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in opposition to Strauss.-Schleiermacher has treated this doctrine in a more dialeotic
manner, and thus “exerted more influence than any other modern theologian upon his contemporaries ;" (Dorner, p. 488 s). But at the same time, he has given rise to new doubts (Strauss, Dogmatik, ii., p. 180 ss.) Compare his Weihnachtsfeier; der Christliche Glaube, ii. & 92–105 ; Reden über die Religion, 1829; Sendschreiben an Lücke (Studien und Kritiken, 1829, parts 2 and 3); several of his sermons; and the representations of his system given by Dorner and Strauss, 1. c. Schleiermacher (like De Wette) differs from the adherents of the speculative school in rejecting the notion of an ideal Christ apart from the historical Christ. The historical and the ideal (he substituted these terms for those of human and divine nature), are, in his opinion, united in Christ. The ideal does not consist in skill and dexterity in particular departments of life, but in the purity and vigor of the innate consciousness of God. Schleiermacher rests faith in the divine authority of Christ on the idea of his sinlessness, and in connection with it, on the impossibility of his having erred. The church, as well as every believer, possesses the consciousness of this (an inference from the effect to to the cause). Christ came into existence-(viz. in his human nature) without sin. This generation does not necessarily exclude the idea of participation on the part of man, but is still to be regarded as a supernatural event, which does not stand in connection with what is sinful, but is a new creation. In opposition to Strauss, who asserts that the divine love could not have been wholly expended upon one individual, Ullmann, Schweizer, and others have carried the question back to the religious point of view, from which alone Schleiermacher proceeded. Others have endeavored, on speculative grounds, to determine the relation of the individual to the genus, and thus revived the old scholastic controversy (concerning Nominalism and Realism).—Hase agrees with Schleiermacher in maintaining (in opposition to the orthodox ecclesiastical, as well as the historical theory), that the divinity in Christ consisted in his blameless piety (Dogmatik, pp. 286, 287), and connects with this the idea, that after the example of Christ, every son of man, as far as is possible for him, ought to develope himself as a son of God, and every man to a God-man. Comp. Dorner, pp. 289 ss.
10 The orthodox doctrine of the church has again found defenders in modo ern times with various modifications; see Steffens, von der falschen Theologie, p. 127. Sartorius, die Lehre von Christi Person und Werk, Hamb., 1831, '34, [transl. by Stearns, Boston].-Schleiermacher limited the specific difference between Christ and other men to his sinlessness—an idea brought ont in its sharpest light by Ullmann, in bis Sündlosigkeit Jesu, Hamb., 5te. Aufl., 1846 [transl. by Prof E. A. Park in German Selections, Andov., 1830, pp. 388–452). In contrast with this preponderance of the anthropological method of constructing the person of Christ, the metaphysical and theologicai method has been revived and enforced, in the interest of the orthodox doctrine of the church. Besides Dorner's Christology, see in particular Liebner's Christology, 1849, p. 12 sq. [Liebner's view is that of the necessity of the incarnation-presupposing creation as a free act—as the essential basis of Christianity, and the clue to all its mysteries.] See also Ebrard, Die Gottmenschlichkeit des Christenthums, Zürich, 1844 ; and his Dogma.
