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The development of the Roman Catholic Church in Germany was different from that in France; for these two countries alone here come into consideration. In the former country Romanism was affected by the influence of the philosophical systems, and the prevailing tendency of the age. While some Roman Catholics, especially as favored in the reign of Joseph II., Emperor of Austria, directed their efforts chiefly to the reform of the government of the church,' there were others who sought partly to rationalize (auf klären)," and partly to idealise (verklären) the Roman Catholic doctrine." Here the modern speculation led through the indefinite views of the older rationalism, to a more profound and philosophical advocacy of their doctrines in their conscious distinction from those of the Protestant Church. This was the case especially with Hermes* and Möhler, and Günther,' though with different degrees of success. In France the Jansenistic controversy was continued at the commencement of the present period in the controversy concerning the Constitution." From the time of the French Revolution, theological conflicts appear so intimately connected with political contests, as to preclude the expectation that even those highly talented men who took a prominent part in these conflicts,' would do much for the scientific development of theology. The theological system of Bautain is of special importance in its relation to the theology of Hermes. The former tried to prove on speculative ground, that speculation is not admissible in systematic theology, and rested his system entirely upon faith, while Hermes endeavoured to establish faith by philosophy. Both systems were condemned by the Papal See as being founded on extreme views. The so-called German Catholicism troubled itself less about dogmatic principles. Called into being by an extreme Roman Catholic superstition," it planted itself upon a rationalistic eclecticism ;' and though a fraction sought to save more positive elements, yet it was devoid of thorough theological basis." [The Roman Catholic literature of England," and the United States of America,' has been chiefly historical and controversial.]


Among the Italian theologians, the most eminent is Cardinal Perrone, Prof. in the Collegium Romanum : Prælectiones Theologicæ Rom., 1835; in German, Landshut, 1852. [Some 25 editions of this work, and its abridgment have been published; Perrone has also written on the Rule of Faith (Latin and French), 3 vols., 1853; on the Immaculate Conception, 1848; 'Theology and Philosophy, 1845. Perrone was born 1794, and became Prof. in Rome, 1823.-Pellicia, Prof. in Naples, d. 1823, and Passaglia, the editor of the Eccles. Christi Monumenta de immacul. Virginis Conceptu, are the two other most eminent Italian divines of the century.Among the Italien philosophers, Galluppi, of Naples, d. 1846, taught in the spirit of Reid; Ventura (b. 1792), on Philos. Reason and Catholic Reason, and on the Origin of Ideas, 1853, interpreted reason by the light of the Council of Trent.-The two great Italian philosophers of the century are Vicenzo Gioberti, d. 1852, and Antonio Rosmini (Serbati), d. 1855, both of them vigorous opponents of the pantheistic school. Gioberti wrote on the Moral Primacy of Italy; the Jesuits; the Good and the Beautiful; Theory of Supernatural; posthumous, 7 vols. (Philos. of Revel., and Protology). His formula is Deus creat existentias. Comp. Westminster Rev., Oct., 1853 ; Brownson's Quart. (N. Y.), 1859, 1860. Rosmini, on Origin of Ideas, Moral Phil., Theodicy, Ontology, Theosophy, etc. Comp. Zeitschrift f. Philos., 1856, 1859 (by Seydel); Annales de Philos. Chrét., 1860; Depit, Histoire de la Phil. dans l'Italie, Paris, 1859; Bartholméss, Histoire critique des doctrines religieuses de la Phil. Moderne, 2 vols., Paris, 1855. Father Lockhart, Life of Rosmini, Lond., 1856. Rosmini's work, The Five Wounds of the Church (1. In left hand-separation between people and priesthood in public worship; 2. In right hand—inadequate instruction of priesthood ; 3. In the side-discussion among bishops; 4. In right foot lay nomination of bishops ; 5. In left foot-dependence of ecclesiastical property)-written 1832, publ. 1844, was prohibited by the Congregation of Cardinals, 1845; but the accusation was dismissed as containing no heresy, after an examination of all Rosmini's writings, (30 vols.), under the Presidency of the Pope in General Congregation. Rosmini founded the Institute of Charity, on the Lago Maggiore, 1838.]

