chh. Polity; Memorials of Method.; Rel. Movement in 18th cent., i., ii., 1858–60.]

[On the early German emigration to United States, see W. M. Rey. nolds, in Evang. Review, July, 1861. Henry Melchior Muhlenberg, d. 1787; Reports in Hallische Nachrichten, 1741-85; Life by Stoever. The Lutherans are divided into (1), the strict Old Lutheran-controversy 1850, between Missouri and Buffalo Synods (Löber, Walther); (2.) Moderate Lutheranism of the Penn. synod; (3.) Evangelical Lutherans (Gettysburg). The American Lutherans generally reject the strict doctrine of consubstantiation; the discipline is stricter than in the European churches; the government more Presbyterian.—For a full literature of the denomination, see Evang. Review, April, 1861.-J. C. Kunze, d. 1802, orientalist.-J. G. Lochmann, d. 1826, Hist. Lutheran Doctrine, 1818.-J. Bachmann (S. C.), Defence of Luther; Unity of Race, etc.—E. L. Hazelius, Hist. of Church, i.'42; of Am. Luth., '46; Life of Stilling. C. W. Shäffer, Early Hist. Luth., '57.-B. Kurtz, Why a Luth., '43; Inf. Bapt., '48. W. J. Mann, Luth. in Am., '57; Plea for Augsb. Conf., '56. J. G. Morris, Life of Arndt, '53; on Martin Behaim, '55. J. A. Seiss, on Hebrews, '46; Baptist System, 2d ed., '58; Gospel in Lev., '60 ; Digest of Doctrine, '57. A. and S. Henkel, Transl. of Luther on Sacraments, '53 ; of Book of Concord, '54. S. S. Schmucker (Prof. Gettysburg), Storr and Flatt transl., 2, '26 ; Appeal on Union, '38; Psychology, '42; Am. Luth. Church, '51 ; Lutheran Manual, '55; Am. Lutheranism Vindicated (reply to Mann), '56; Formula of Gov, and Discipline. See J. A. Brown, The New Theology, '57, and Schmucker in reply.]

[The German Reformed were at first united with the Dutch.-Dr. Mayer, d. 1849, Hist. of Ref. Church.-H. Harbaugh, Fathers of Germ. Ref. Church; The Future Life, etc. J. W. Nevin, Bibl. Antiq.; Mystical Presence, '46; Heidelb. Catechism, '47, and a series of articles in the Mercersb. Review on Puritanism, the Cyprianic Church, etc. See in reply, Hodge in Princeton Rev., '48, Schmucker and Berg; also Brownson's Quart. and Ebrard (approving Nevin's views) in Studien und Kritiken, '51. On P. Schaff (comp. note 16); he has also written on the Sünde wider den heiligen Geist; Principles of Protestantism, '45 ; What is Church History! '46; America, '55; Germany and its Universities, '57; edited Deutsche Kirchenfreund, '48–53, and Mercersb. Rev., and contributed numerous articles to Bib. Sacra and other reviews.]

[The Dutch Ref. Church was first established in New Amsterdam (New York), under the classis of Amsterdam; Domine Everardus Bogardus,



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1633–47; S. Megapolensis, 1642–68. 1737-71, a strong movement against the dependence on Holland-Catus and Conferentie parties; the Cætus party at last succeeded. First preaching exclusively in English by A. Laillée, d. '78. The Decrees of Dort and the Heidelberg Catechism are the standards. J. H. Livingston, Prof. Theol. (b. 1746, d. 1855); Sermons and Addresses ; Life by Gunn, '56. Theod. J. Frelinghuysen, d. 1754, Sermons, ed. De Witt, '56.-W. C. Brownlee, on Quakers, '24; on Popery; West. Apost. Church; Rom. Cath. Controv.; Deity of Christ. Thos. De Witt, Hist. Disc., '58, etc. D. D. Demarest, Hist., Ref. D. Church, '59, J. S. Cannon, d. 1850, Lect. on Pastoral Theology, '53. W. R. Gordon, Godhead of Christ, 1855. Jos. F. Berg (Germ. Ref. till '52), Lect. on Ro manism, '40; Theology of Dens, '40; Papal Rome; Voice from Rome; Pope and Presbyterians, '44 ; Robe of Trèves; Myst. of Inquis., '46; Reply to Abp. Hughes, '50; Farewell Words to Germ. Ref. Church and Nevin, '52; Prophecy, '56, etc.]