tik, ii. 1 sq. . Lange, Dogmatik, ii, 109 sq.: “ The idea of the God-man is
the concentration of all knowledge of the divine in the human, and of the human in the divine, consequently the source of a truly divine, human lifehence it is the really fundamental idea of life." See also Rothe, Ethik, ii., p. 279 sq. [When the necessary historical conditions were fulfilled, God, readopting as it were the fallen creation, by a creative act brought the second Adam intc union with the old, natural humanity-in a supernatural waynot by the forces contained in the race, but an immediate and absolute creative energy.] According to Martensen, p. 221 ; "the Son has his life, not merely in the Father, but also in the world." “ As the heart of the Father, he is also the heart of the world;" hence the significance of his pre-existence. W.F. Gess, in his Lehre der Person Christi, Basel, 1856 (partly in opposition to Liebner, Thomasius and Dorner), has made a new attempt to develope the Christology “from the self-consciousness of Christ, and the testimony of the apostles.”—On the Christology of Thomasius (Christi Person und Werk), see the Zeitschrift of Kliesoth and Mejer, iv. [See on the general subject, Liebner, Christologisches—a review of recent speculations, in Jahrb. f. deutsche Theologie, 1858. W. Beyschlag, Die Paulinische Christologie, in the Studien und Kritiken, 1860 (against the Kenosis). J. Bodemeyer, Die Lehre von der Kenosis, Götting., 1860 : comp. his criticism of Richter's representation of the Lutheran Doctrine, in the Deutsche Zeitschrift, 1861, p. 60 sq. Dorner's articles on the Unveränderlichkeit Gottes (proposing a revision of the doctrine of the divine immutability, in its relations to Christology), bear upon the same speculations; see Jahrb. f. deutsche Theologie, 1856. Weizsäcker, Das Selbstzengniss des johanneischen Christus, in the same journal, 1857.—R. W. Wilberforce, Doctrine of the Incarnation in Relation to Mankind and the Church, 1850.]
11“ In point of fact, we cannot look for a restitutio in integrum of any one of the earlier centuries of the church development, not even of the sixteenth century; but a higher prospect is held out to us.
Nor can any new, merely sharpened onesidedness (or even several such points) be the end [of these christological inquiries], but rather a higher unity, after the large experience we have had in philosophy and theology:" Liebner, in the Preface to his Christology, p. 10.—“Our time has correctly declared the idea of the divine humanity to be the key to Protestant theology: its essential task must be, to grasp the two antagonisms of the divine and human in Christ as abolished and reconciled ; and to find the root of its theology in the unity of the divine and human natures, as personally realized in Christ. That is, it is its office to grasp the historical Christ as being equally the real ideal Christ, and the ideal as also historical :" Schenkel, Wesen des Protestantismus, i. 357, sq. [“The key to the whole christology, as Strauss says, is this—that an idea is made the subject of the predicates, which the church has ascribed to Christ; not a Kantian, unreal idea, but a real idea-hum inity as the Godman." “ Christ is God and man, as every man is in idea : what has been ascribed to him specifically and specially has been (by the Hegelian philosophy) resolved into the general essence of humanity.” Baur, Dogmenges. chichte, pp. 380-4.]
Menken (Homilien über das 9 und 10. Capitel des Briefs al die Hebräcr, Bremen, 1831), ard Irving (the Human Nature of Christ) revived the controversy, whether Christ assumed the human nature as it existed prior, or as it existed posterior to the fall ? Menken and Irving maintained the latter. Irving was, on account of this assertion, excluded from the Scotch National Church. The subject in question also gave rise to discussions among the theologians belonging to the evangelical school of Geneva. See Dor. ner, Appendix, p. 530 ss.; Baur, Versöbnungslehre, p. 684; and Preiswerk, Lettre addressée à MM. les membres du Comité de la Société évangélique de Genève, 1837 (German and French); Evangelische Kirchenzeitung, xxi. p. 433 ss. [On Menken, see Leben u. Wirken, von Dr. O. H. Gildemeister, 2 Thle., 1860, and comp. J. Müller's review in Deutsche Zeitschrift, Jan., 1861, p. 24 sq. A now ed. of Menken's works, 1858–9; he was born at Bremen, May 29, 1768, died June, 1, 1831.]
The old scholastic inquiry, how far the incarnation was conditioned by the sin of Adam (see above, S 182, Note 2) has also been revived by the modern theology and investigated
See Julius Müller, (against Dorner), whether the Son of God would have become man, if the human race had remained sinless, in the Deutsche Zeitschrift £ Christl. Wissenschaft, 1850, No. 40-42 (also 1853. Comp. Flörke, Die Menschwerdung Gottes abgesehen von der Sünde, in Zeitschrift f. d. lutherische Theologie, 1854.—In England Trench has advocated the view of an incarnation even without the fall. See The Theory of an Incarnation without a Fall
, in the British and Foreign Evangelical Review, Jan, 1861.]