* Joseph II. (reigned from the year 1780) stood in the same relation to the Roman Catholic Church, in which Frederick II. stood to the Protestant Church, but manifested greater interest for religion, and was also more dictatorial. Concerning Justinus Febronius (Nicolas of Hontheim) and the Punctation of Ems (1786); and Scipio Ricci, Bishop of Pistoja and Prato under the reign of Leopold of Tuscany, see the works on ecclesiastical history. [De Potter, Vie de Ricci, 2 tom., 1825). The contests about the hierarchy, celibacy, and monasticism also belong to church history, and not to the history of doctrines.

* Isenbiehl (1774) was violently attacked on account of his interpretation of the Messianic prophecies.-In later times the critical and exegetical li bors of Jahn, Hug, and Scholz, were distinguished by a more liberal spirit of inquiry.-Dereser and Van Ess translated the sacred Scriptures into German; Blau (died 1798) undermined the doctrine of the infallibility of the Church (Frankf., 1791).- Joseph Muth examined the relation in which Christianity stands to the religion of reason (Hadamar, 1818). Michl (Anton) manifested more liberal views in the treatment of ecclesiastical hise tory. (Among the German Roman Catholic divines, at the close of the last century, who tried to popularise theology, were Gazzaniga, Prælect. Theol., Vien., 1775; Gervasio, Tract. Theol., Vien., 1765: Klüpfel, Institut. Theol.,


Vindob., 1789; Wiest, Demonstratio dogm., Ingolstadt, 1788; Stattler, in his Theol. Christ. Theoret., Eustad., 1781, and Loci Theol., 1775, tried to introduce a more philosophical spirit. Under the influence of the later German philosophy, Schwarz made use of Kantian ideas; Zimmer applied Schelling's theory of intellectual intuition ; Dobmeyer interspersed philosophical reflections; Klee tried to infuse into the wbole system a philosophic method; Liebermann (Inst. Theol., ed. 7, Mogunt., 1853), has more the character of a positive dogmatics. See Kuhn, Kathol. Dogmatik, Bd. i. 2te. Aufl., p. 515. Kuhn's own work takes a high rank among the modern Roman Catholic systems, in the attempt to reconcile faith and reason; the second volume is on the Trinity.]

Wessenberg and his school were characterized by an idealing tendency, and a spirit of toleration towards other communions. (Von Wessenberg

[ Ampringen, b. 1777, d. 1860; from 1817 to 1827, in the diocese of Constance, in conflict with Rome. He wrote on the German Church, 1816; the Great Councils of the 15th and 16th Cent., 4 vols., 1845 ; God and the World, 2 vols., 1857.] Comp. (Keller) Katholikon, für Alle unter jeder Form das Eine, Aarau., 1827. On the other hand, Sailer (1751-1832) in distinction from this more rationalising tendency, endeavored to represent Romanism in an attractive form, by the use of mystic phraseology; and, lastly, some others, such as Martin Boos, Al. Henhöfer, and Johann Gossner, sought to introduce the stricter evangelical principle (and Pietism) into the theology of the Roman Catholic Church; the two latter afterwards became converts to the Protestant faith, but not the first; see his autobiography, edited by Gossner, Leipz., 1826.-In opposition to these reforming tendencies, Görres (born 1776) endeavored to maintain the principles of the Romanism of the middle ages. His works, characterized by vigor and genius, gave new support to the school of Munich. [Joseph Görres, b. 1776, d. 1848. His History of Mysticism is a reproduction of the mediæval systems, adapted to modern times.)

George Hermes, born 1775, was professor of theology in Münster and Bonn, and died 1831. By asserting that the Romish doctrine might be proved pbilosophically, he undermined the authority of the Church. See his Einleitung in die christkatholische Theologie, Münster, 1819, 31, Voll. üi., 1829. Christ katholische Dogmatik, herausgegeben von Achterfeldt, Münster, 1834, 3 voll. His theory was condemned by Pope Gregory XVI. (1835.) Comp. P. J. Elvenich, Acta Hermesiana, Gött., 1836. Zell, Acta antihermesiana, Sittard, 1836. Braun et Elvenich, Meletemata theologica, Lips., 1838; Acta Romana, Han., 1838. Rheinwald, Repertorium, xxxii.xxxiv. The condemnation of Hermes was renewed by Pius IX. in 1847. [See Niedner, p. 828–30; and his Philosophiæ Hermesii Explicatio, 1838. Die Wahrheit in Hermes. Sache, Darmst., 1837. Elvenich, Der Hermesianismus und Joh. Perrone, 2te. Aufl., 1844. Sudhof in Herzog's Realencyclop.]