[John Murray, from England, b. 1741, d. 1815, formed the first Universalist Society in Am., 1779; Letters and Sermons, 3, 1816. Chs. Chauncy, in Boston (see § 285, d., note 7), taught the doctrine in bis Salvation of All Men, 1784 (reply by Jonathan Edwards, Jr., '85), and Jos. Huntington, of Coventry, Ct. (d. 1795), in his Calvinism Improved, publ. 1796; replies by Strong, of Hartford, and others.-Elhanan Winchester (b. 1751, d. '97): Univ. Restoration, 1786 ; on Prophecies, 2, 1800.-Hosea Ballou, d. 1851, Orthodoxy Unmasked ; Divine Benevolence, 1815; Atonement, 1805–1828.-Hosea Ballou, 2d, d. 1861 : Univ. Expositor, 1831; Ancient Hist. Universalism.-W. Balfour, d. 1812 : Inquiry ; Essays; Letters to Stuart, etc.—E. H. Chapin, Characters in Gospels ; Lord's Prayer; Humanity in City, '54.—The Annihilationists : Geo. Storrs, Are the Wicked Immortal, 21st ed., '59. C. F. Hudson, Debt and Grace, '57; Human Destiny, a Critique of Universalism, '61. See Alvah Hovey, State of Impenitent Dead, 59: J. R. Thompson, Law and Penalty : R. W. Landis, Immortality, etc., 2d ed., '60. Abp. Whately, Scriptl. Revel. respecting Future State, '55.]

” [The Quakers (Society of Friends) had trouble, 1692, with George Keith, who organized the Christian Quakers, and at last became an Episcopalian. The Quaker predominance in Penn. came to an end, about 1755, in the discussions on men and supplies for the French war. No Friend was allowed to hold slaves (John Woolman, Epistle to Quakers, 1773. Benezet (d. 1784) aroused the zeal of Clarkson in England).-A division, 1827, by Elias Hicks (d. 1830), who denied the divine authority of the Scriptures, and the deity and atonement of Christ. Separate organizations formed (150,000 regular, and 10,000 Hicksite Quakers.)]

” [The Shakers began in England (called Millennial Church), with Jas. and Jane Wardley, Bristol, 1747. Mother Ann Lee joined them, 1757, and became the spiritual mother ; emigrated to America, 1774, Watervleit, N. Y., d. 1784. Strict celibacy; Christ's Second Coming (4th dispensation began in 1847). See Evans' Hist., 1859; A Summary View of the Millennial Church, Albany, 1823.-Adventists : Wm. Miller preached in 1833, that the end of the world would be in 1843 : J. V. Hines, Advent Heral),



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1840. Spiritualism (Rappings, Necromancy) began 1850, with the Foz family, Andrew Jackson Davis, Harmonia, 6, 1850; Nature's Div. Revel.; Philos. of Spiritual Intercourse; Harmonial Man, etc. J. W. Edmonds, Spiritualism, 2, 1853–5. Owen, Footfalls on the Boundaries, etc., 1860. See Asa Mahan, Mod. Myst. Explained, Bost., 1856. Modern Necromancy, in North Am. Rev., 1855; Christ. Exam., Nov., 1756 (Hill); Church Rev, July, 1855; Westminster, Jan., 1858. W. R. Gordon, Threefold Test of Modern Spiritualism, N. Y., 1856; Agenor de Gasparin, Science vs. Spiritualism, 2, 1856 (transl. by E. W. Roberts). The Literature of Spiritualism, New Englander, 1858. North Brit., Feb., 1861, on Edmonds and Owen.)

[Mormons, Latter Day Saints. Joe Smith, b. 1805, published Sol. Spalding's (d. 1816) Romance on the American Aborigines (Nephi and Lehi), as the Book of Mormons, 1830. The church founded with three high priests, twelve apostles, twenty elders : temple in Nauvoo, 1842 : Smith killed. Brigham Young succeeded; in 1856 emigration to Utah. They may now number 60,000 in Utah. Gifts of tongues and prophecy; polygamy practised. See J. B. Turner, Mormonism in all Ages. Accounts by Bennet, 1843; Gunnison, 1852; Ferris, 1854; Green, 1858; Hyde, 1859; Edb. Rev., April, 1854; New Englander, Nov., 1854; Jules Remy, Voyage au Pays des Mormons, 2, Paris, 1860; T. W. P. Taylder, The Mormons' Own Book, Lond., 1855.—The Book of Doctrines and Covenants; Kirtland, 0., 1835; Nauvoo, 1846; and a 3d ed. in England.]