THE DOCTRINE OF ATONEMENT.
Baur, Lehre von der Versohnung, p. 478 ss.
As the Pietists had, during the preceding period, lowered the juridical idea of satisfaction, so the doctrine of atonement was represented by Zinzendorf in its internal connection with the Christian life, as the essence of Christianity. At the same time he gave it & a more sensuous aspect than it had, either in the theory of Anselm, or in the theological system of the old Lutherans, but which was implied in the phraseology of the mystics. On the other hand, Conrad Dippel and Swedenborg rejected, on the basis of a free, critical mysticism, the ecclesiastical doctrine of satisfaction altogether.' It was also attacked by the rationalist. After Tollner had called forth a spirit of inquiry in other directions, and also by combating the received doctrine of the active obedience of Christ (in opposition to Ch. W. F. Walch),' the entire host of those who advocated the socalled enlightenment of the age, opposed the church doctrine as unprofitable and dangerous to true morality. Other theologians
* undertook its defence, some holding more, others less rigid opinions concerning it. Here too, Kant introduced a new series of discussions, by pointing out, in connection with his doctrine concerning original evil, the necessity of a restoration of the human nature ; but he assigned only a symbolical and moral significance to the death of Christ. The rationalists proper treated the subject from a more
negative point of view than Kant, losing sight of the symbolical in the merely moral.' On the other hand, De Wette brought the symbolical more prominently forward in peculiar aspects. Schleiermacher connected the doctrine of the vicarious sufferings and perfect obedience of Christ, with his sinlessness and the doctrine of his priestly office, but separated between the substitution and the satisfaction, so as to represent Christ's sufferings alone as vicarious, but not as making satisfaction, and his obedience as making satisfaction, but not as vicarious. The adherents of the speculative school regarded the death of the God-man as the abolition of his existence in a different mode of being from his primitivo state [das Aufheben des Andersseins), and the necessary return of the life of God, that had assumed a finite form, into the sphere of the infinite. Some of the strict supernaturalists, Hasenkamp, Menken, Stier, also found fault with the theory of Anselm, and endeavoured to substitute for it another scheme, which they thought more in accordance with the doctrine of Scripture." But other theologians espoused the cause of Anselm, and, so far from rejecting his doctrine as useless, sought to develope it more fully in the same spirit."
Comp. 278. In opposition to Zinzendorf, Bengel, ubi supra, p. 81 ss., p. 89, expressed himself as follows: “The United Brethren attach almost exclusive importance to imagination, and care little about the understanding." P. 90: “Therefore they do not cease to talk of blood, wounds, the prints of the nails, the holes in his side, the smell of his corpse, etc., and frequently use the word lamb in an indiscreet manner. . Such images of scourges, the cross, etc., are calculated to produce an impression upon the natural senses and affections, especially in the case of the illiterate, but they constitute neither the whole thing, nor its principal part." P. 123: “ He who knows the nature of the human mind, cannot approve of those who, in their thoughts and dis. courses, select one single article from among the whole treasure of wholesome doctrine, upon which they constantly dwell, and expect others to do the same. This leads to vain and insipid talk. By means of arbitrary, forced, and exaggerated meditations about the blood of Christ, they would fain bring us back to mere nature." P. 124: “If any one had a watch and should take away from it, piece by piece, the parts which he thinks may be dispensed with, because they do not point out the hour, the hand itself would soon become of no use to him. He that takes away all the parts of any thing destroys the whole. To take in pieces is to destroy." P. 126 : “ Many make of the blood of Christ an opium, by which they bring themselves and others into doubt as to what is right and wrong." [Comp. Von der Goltz, Bengel's Theologische Bedentung in Jahrb. f. deutsche Theol., 1861.]