Möhler was born 1796, and died 1838. Having received his first im. pressions from the study of Protestant theology (Schleiermacher), he afterwards employed his knowledge to oppose it. By his Symbolism (Mainz, 1832), he revived the controversy between the Roman Catholics and Pro

testants, and induced the latter to re-examine their own principles. (Symbolism, transl. by J. R. Robertson, 2 vols., Lond., 1843; New York, 1844. For the works in reply, see vol. i. ante, p. 42. P. Marheineke, Ueber M.'s Symbolik, Berl., 1833.)-The most eminent theologians and philosophers of the Roman Catholic Church are : Francis Baader (d. in Munich, 1841 : works edited by F. Hoffmann, 12 Bde., 1858. Comp. Lütterbeck, der philos. Standpunkt Baaders, 1854; Hamberger, Cardinalpunkte Baaderschen Phil., 1855; Hoffmann, Belenchtung der neuesten Urtheile, 1854; Erdmann in Zeitschrift f. Pbilos., 1856 ; Pelt, in Reuter's Repert., Mai, 1860; Hamberger, Schelling und Baader in Jahrb. f. deutsche Theol., 1860); F. A. Staudenmaier (d. 1854] (among his numerous works we mention : Encyclopädie, 1834. Philosophie des Christenthumus, 1839. Metaphysik der heiligen Schrift, 1840); and J. B. Hirscher (he wrote : Ueber das Verhältness des Evangeliums zu der theologischen Scholastik der neuesten Zeit im katholischen Deutschland, Tub., 1823. Die Katholische Lehre vom Ablasse. ibid., 1829, etc.) [Sengler, Specul. Philos. und Theol., 1837; Die Idee Gottes, 2, 1852; Denzinger, Die religiose Erkenntniss, 2, 1857; Oischinger, Die neuere Phil., 1853 ; Glaubenslehre, 1858; Von Lasaulr, d. 1860, Phil. der Gesch., Aesthetik, etc.— The question on the relation of faith and reason is agitated anew between Clemens and Kuhn. See Clemens, De Scholastiorum Sententia, Philosophiam esse Theologiæ Ancillam, Comment. ; against Kohn's Dogmatik (1846); Kuhn, Philos. und Theologie, 1860, Glauben und Wissen nach St. Thomas in the Theol. Quartalschrift, 1860, and the 2d ed. of his Dogmatik; Clemens, Ueber d. Verhältniss der Philos. zur Theol., 1860.]

'Günther, Vorschule zur specul. Theol. Wien, 1828–1848. [Günther und Palst, Janusköpfe für Philos. und Theol. Wien, 1834.] Comp. N. P. Oischinger, Die Günthersche Philos., Schaffl., 1852. Baltzer, Neue theol. Briefe an Günther, Bresl., 1853. Die specul. Theologie Günthers und seine Schale (reprinted from Himmelsteins Kathol. Wochenschrift), Würzb., 1839. Zeitschrift f. lutherische Theol., xvi., 1854. Hase in Church History, p. 655. [Günther was condemned at Rome, 1857, for his teachings on the Trinity, Incarnation and Creation; and submitted.]

• The relation in which Zinzendorf stood to Jansenism is worthy of notice : " Jansenism was the salt without which the Roman Catholic Church of that period (beginning of the eighteenth century), would have perished ;Tholuck, Vermischte Schriften, ii. p. 33. Concerning the various modifications of Jansenism, see Hase, Church History, p. 516.