§ 286.


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It was characteristic of the theology of the eighteenth century that it attached less importance to the denominational differences of the confessions of faith, upon which so much stress had been laid in the preceding period. These differences had receded in view of the new and fresh antagonisms. The cause of this was not only rationalistic indifferentism, but also the efforts of the Pietists, and other sects of a similar character, for the promotion of practical piety. Although the union of Catholicism with Protestantism was restricted to pious and impracticable wishes,' yet on the other hand, in several parts of Germany a union was brought about between the Lutherans and the Calvinists. But even this union led to a revival of the former denominational differences, which were not only made the subject of scientific discussion, but also gave rise to separations and commotions in the church. Thus Scriptural Supernaturalism, as well as old Lutheran orthodoxy,' and the rigid Calvinism' of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, were strongly defended in the nineteenth. The work of union has been very much shattered by this dogmatic partisan hatred.


Comp. Urlsperger, (8 277, note 6), Zinzendorf (8 277). • Did Lavater and Sailer labor to effect such a union ?-Connection of the literary romantic school with the catholicising tendency in the Protestant church.—Conversion and proselytism. See the works on Church History [Hase, Gieseler, Niedner, Guericke.]

::817–30: Prussia, Nassau, Baden, the electorate of Hesse, Hesse-Darmstadt, Würtemberg. Compare the works on ecclesiastical history,

• Among the writers on systematic theology, Augusti, previous to the establishment of the Union, showed the necessity of enabling the students of theology to obtain a more thorough knowledge of the systematic theology of the Lutheran Church which even Lessing held to be more than “a patchwork of blunderers and semi-philosophers,” in bis work: System der Christlichen Dogmatik, nach dem Lehrbegriff der lutherischen Kirche, im Grundrisse dargstellt, Leipz., 1809--Respecting particular doctrines, see the special history of doctrines (Lord's Supper, Predestination, etc.). The revived study of symbolism, see § 282, also helped in this matter.

Scheibel in Breslau and Steffens (who wrote: Wie ich wieder ein Lutheraner wurde und, Was mir das Lutherthum ist, Breslau, 1831), Guericke, (1835), Kellner, Wehrhahn, and others. Concerning the commotions to which these conflicts gave rise, see the works on ecclesiastical history, e. g. Hase, p. 569, ss., and H. Olshausen. Was ist von den neuesten kirchlichen Ereignissen in Schlesien zu halten! Leipz., 1835. Niedner, p. 888 sq.

Rudelbach und Guericke, Zeitschrift für die gesammte lutherische Theologie und Kirche, from the year 1840. Rudelbach, Reformation, Lutherthum und Union, Leipz., 1839. Somewhat later we find the camp of the UltraLutherans itself divided into fractions : see Gieseler, Kirchengeschichte der neuesten Zeit, Bonn, 1855, pp. 213, 277. The Lutherans represented by the Zeitschrift für Protestantismus und Kirche, edited by Thomasius and Hofman. [Theologische Zeitschrift, 1860. K. F. A. Kahnis, Die moderne Unions-doctrin, Leipz., 1853; K. J. Nitzsch, Würdigung der Augriffe des Dr. Kahvis, 1854 : Kahnis, Die Sache der lutherischen Kirche gegenüber die Union, 1854.—The chief works in this controversy are Julius Müller, Die evang. Union, 1854, and F. J. Stahl (d. 1861), Die lutherische Kirche und die Union, 2te Aufl., 1860. Baur, Dogmengeschichte, p. 356, represents the course of things thus: the church in opposition to the new philosophic speculations could not take any other consistent standpoint than that of the older Confessions ; but as soon as they come back to them earnestly, the old conflicts of the symbols must break out anew.]

Among the Momiers in the Church of Geneva (comp. § 285, note 9), in the Netherlands and in the district of Elberfeld; yet it can not be pretended, that there was a revival of older Calvinism, like that of old Lutheranism (Neidner, 885).


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