Dippel agreed with the mystics in regarding the internal life of Christ as containing the redeeming principle, in opposition to those who laid principal stress upon his external sufferings. In his view, the death of Christ is a type of that death which the old man must suffer in us, Clirist did not deliver us from chastisements, but taught us how to bear them, that they
may serve to turn our minds from earthly things. Comp. Walch, Einleitung Religionsstreitigkeiten, ii. p. 718 ss., v. p. 998 ss. Baur, 1. C., p 473 ss. Concerning the relation in which this doctrine stands to that of the Socinians, see also Baur, l. C.- According to Swedenborg, Christ's sufferings on the cross were the last temptation which he had to resist, in order to obtain the victory over the kingdom of Satan (i. e. hell); his human nature was, at the same time glorified by these sufferings, i. e. united with the divine nature of
i the Father. See Divine Revelation, i. p. 36 ss., and other passages.
Comp. Ch. G. F. Walch, De Obedientia Christi activa Commentatio, Gött., 1755. J. G. Töllner, Der thätige Gehorsam Jesu Christi, Bresl., 1768: this treatise is to be compared with his Vermischte Aufsätze, ii. 2, p. 273, in which he defends the orthodox doctrine of Christ's passive obedience, and its practical utility, in opposition to Taylor and the Socininns. Comp. Baur, p. 478 ss. Ernesti, in the Neue Theologische Bibliothek, vol. ix., p. 914 ss. (this is rather about, than against Töllner). He also thinks that the distinction between obedientia activa et passiva, which is only calculated to produce confusion, ought long ago to have been given up; but “people do not like to tune an instrument in a different key, lest the strings should break." He therefore undertakes to defend, at the sacrifice of philosophical exactitude, the assailed doctrine (p. 492). For further particulars, and the works
p in reply, see Baur, p. 504.
Steinbart, Eberhard, Bahrdt, Henke, Löfler, and others; see Baur, p. 505-530.
Among the advocates of the scriptural doctrine of redemption (but not of the theory of Anselm), Herder takes the most prominent place as regards truly spiritual views. (See his Erläuterungen zum Neuen Testament, p. 5156, and his Von Religion, Lehrmeinungen und Gebräuchen, Abhandlung 7: comp. also his Dogmatik, p. 212 ss.). Herder endeavored especially to maintain the religious aspect of this doctrine instead of the juridical; on the contrary, several modern advocates of the latter theory (e. g. Michaëlis, Storr, and partly also Seiler), adhered to the idea of Grotius, that the design of Christ's death was to set before us an example of punishment (comp.
268, note 9), with which however they connected some other representations. Thus Storr supposed that the death of Christ exerted a reacting influence upon himself, by elevating him to a higher state of moral perfection : Von dem Zweck des Todes Jesu, p. 664, quoted by Baur, p. 544 ss.—
.-Döderlein, Morus, Knapp, Schwarz and Reinhard,* regarded the death of
* All the various objects of Christ's death are surveyed in their connection by Reinhard with logical precision, § 107. He admits that this doctrine has been corrupted by numer. ous false additions, by which thinking men might be induced to regard it with suspicion; hence he does not approve of the opinion, that the wrath of God against sinful men rendered such a sacrifice necessary, and was, as it were, only appeased by the blood of Christ. He also rojects other ideas connected with the ecclesiastical doctrine and essential to its integrity. And at last he contents himself with the view, that the deuth of Christ was a solemn declaration that God will be merciful to sinners. “God thus appears as a loving father, who is willing to grant pardan to sinners, but also as a just and wise father, who, far from exhibiting any unseasonable and improper tenderness, will implant in the minds of the children whom he pardons, a most vivid aversion to their former sins, and teach them by an example [Grotius). the dreadful consequences that attend the violation of his laws, and the misery which they themselves have deserved."