• The anti-ecclesiastical theories of Theophilanthropinism (1796-1802), and of St. Simonism (at a later period), [see Hase, 679) had only a temporary existence. Romanisın was brought into connection with politics by Chateaubriand (born 1769) and Lamennais.—The rationalistic church of Abbé Chatel (1830, August.) [Chateaubriand, b. 1769, d. 1848 ; his Genius of Christianity was published in 1802, English version by F. Shob rl, 2 vols., 1811; new translation by C. J. White, Phil., 1856. Bautain has also published a Moral Philosophy, 1842, and Psychology. De la Mennais, d. 1854, his work on Indifference in Matters of Religion (1817–1823, 9th ed., 1851,) was an eloquent advocacy of Rome; but he abandoned the trauitional faith



in his Affaires de Rome, and Esquisse d'une Philosophie, 1841-5. Count Joseph de Maistre, d. 1821, Defended the ultra-montane idea of the Papacy, and inveighed against the Baconian induction.- Aug. Nicolas, Etudes philosophiques, sur le Christianismus, 2 vols., 7th ed., 1854. The works of A. Gratry (De la Logique, de Dieu, Psychologie, 1855-8), revive the earlier French speculations.]

* Bautain, Philosophie du Christianisme, Strassb., 1835. Rheinwald Acta. bistur, eccles., 1835, p. 305, ss., 1837, p. 68, ss. F. Jünge, in Illgens Zeitschrift für historische Theologie, 1837, vii. part 2. His system was condemned by the Pope, 1834, Dec. 20th. Comp. Kuhn, Úwer Glauben und Wissen, in der theologischen Quartalschrift, 1839, part 3. [Traditionalism has been the prevailing tendency of French Catholicism, represented by De Bonald. Bautain and his Annales de la Philos. Chrétienne. The Roman See in 1856 took still more definite ground against the pure traditionalists in 4 Propositions, at the instance of Abp. Sibour. On this controversy, see Annales de la Philos. Chrét., 1859-60; Brownson's Quarterly Rev., 1860–1; Lupus, Le Praditionalisme et le Rationalisme, 3 Tom., Liège, 1860.

" History of the Holy Coat of Treves. See Guericke, Hase, p. 656; Niedner, p. 926. [Gildemeyer and von Sybel, Historisch. Untersuchung, 1844. John Ronge, or the Holy Coat of Treves, New York, 1845.]

" John Ronge [b. 1813], of Laurahütte, in Silesia. Letter to Bp. Arnoldi of Treves, Oct., 1844.—Council at Leipsic, March 23–26, 1845. His system given by Niedner, p. 927, note. [He denounced papacy and hierarchy, and claimed full freedom of conscience and of investigation; the statements of his faith are simply those of the Apostles' Creed. See Sam. Laing, Notes on Rise of German Catholic Church, 1845. Gervinus, Mission of German Cath., transl. Lond., 1846.]

18 John Czerski of Schneidemühl in Prussian Posen), Offenes Glaubensbekenntniss der Christl.-Apostol.-Kathol. Gemeinde, Stuttg., 1844.— Czerski, Sendschreiben au alle christl.-theol.-kathol. Gemeinden, June, 1845.--Berlin Protestant Church, May to August, 1845.—Meeting of Ronge, Theiner and Czerski, in Rawicz, Feb., 1846.-Synod in Schneidemühl, July, 1846, and final adoption there of the Confession of Faith. See D. F. F. Kampe, Das Wesen das Deutschkatholicismus, Tübing., 1850. See also (including the literature), Niedner, p. 926, 89, and Herzog's Realencyclop. Hase, p. 657.

» [Alban Butler, b. 1710, d. 1773: Lives of Saints, 12 vols., 1847, New York, 1846 ; Meditations and Discourses, repr., 1840.Charles Butler, b. 1750, d. 1832: Historical Memoirs of English, etc., Catholics, 4 vols., 3d ed., 1822 ; Confessions of Faith, 1816; Book of Rom. Cath. Church (against Southey), 1825, and Vindication, against Townsend, 1826 ; Horæ Biblicæ etc.John Milner, b. 1752, d. 1838 : End of Controversy, 2d ed., 1819 (reply by Jarvis in Am.); Vindication of the same, 1822.-Jos. Brrington, b. 1743, d. 1827: Letter on Hartley (see 8 285, a, note 15, above); State of English Catholics, 1780, 1787; Exposition of Rom. Cath. Principles, 1787; Rights of Dissenters, 1789; his Memoirs of Panzani's career in England (1634-7), transl. 1793, led to a controversy with Rev. C. Plowden, and to Berington's Faith of Catholics, 1813 ; Literary Hist. of Middle Ages,


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